New Drug Application for RECORLEV® (levoketoconazole) for the Treatment of Endogenous Cushing’s Syndrome

~ RECORLEV® (levoketoconazole) New Drug Application is Supported by Previously-Reported Positive and Statistically Significant Results from the Phase 3 SONICS and LOGICS Studies ~

~ Nearly 40 Percent of Prescription-Treated Endogenous Cushing’s Syndrome Patients in the U.S. Are Not Well-Controlled, Underscoring Need for New, Safe and Effective Pharmaceutical Options to Help Regulate Cortisol Levels ~

~ If Approved Following a Projected 10-Month Review Cycle, RECORLEV is Anticipated to Launch in First Quarter of 2022 ~

DUBLIN, Ireland and TREVOSE, Pa., March 02, 2021 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — Strongbridge Biopharma plc, (Nasdaq: SBBP), a global commercial-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of therapies for rare diseases with significant unmet needs, today announced that it submitted a New Drug Application (NDA) for RECORLEV® (levoketoconazole) for the treatment of endogenous Cushing’s syndrome to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The submission is supported by previously reported positive and statistically significant results of the SONICS and LOGICS trials: two Phase 3 multinational studies designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of RECORLEV when used to treat adults with endogenous Cushing’s syndrome.

“The submission of the New Drug Application for RECORLEV® (levoketoconazole) represents not only a significant milestone for Strongbridge but also for the Cushing’s syndrome community as a whole. As an organization focused on developing treatments for underserved rare disease patient populations, we are one step closer to helping address the needs of the estimated 8,000 Cushing’s syndrome patients in the U.S. who are treated with prescription therapy, many of whom, as we learned in our market research, are not well-controlled with current therapies,” said John H. Johnson, chief executive officer of Strongbridge Biopharma. “We look forward to working with the FDA through their review of our application, and we are actively preparing for the potential launch of RECORLEV in the first quarter of 2022, if approved.”

RECORLEV, the pure 2S,4R enantiomer of the enantiomeric pair comprising ketoconazole, is a next-generation steroidogenesis inhibitor being investigated as a chronic therapy for adults with endogenous Cushing’s syndrome. Two Phase 3 studies have demonstrated substantial evidence of efficacy and safety in a combined study population of 166 patients that was representative of the adult drug-treated U.S. population with Cushing’s syndrome. The SONICS study met its primary and key secondary endpoints, demonstrating a statistically significant rate of mean urinary free cortisol normalization after six months of maintenance therapy without a dose increase (detailed results here). LOGICS, a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized-withdrawal study, which also had statistically significant primary and key secondary endpoints, confirmed that the long-term cortisol-normalizing efficacy demonstrated in SONICS was due to use of levoketoconazole specifically (detailed results here). The long-term open-label extension study, OPTICS, is contributing safety information to the NDA.

“We want to thank the patients, their families, investigators, collaborators, and employees who have contributed to the RECORLEV clinical program leading to this important regulatory milestone,” said Fredric Cohen, M.D., chief medical officer of Strongbridge Biopharma.

RECORLEV has received orphan drug designation from the FDA and the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of endogenous Cushing’s syndrome.

Strongbridge will host a conference call tomorrow, Wednesday, March 3, 2021 at 8:30 a.m. ET to discuss the Company’s fourth quarter and full-year 2020 financial results and recent corporate highlights, including the RECORLEV NDA submission.

About Cushing’s Syndrome
Endogenous Cushing’s syndrome is a rare, serious and potentially lethal endocrine disease caused by chronic elevated cortisol exposure – often the result of a benign tumor of the pituitary gland. This benign tumor tells the body to overproduce high levels of cortisol for a sustained period of time, and this often results in undesirable physical changes. The disease is most common among adults between the ages of 30 to 50, and it affects women three times more often than men. Women with Cushing’s syndrome may experience a variety of health issues including menstrual problems, difficulty becoming pregnant, excess male hormones (androgens), primarily testosterone which can cause hirsutism (growth of coarse body hair in a male pattern), oily skin, and acne. Additionally, the internal manifestations of the disease are potentially life threatening. These include metabolic changes such as high blood sugar, or diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, fragility of various tissues including blood vessels, skin, muscle and bone, and psychologic disturbances such as depression, anxiety and insomnia. Untreated, the five-year survival rate is only approximately 50 percent.

About the SONICS Study
SONICS is an open-label, Phase 3 study of RECORLEV as a treatment for endogenous Cushing’s syndrome that enrolled 94 patients at centers in North America, Europe and the Middle East. Following a screening phase, SONICS has three treatment phases: (1) Dose Titration Phase: Patients started RECORLEV at 150 mg twice daily (300 mg total daily dose) and titrated in 150 mg increments with the goal of achieving a therapeutic dose – a dose resulting in mUFC normalization – at which point titration was stopped; (2) Maintenance Phase: The dose was fixed and should not have been changed other than for safety reasons or loss of efficacy. At the end of the six-month maintenance phase, the mUFC response rate was measured; and (3) Extended Evaluation Phase: Patients continued on RECORLEV for another six months to evaluate long-term safety and tolerability and explore efficacy durability.

About the LOGICS Study
The Phase 3, multinational, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized-withdrawal study, LOGICS, randomized Cushing’s syndrome patients with baseline mean urinary free cortisol (mUFC) at least 1.5 times the upper limit of normal (ULN) following completion of a single-arm, open-label treatment phase of approximately 14 to 19 weeks, with RECORLEV individually titrated according to mUFC response.

A total of 79 patients were dosed during the open-label titration-maintenance phase, 7 of whom had previously received RECORLEV during the SONICS study, and 72 who had not previously received RECORLEV. At study baseline, the median mUFC was 3.5 times the ULN, indicative of significant hypercortisolemia.

A total of 44 patients (39 who had completed the titration-maintenance phase and five who directly enrolled from the SONICS study), were randomized to either continue RECORLEV (n=22) or to have treatment withdrawn by receiving a matching placebo regimen (n=22) for up to 8 weeks, followed by restoration to the prior regimen using blinded drug. Of the 44 patients randomized, 11 patients (25 percent) had previously received RECORLEV during the SONICS study. Patients who required rescue treatment with open-label RECORLEV during the randomized-withdrawal phase were considered to have lost mUFC response at the visit corresponding to their first dose of rescue medication. Patients who did not qualify for randomization were removed from open-label treatment prior to randomization and excused from the study.

About RECORLEV
RECORLEV® (levoketoconazole) is an investigational cortisol synthesis inhibitor in development for the treatment of patients with endogenous Cushing’s syndrome, a rare but serious and potentially lethal endocrine disease caused by chronic elevated cortisol exposure. RECORLEV is the pure 2S,4R enantiomer of ketoconazole, a steroidogenesis inhibitor. RECORLEV has demonstrated in two successful Phase 3 studies to significantly suppress serum cortisol and has the potential to be a next-generation cortisol inhibitor.

The Phase 3 program for RECORLEV includes SONICS and LOGICS: two multinational studies designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of RECORLEV when used to treat endogenous Cushing’s syndrome. The SONICS study met its primary and secondary endpoints, demonstrating a statistically significant normalization rate of urinary free cortisol at six months. The LOGICS study, which met its primary endpoint, is a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized-withdrawal study of RECORLEV that is designed to supplement the long-term efficacy and safety information supplied by SONICS. The ongoing long-term open label OPTICS study will gather further useful information related to the long-term use of RECORLEV.

RECORLEV has received orphan drug designation from the FDA and the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of endogenous Cushing’s syndrome.

About Strongbridge Biopharma
Strongbridge Biopharma is a global commercial-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of therapies for rare diseases with significant unmet needs. Strongbridge’s rare endocrine franchise includes RECORLEV® (levoketoconazole), a cortisol synthesis inhibitor currently being studied in Phase 3 clinical studies for the treatment of endogenous Cushing’s syndrome, and veldoreotide extended release, a pre-clinical next-generation somatostatin analog being investigated for the treatment of acromegaly and potential additional applications in other conditions amenable to somatostatin receptor activation. Both RECORLEV and veldoreotide have received orphan drug designation from the FDA and the European Medicines Agency. The Company’s rare neuromuscular franchise includes KEVEYIS® (dichlorphenamide), the first and only FDA-approved treatment for hyperkalemic, hypokalemic, and related variants of primary periodic paralysis. KEVEYIS has orphan drug exclusivity in the United States.

Forward-Looking Statements
This press release contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the federal securities laws. The words “anticipate,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “potential,” “project,” “target,” “will,” “would,” or the negative of these terms or other similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words. All statements, other than statements of historical facts, contained in this press release, are forward-looking statements, including statements related to data from the LOGICS and SONICS studies, the potential advantages of RECORLEV, the anticipated timing for potential approval of a marketing authorization for RECORLEV and for the potential launch of RECORLEVStrongbridge’s strategy, plans, outcomes of product development efforts and objectives of management for future operations. Forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed in such statement, including risks and uncertainties associated with clinical development and the regulatory approval process, the reproducibility of any reported results showing the benefits of RECORLEV, the adoption of RECORLEV by physicians, if approved, as treatment for any disease and the emergence of unexpected adverse events following regulatory approval and use of the product by patients. Additional risks and uncertainties relating to Strongbridge and its business can be found under the heading “Risk Factors” in Strongbridge’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 and its subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, as well as its other filings with the SEC. These forward-looking statements are based on current expectations, estimates, forecasts and projections and are not guarantees of future performance or development and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors. The forward-looking statements contained in this press release are made as of the date of this press release, and Strongbridge Biopharma does not assume any obligation to update any forward-looking statements except as required by applicable law.

Contacts:

Corporate and Media Relations
Elixir Health Public Relations
Lindsay Rocco
+1 862-596-1304
lrocco@elixirhealthpr.com

Investor Relations
Solebury Trout
Mike Biega
+1 617-221-9660
mbiega@soleburytrout.com

 

From https://www.biospace.com/article/releases/strongbridge-biopharma-plc-announces-submission-of-new-drug-application-for-recorlev-levoketoconazole-for-the-treatment-of-endogenous-cushing-s-syndrome-to-the-u-s-food-and-drug-administration/

LOGICS Trial Supports Recorlev’s Efficacy in Lowering Cortisol Levels

Patients with endogenous Cushing’s syndrome who stopped using Recorlev (levoketoconazole) and moved to a placebo in a study started having their urine cortisol levels rise in response to lack of treatment, compared with those who remained on Recorlev, according to top-line data from the Phase 3 LOGICS trial.

Based on these findings and data from a previous Phase 3 trial of Recorlev called SONICS (NCT01838551), the therapy’s developer, Strongbridge Biopharma, is planning to submit a new drug application requesting its approval to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) early next year.

If approved, Recorlev could be available to patients in the U.S. in 2022.

“We are delighted to announce the positive and statistically significant top-line results of the LOGICS study, which add to the growing body of evidence supporting the potential of Recorlev (levoketoconazole) as an effective and well tolerated cortisol synthesis inhibitor to treat Cushing’s syndrome,” Fredric Cohen, MD, chief medical officer of Strongbridge Biopharma, said in a press release.

Recorlev, also known as COR-003, is an investigational oral treatment for endogenous Cushing’s syndrome that inhibits the production of cortisol, the glucocorticoid hormone that is overly produced in patients with the disorder.

The safety, tolerability, effectiveness, and pharmacological properties of Recorlev in people with endogenous Cushing’s syndrome are currently being assessed in the LOGICS trial (NCT03277690).

LOGICS enrolled patients who had never been treated with Recorlev, as well as those given the medication in SONICS.

The study included an initial withdrawal phase, in which patients were assigned randomly to either Recorlev (up to a dose of 1,200 mg), or to a placebo for about 8 weeks. This was followed by a restoration phase, lasting approximately the same time, in which all patients received Recorlev in combination with a placebo. With this design, patients initially assigned to Recorlev continued treatment in the study’s second phase, while those originally assigned to a placebo switched to Recorlev.

Before enrolling in the study’s initial randomized-withdrawal phase, patients completed an open-label titration and maintenance phase lasting 14 to 19 weeks, which determined the best dose of Recorlev they should receive later.

Of the 79 patients who entered the open-label titration and maintenance phase, 44 enrolled in the randomized-withdrawal phase, and 43 completed this initial portion of the trial.

Top-line data now announced by the company showed the proportion of patients having their urine cortisol levels rise by the end of the randomized-withdrawal phase was 54.5% higher among those on a placebo than among those treated with Recorlev (95.5% vs. 40.9%).

All 21 patients who lost their initial treatment response in the open-label portion of the study, and saw their cortisol levels rise after moving to a placebo (withdrawal phase) were given early rescue treatment. Their cortisol levels started to drop after a median of 22 days.

The percentage of patients whose urine cortisol levels were within normal range by the end of the withdrawal phase was 45.5% higher among those treated with Recorlev, compared with those given a placebo (50.0% vs. 4.5%).

In addition to losing benefits related to cortisol control, patients receiving a withdrawal-phase placebo also lost the therapy’s positive cholesterol-lowering effects.

“The Phase 3 LOGICS results complement the long-term efficacy and safety data supplied by the Phase 3 SONICS study, which was published in The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, by confirming that the effects of Recorlev (levoketoconazole) were responsible for the therapeutic response when treatment was continued compared to withdrawing patients to placebo,” said Maria Fleseriu, MD, FACE, professor of Medicine and Neurological Surgery and director of the Oregon Health Sciences University Pituitary Center, and principal investigator of the study. 

 “The LOGICS findings — which build upon the long-term benefit shown during open-label treatment in SONICS — provide robust evidence to support the use of RECORLEV as an important treatment option for this life-threatening rare endocrine disease,” Fleseriu added.

Recorlev was found to be safe and well-tolerated in LOGICS. Of the 79 patients who entered in the study’s open-label titration and maintenance phase, 19% discontinued due to side effects in this phase, and none of the 44 who proceeded to the withdrawal phase stopped treatment for these reasons.

The most common side effects observed during the first two parts of LOGICS included nausea (29%), low blood potassium levels (28%), headache (21%), high blood pressure (19%), and diarrhea (15%).

Some patients saw the levels of their liver enzymes rise above normal levels — a sign of liver inflammation and damage — during the study. However, this and other side effects of special interest, including those associated with adrenal insufficiency, resolved by either lowering the dose or stopping treatment with Recorlev. The proportion of patients experiencing these side effects was similar to that seen in SONICS.

These findings are part of a subset of data from a planned interim analysis of LOGICS. Final study data requires analyses of additional datasets.

Adapted from https://www.globenewswire.com/news-release/2020/09/08/2089872/0/en/Strongbridge-Biopharma-plc-Announces-Positive-and-Statistically-Significant-Top-Line-Results-from-the-Pivotal-Phase-3-LOGICS-Study-of-RECORLEV-levoketoconazole-for-the-Treatment-of.html

Clinical Trial: Multicenter Study of Seliciclib (R-roscovitine) for Cushing Disease

Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Shlomo Melmed, MD, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
Brief Summary:

This phase 2 multicenter, open-label clinical trial will evaluate safety and efficacy of 4 weeks of oral seliciclib in patients with newly diagnosed, persistent, or recurrent Cushing disease.

Funding Source – FDA Office of Orphan Products Development (OOPD)

Condition or disease  Intervention/treatment  Phase 
Cushing Disease Drug: Seliciclib Phase 2
Detailed Description:
This phase 2 multicenter, open-label clinical trial will evaluate safety and efficacy of two of three potential doses/schedules of oral seliciclib in patients with newly diagnosed, persistent, or recurrent Cushing disease. Up to 29 subjects will be treated with up to 800 mg/day oral seliciclib for 4 days each week for 4 weeks and enrolled in sequential cohorts based on efficacy outcomes. The study will also evaluate effects of seliciclib on quality of life and clinical signs and symptoms of Cushing disease.
Ages Eligible for Study: 18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study: All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers: No
Criteria

Inclusion criteria:

  • Male and female patients at least 18 years old
  • Patients with confirmed pituitary origin of excess adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) production:
    • Persistent hypercortisolemia established by two consecutive 24 h UFC levels at least 1.5x the upper limit of normal
    • Normal or elevated ACTH levels
    • Pituitary macroadenoma (>1 cm) on MRI or inferior petrosal sinus sampling (IPSS) central to peripheral ACTH gradient >2 at baseline and >3 after corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) stimulation
    • Recurrent or persistent Cushing disease defined as pathologically confirmed resected pituitary ACTH-secreting tumor or IPSS central to peripheral ACTH gradient >2 at baseline and >3 after CRH stimulation, and 24 hour UFC above the upper limit of normal reference range beyond post-surgical week 6
    • Patients on medical treatment for Cushing disease. The following washout periods must be completed before screening assessments are performed:
      • Inhibitors of steroidogenesis (metyrapone, ketoconazole): 2 weeks
      • Somatostatin receptor ligand pasireotide: short-acting, 2 weeks; long-acting, 4 weeks
      • Progesterone receptor antagonist (mifepristone): 2 weeks
      • Dopamine agonists (cabergoline): 4 weeks
      • CYP3A4 strong inducers or inhibitors: varies between drugs; minimum 5-6 times the half-life of drug

Exclusion criteria:

  • Patients with compromised visual fields, and not stable for at least 6 months
  • Patients with abutment or compression of the optic chiasm on MRI and normal visual fields
  • Patients with Cushing’s syndrome due to non-pituitary ACTH secretion
  • Patients with hypercortisolism secondary to adrenal tumors or nodular (primary) bilateral adrenal hyperplasia
  • Patients who have a known inherited syndrome as the cause for hormone over secretion (i.e., Carney Complex, McCune-Albright syndrome, Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) 1
  • Patients with a diagnosis of glucocorticoid-remedial aldosteronism (GRA)
  • Patients with cyclic Cushing’s syndrome defined by any measurement of UFC over the previous 1 months within normal range
  • Patients with pseudo-Cushing’s syndrome, i.e., non-autonomous hypercortisolism due to overactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in uncontrolled depression, anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder, morbid obesity, alcoholism, and uncontrolled diabetes mellitus
  • Patients who have undergone major surgery within 1 month prior to screening
  • Patients with serum K+< 3.5 while on replacement treatment
  • Diabetic patients whose blood glucose is poorly controlled as evidenced by HbA1C >8%
  • Patients who have clinically significant impairment in cardiovascular function or are at risk thereof, as evidenced by congestive heart failure (NYHA Class III or IV), unstable angina, sustained ventricular tachycardia, clinically significant bradycardia, high grade atrioventricular (AV) block, history of acute MI less than one year prior to study entry
  • Patients with liver disease or history of liver disease such as cirrhosis, chronic active hepatitis B and C, or chronic persistent hepatitis, or patients with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or aspartate aminotransferase (AST) more than 1.5 x ULN, serum total bilirubin more than ULN, serum albumin less than 0.67 x lower limit of normal (LLN) at screening
  • Serum creatinine > 2 x ULN
  • Patients not biochemically euthyroid
  • Patients who have any current or prior medical condition that can interfere with the conduct of the study or the evaluation of its results, such as
    • History of immunocompromise, including a positive HIV test result (ELISA and Western blot). An HIV test will not be required, however, previous medical history will be reviewed
    • Presence of active or suspected acute or chronic uncontrolled infection
    • History of, or current alcohol misuse/abuse in the 12 month period prior to screening
  • Female patients who are pregnant or lactating, or are of childbearing potential and not practicing a medically acceptable method of birth control. If a woman is participating in the trial then one form of contraception is sufficient (pill or diaphragm) and the partner should use a condom. If oral contraception is used in addition to condoms, the patient must have been practicing this method for at least two months prior to screening and must agree to continue the oral contraceptive throughout the course of the study and for 3 months after the study has ended. Male patients who are sexually active are required to use condoms during the study and for three month afterwards as a precautionary measure (available data do not suggest any increased reproductive risk with the study drugs)
  • Patients who have participated in any clinical investigation with an investigational drug within 1 month prior to screening or patients who have previously been treated with seliciclib
  • Patients with any ongoing or likely to require additional concomitant medical treatment to seliciclib for the tumor
  • Patients with concomitant treatment of strong CYP3A4 inducers or inhibitors.
  • Patients who were receiving mitotane and/or long-acting somatostatin receptor ligands octreotide long-acting release (LAR) or lanreotide
  • Patients who have received pituitary irradiation within the last 5 years prior to the baseline visit
  • Patients who have been treated with radionuclide at any time prior to study entry
  • Patients with known hypersensitivity to seliciclib
  • Patients with a history of non-compliance to medical regimens or who are considered potentially unreliable or will be unable to complete the entire study
  • Patients with presence of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg)
  • Patients with presence of Hepatitis C antibody test (anti-HCV)

The Relationship of Mitochondrial Dysfunction and the Development of Insulin Resistance in Cushing’s Syndrome

Authors Ježková J, Ďurovcová V, Wenchich LHansíková H, Zeman J, Hána V, Marek J, Lacinová Z, Haluzík M, Kršek M

Received 18 March 2019

Accepted for publication 13 June 2019

Published 19 August 2019 Volume 2019:12 Pages 1459—1471

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S209095

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single-blind

Peer reviewers approved by Dr Melinda Thomas

Peer reviewer comments 3

Editor who approved publication: Dr Antonio Brunetti

 

Jana Ježková,1 Viktória Ďurovcová,1 Laszlo Wenchich,2,3 Hana Hansíková,3 Jiří Zeman,3Václav Hána,1 Josef Marek,1 Zdeňka Lacinová,4,5 Martin Haluzík,4,5 Michal Kršek1

1Third Department of Medicine, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and General University Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic; 2Institute of Rheumatology, Prague, Czech Republic; 3Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and General University Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic; 4Institute of Medical Biochemistry and Laboratory Diagnostic, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and General University Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic; 5Centre for Experimental Medicine, Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Prague, Czech Republic

Correspondence: Jana Ježková
Third Department of Medicine, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and General University Hospital, U Nemocnice 1128 02 Praha 2, Prague, Czech Republic
Tel +420 60 641 2613
Fax +420 22 491 9780
Email fjjezek@cmail.cz

Purpose: Cushing’s syndrome is characterized by metabolic disturbances including insulin resistance. Mitochondrial dysfunction is one pathogenic factor in the development of insulin resistance in patients with obesity. We explored whether mitochondrial dysfunction correlates with insulin resistance and other metabolic complications.

Patients and methods: We investigated the changes of mRNA expression of genes encoding selected subunits of oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS), pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and citrate synthase (CS) in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) and peripheral monocytes (PM) and mitochondrial enzyme activity in platelets of 24 patients with active Cushing’s syndrome and in 9 of them after successful treatment and 22 healthy control subjects.

Results: Patients with active Cushing’s syndrome had significantly increased body mass index (BMI), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and serum lipids relative to the control group. The expression of all investigated genes for selected mitochondrial proteins was decreased in SCAT in patients with active Cushing’s syndrome and remained decreased after successful treatment. The expression of most tested genes in SCAT correlated inversely with BMI and HOMA-IR. The expression of genes encoding selected OXPHOS subunits and CS was increased in PM in patients with active Cushing’s syndrome with a tendency to decrease toward normal levels after cure. Patients with active Cushing’s syndrome showed increased enzyme activity of complex I (NQR) in platelets.

Conclusion: Mitochondrial function in SCAT in patients with Cushing’s syndrome is impaired and only slightly affected by its treatment which may reflect ongoing metabolic disturbances even after successful treatment of Cushing’s syndrome.

Keywords: Cushing’s syndrome, insulin resistance, mitochondrial enzyme activity, gene expression

Creative Commons License This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

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Imaging Agent Effectively Detects, Localizes Tumors in Cushing’s Syndrome

Wannachalee T, et al. Clin Endocrinol. 2019;doi:10.1111/cen.14008.
May 20, 2019

A radioactive diagnostic agent for PET imaging effectively localized primary tumors or metastases in most adults with ectopic Cushing’s syndrome, leading to changes in clinical management for 64% of patients, according to findings from a retrospective study published in Clinical Endocrinology.

As Endocrine Today previously reported, the FDA approved the first kit for the preparation of gallium Ga-68 dotatate injection (Netspot, Advanced Accelerator Applications USA Inc.), a radioactive diagnostic agent for PET scan imaging, in June 2016. The radioactive probe is designed to help locate tumors in adult and pediatric patients with somatostatin receptor-positive neuroendocrine tumors. Ga-68 dotatate, a positron-emitting analogue of somatostatin, works by binding to the hormone.

In a retrospective review, Richard Auchus, MD, PhD, professor of pharmacology and internal medicine in the division of metabolism, endocrinology and diabetes at the University of Michigan, and colleagues analyzed data from 28 patients with ectopic Cushing’s syndrome who underwent imaging with gallium Ga-68 dotatate for identification of the primary tumor or follow-up between November 2016 and October 2018 (mean age, 50 years; 22 women). All imaging was completed at tertiary referral centers at Mayo Clinic, University of Michigan and The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. Researchers assessed patient demographics, imaging modalities, histopathological results and treatment data. Diagnosis of Cushing’s syndrome was confirmed by clinical and hormonal evaluation. The clinical impact of gallium Ga-68 dotatate was defined as the detection of primary ectopic Cushing’s syndrome or new metastatic foci, along with changes in clinical management.

Within the cohort, 17 patients underwent imaging with gallium Ga-68 dotatate for identification of the primary tumor and 11 underwent the imaging for follow-up. Researchers found that gallium Ga-68 dotatate identified suspected primary ectopic Cushing’s syndrome in 11 of 17 patients (65%), of which seven tumors were solitary and four were metastatic. Diagnosis was confirmed by pathology in eight of the 11 patients: Five patients had a bronchial neuroendocrine tumor, one patient had a thymic tumor, one had a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor, and one metastatic neuroendocrine tumor was of unknown primary origin. One patient had a false positive scan, according to researchers.

Among the 11 patients with ectopic Cushing’s syndrome who underwent gallium Ga-68 dotatate imaging to assess disease burden or recurrence, the imaging led to changes in clinical management in seven cases (64%), according to researchers.

“Our study demonstrates the high sensitivity of [gallium Ga-68 dotatate] in the localization of [ectopic Cushing’s syndrome], for both occult primary tumors and metastatic lesions,” the researchers wrote. “Importantly, the use of [gallium Ga-68 dotatate] impacted clinical management in 64% of patients with [ectopic Cushing’s syndrome] overall.”

The researchers noted that the high cost and limited availability of PET/CT imaging might preclude the widespread use of gallium Ga-68 dotatate for imaging in patients with suspected ectopic Cushing’s syndrome, and that experience with the scans remains limited vs. other imaging studies.

“Nevertheless, combing the experience of three large referral centers, our study gathers the largest number of [patients with ectopic Cushing’s syndrome] imaged with [gallium Ga-68 dotatate] to date and provides a benchmark for the utility of this diagnostic modality for this rare but highly morbid condition,” the researchers wrote. – by Regina Schaffer

DisclosuresThe authors report no relevant financial disclosures.

From https://www.healio.com/endocrinology/adrenal/news/online/%7B69e458a8-e9a0-4567-a786-00868118b435%7D/imaging-agent-effectively-detects-localizes-tumors-in-cushings-syndrome

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