The Cables1 Gene in Glucocorticoid Regulation of Pituitary Corticotrope Growth and Cushing Disease

Abstract :
Context: Cushing disease (CD) is due to pituitary corticotrope adenomas that produce unrestrained ACTH secretion and have lost the negative feedback exerted by glucocorticoids (GCs). GCs also restrain corticotrope proliferation, and the mechanisms of this inhibition are poorly understood.
Objective: The aim of the study was to identify cell cycle regulatory genes that are regulated by GCs and the glucocorticoid receptor and to assess regulatory genes that have a rate-limiting action on corticotrope proliferation and may be disregulated in CD.
Design: The mouse corticotrope tumor cells AtT-20 were used to identify GC-regulated genes that contribute to control of cell cycle progression. Surgery sections from patients with CD were used to assess expression of CABLES1 in corticotrope adenomas.
Methods: Gene expression profiling, small interfering RNA knockdowns, cell cycle analyses, and genetic manipulations were performed in AtT-20 cells. Sequencing of chromatin immunoprecipitation for pituitary-restricted transcription factors and RNA polymerase II were used to identify regulatory elements and genes that bind GR and are direct transcriptional targets. A panel of previously well-characterized corticotrope adenomas was used to correlate expression of CABLES1 with that of other markers. Results: GCs altered expression of 3 positive and 3 negative regulators of cell cycle progression. Two Myc genes (L-Myc and N-Myc) and E2F2 are repressed by GCs, whereas genes for the negative regulators of the cell cycle, Gadd45, Gadd45, and Cables1 are activated by GCs. Cables1 small interfering RNA knockdown strongly stimulates AtT-20 cell proliferation and antagonizes the growth inhibition produced by GCs. The Gadd45 and Cables1 genes have the hallmarks of direct GC targets. CABLES1 is expressed in normal human pituitary cells, but expression is lost in 55% of corticotrope adenomas, and this is strongly correlated with the loss of p27 Kip1 expression.
Conclusions: CABLES1 is a critical regulator of corticotrope proliferation that defines a pathway often inactivated in CD and links proliferation to GC resistance. (J Clin Endocrinol Metab

Document type :

Journal articles
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Endocrine Society, 2016, 101 (2), pp.513-522. <10.1210/jc.2015-3324>

Helpful Endocrinologist in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Dr. Murray Gordon is an endocrinologist in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and is affiliated with multiple hospitals in the area, including Allegheny General Hospital and Washington Hospital. He received his medical degree from Albany Medical College and has been in practice for more than 20 years. Dr. Gordon accepts several types of health insurance, listed below. He is one of 8 doctors at Allegheny General Hospital and one of 3 at Washington Hospital who specialize in Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism.

Dr. Gordon is in private practice and has an  experienced research site that is currently recruiting for a Cushing’s Syndrome Trial.  If interested in this trial, please call Ann at 412-359-5143.

 

420 E North Ave
Suite 205
Pittsburgh, PA 15212

Phone (412) 359-3426

Fax (412) 359-6974

Experimental Drug Improves Cushing’s Disease

International phase 3 trial is largest study ever of rare endocrine disorder

A new investigational drug significantly reduced urinary cortisol levels and improved symptoms of Cushing’s disease in the largest clinical study of this endocrine disorder ever conducted.

Results of the clinical trial conducted at centers on four continents appear in the March 8 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine and show that treatment with pasireotide cut cortisol secretion an average of 50 percent and returned some patients’ levels to normal.

“Cushing’s disease is a rare disorder, with three to five cases per million people. It can affect all ages and both genders but is most common in otherwise healthy young women,” says Harvard Medical School Professor of Medicine Beverly M.K. Biller of the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Neuroendocrine Unit, senior author of the study.

“Often misdiagnosed, Cushing’s is associated with a broad range of health problems – causing physical changes, metabolic abnormalities, and emotional difficulties – and if not controlled, significantly increases patients’ risk of dying much younger than expected,” Biller says.

Cushing’s disease, one of several conditions that lead to Cushing’s syndrome, is characterized by chronically elevated secretion of the hormone cortisol. The disease is caused by a benign pituitary tumor that oversecretes the hormone ACTH, which in turn induces increased cortisol secretion by the adrenal glands.

Symptoms of Cushing’s syndrome include weight gain, hypertension, mood swings, irregular or absent periods, abnormalities of glucose processing (insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and type 2 diabetes), and cardiovascular disease. Because those symptoms are associated with many health problems, physicians may not consider the rare possibility of Cushing’s. The diagnosis can be difficult to make and usually requires the expertise of an endocrinologist. Because cortisol levels normally fluctuate during the day, a single blood test is unlikely to identify chronic elevation, and thus the most common diagnostic test measures a patient’s 24-hour urinary output.

First-line treatment for Cushing’s disease is surgical removal of the ACTH-secreting tumor, which leads to remission in 65 to 90 percent of patients. But symptoms return in 10 to 30 percent of those patients, requiring repeat surgery, radiation therapy, or treatment with drugs that interfere with part of the cortisol control system. Until last month, there was no specific FDA-approved medical treatment for Cushing’s syndrome; the newly approved drug mifepristone should benefit some patients, but it does not affect the pituitary source of the condition or reduce cortisol levels.

The current phase 3 trial of pasireotide — the first drug that blocks ACTH secretion by binding to somatostatin receptors on the pituitary tumor — was sponsored by Novartis Pharma. The trial enrolled 162 patients at 62 sites in 18 countries. Nearly 85 percent of participants had either persistent disease that had not responded to surgery or had recurrent disease; the other 15 percent were recently diagnosed but not appropriate candidates for surgery.

Participants were randomly assigned to two groups, one starting at two daily 600-microgram injections of pasireotide and the other receiving 900-microgram doses. Three months into the 12-month trial, participants whose urinary cortisol levels remained more than twice the normal range had their dosage levels increased. During the rest of the trial, dosage could be further increased, if necessary, or reduced if side effects occurred.

At the end of the study period, many patients had a significant decrease in their urinary cortisol levels, with 33 achieving levels within normal range at their original dosage by month six of the trial. Participants whose baseline levels were less than five times the upper limit of normal were more likely to achieve normal levels than those with higher baseline levels, and the average urinary cortisol decrease across all participants was approximately 50 percent. Many Cushing’s disease symptoms decreased, and it became apparent within the first two months whether or not an individual was going to respond to pasireotide.

Transient gastrointestinal discomfort, known to be associated with medications in the same family as pasireotide, was an expected side effect. Another side effect was elevated glucose levels in 73 percent of participants, something not seen to the same extent with other medications in this family. These elevated levels will require close attention, because many Cushing’s patients already have trouble metabolizing glucose. Biller explains, “Those patients who already were diabetic had the greatest increases in blood sugar, and those who were pre-diabetic were more likely to become diabetic than those who began with normal blood sugar. However, elevations were even seen in those who started at normal glucose levels, so this is real and needs to be monitored carefully.”

Additional trials of pasireotide are in the works, and a phase 3 study of a long-acting version of the drug was recently announced. Biller notes that the potential addition of pasireotide to available medical treatments for Cushing’s disease would have a number of advantages. “It’s very important to have medications that work at different parts of the cortisol control system – which is the case for the currently used medications that work at the adrenal gland level; pasireotide, which works at the pituitary gland; and mifepristone, which blocks the action of cortisol at receptors in the body. Having more options that work in different ways is valuable because not all patients respond to one medicine and some may be unable to tolerate a specific drug’s side effects.

“As we have more drugs available to treat Cushing’s,” Biller adds, “I think in the long run we may start using combinations of drugs, which is the approach we use in some patients with acromegaly, another disorder in which a pituitary tumor causes excess hormone secretion. Ultimately, we hope to be able to give lower doses leading to fewer overall side effects, but that remains to be determined by future studies.”

Annamaria Colao, University of Naples, Italy, is the lead author of the report. Additional co-authors are Stephan Petersenn, University of Duisberg-Essen, Germany; John Newell-Price, University of Sheffield, U.K.; James Findling, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee; Feng Gu, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing; Mario Maldonado, Ulrike Schoenherr, and David Mills, Novartis Pharma; and Luiz Roberto Salgado, University of São Paulo Medical School, Brazil.

From http://dailyrecords.us/experimental-drug-improves-cushings-disease/

Help Advance Research for Better Cushing’s Syndrome Treatment

clinical-trials

 

I am so passionate about Clinical Trials, especially for Cushing’s because I was only diagnosed in 1987 because I was a part of a clinical trial at the NIH.  In addition to helping myself, I knew I’d be helping other Cushies coming along after me – something positive I could do while I was at my worst.

I hope that others will consider doing Clinical Trials, if they qualify for them.  You never know who else you might help!

 

This trial is testing the safety and effectiveness of an investigational drug for the treatment of Cushing’s Syndrome. Under the supervision of qualified physicians, cortisol levels and symptoms of Cushing’s Syndrome will be closely followed along with any signs of side effects.

More about the study:

The study drug (COR-003) is administered by tablets.

  • There will be 90 participants in this trial
  • There is no placebo used in the trial

If you are interested, please find the full study details and eligibility criteria listed here.

Eligibility Criteria:

Participants must:

  • be at least 18 years old
  • have been diagnosed with endogenous Cushing’s Syndrome by a medical professional (not caused by the use of steroid medications)

Participants must not:

  • have been treated with radiation for Cushing’s Syndrome in the past 4 years
  • be currently using weight loss medication
  • have been diagnosed with uncontrolled hypertension, some forms of cancer, adrenal carcinoma, Hepatitis B / C, or HIV

Please complete the online questionnaire to check if you’re eligible for the trial.

If you’re not familiar with clinical trials, here are some FAQs:

What are clinical trials?

Clinical trials are research studies to determine whether investigational drugs or treatments are safe and effective for humans. All new investigational medications and devices must undergo several clinical trials, often involving thousands of people.

Why participate in a clinical trial?

You will have access to investigational treatments that would be available to the general public only upon approval. You will also receive study-related medical care and attention from clinical trial staff at research facilities. Clinical trials offer hope for many people and an opportunity to help researchers find better treatments for others in the future.

Learn why I’m talking about Clinical Trials

Rally for Medical Research Hill Day

Held every September, this Capitol Hill Day event continues the momentum established in 2013, and includes nearly 300 national organizations coming together in support of the Rally for Medical Research.

The purpose of the Rally is to call on our nation’s policymakers to make funding for National Institutes of Health (NIH) a national priority and raise awareness about the importance of continued investment in medical research that leads to MORE PROGRESS, MORE HOPE and MORE LIVES SAVED.

The next Rally for Medical Research Hill Day is Sept. 22, 2016.

Sign up to receive updates, including a link to register once it becomes available.

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