7 Things Your Hair Reveals About Your Health

Your hair can tell you and your doctor if you are stressed, have a nutritional deficiency, thyroid problem, or other health issues. Here are seven key things to look for in your hair.

You probably think about your hair every day: worrying about a bad day, enjoying a good blow-dry, or wondering if you have to try the new style you noticed in your favorite celebrity. But you may be missing the clues your hair reveals about your health. Research shows that changes in the look, texture, or thickness of your hair can be signs of underlying health issues. Here’s how to tell if your hair changes are due to a health condition, genetics, stress, or a nutritional deficiency.

1 Stress (and genes) can cause you to turn gray

Anyone who has observed the hairstyle changes of a President of the Republic from one campaign to another has noticed that stress seems to cause hair to turn white. A mouse study published in the journal Nature suggests that chronic stress may actually contribute to white hair by causing DNA damage and reducing the number of pigment-producing cells in hair follicles. Stress can also lead to hair loss.

Another type of stress, known as oxidative stress, can also play a role in white hair. Oxidative stress can affect pigment-producing cells. Turning gray is actually a completely natural part of aging because hair follicles produce less color as you age. Your genes also play a role in when your hair turns gray. Ask your parents how old they were when they first saw the signs of silvering, and you might do the same. In fact, a study published in March 2016 in the journal Nature Communications was the first to identify the gene responsible for white hair.

2 brittle hair could be a sign of Cushing’s syndrome

Brittle hair is one of the symptoms of Cushing’s syndrome, which is a rare condition caused by excess cortisol, the main hormone body stress. But, there are many other, more obvious symptoms of Cushing’s syndrome, including high blood pressure, fatigue, and back pain. Treatment for Cushing’s syndrome may involve changing the dose of medication that may be causing the condition, such as glucocorticoids, which are steroids used to treat inflammation caused by various diseases.

3 Thinning hair may be a sign of thyroid disease

People with hypothyroidism, a condition that occurs when the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormones, may notice increased hair loss and change in hair appearance. About 4.6% of the population aged 12 years and older have hypothyroidism, although most cases are mild. Hypothyroidism can lead to thinning hair and other symptoms, such as fatigue, intolerance to cold, joint pain, muscle aches, puffy face and weight gain. A thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) test can diagnose the condition, and treatment involves taking thyroid medication.

In addition to thinning hair, some thyroid disorders put you at risk for risk of autoimmune hair loss called alopecia areata. This type of hair loss causes round patches of sudden hair loss and is caused by the immune system attacking the hair follicles.

4 Hair loss can be a sign of anemia

If you suddenly notice a lot more hair in your hairbrush or on the floor of your shower, it may be a sign that your body has low iron stores, or anemia , and may warrant testing. This is another blood test we do when you complain of hair changes. Vegetarians or women with heavy periods increase their risk that hair changes are due to iron deficiency.

It is unclear why iron deficiency can lead to hair loss. hair, but iron is essential for many biological and chemical reactions, perhaps including hair growth. Hair loss can also occur (temporarily) with sudden changes in estrogen levels and is often noticed after pregnancy or stopping birth control pills.

5 The loss of hair could indicate protein deficiency

Protein is essential for hair health and growth (a lack of protein has been linked to hair thinning and hair loss ). Protein deficiency is not a problem for most people. Most adults need 0.8 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight. Good sources of protein include low-fat Greek yogurt, chickpeas, and chicken breast. People who have gastrointestinal difficulties or who have just had gastric bypass surgery may have problems digesting protein. These special situations will need to be managed with the help of your doctor. But most cases of thinning hair, even in women, are probably due to genetics.

6 White or yellow flakes can mean you have dandruff

Yellow or white flakes in your hair, on your shoulders and even in your eyebrows are a sign of dandruff, a chronic scalp condition. Dandruff is usually not a sign of a health problem and can be treated with specialized over-the-counter or prescription shampoos.

One of the most common causes of dandruff is a medical condition called seborrheic dermatitis. People with seborrheic dermatitis have red, oily skin covered in white or yellow scales. A yeast-like fungus called malassezia can also irritate the scalp. Insufficient shampoo, sensitivity to hair care products, and dry skin can also cause dandruff. (Dandruff is usually more severe in the winter, when indoor heating can make skin drier).

7 Damaged hair can mask other health issues

Although hair can reveal your condition, women more often complain about the damage caused by hair coloring and heat treatment. Excessive heat, from daily use of a flat iron or blow-drying, can certainly damage your hair, making it dry, brittle and difficult to maintain. Best not to use more than one hot tool per day (occasional double heat treatment is okay, but not daily). When applying heat to your hair, always use products with protective ingredients. Serums and shine drops tend to have hair-preserving qualities when using direct and indirect heat.

From https://www.mvdemocrat.com/appearance-texture-thickness-7-things-your-hair-reveals-about-your-health/

Medullary thyroid cancer with ectopic Cushing’s syndrome: A multicentre case series

First published: 06 November 2021

Abstract

Objective

Ectopic Cushing′s syndrome (ECS) induced by medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is rare, and data on clinical characteristics, treatment and outcome are limited.

Design

Retrospective cohort study in three German and one Swiss referral centres.

Patients

Eleven patients with MTC and occurrence of ECS and 22 matched MTC patients without ECS were included.

Measurements

The primary endpoint of this study was the overall survival (OS) in MTC patients with ECS versus 1:2 matched MTC patients without ECS.

Results

The median age at diagnosis of ECS was 59 years (range: 35–81) and the median time between initial diagnosis of MTC and diagnosis of ECS was 29 months (range: 0–193). Median serum morning cortisol was 49 µg/dl (range: 17–141, normal range: 6.2–18). Eight (73%) patients received treatment for ECS. Treatment of ECS consisted of bilateral adrenalectomy (BADX) in four (36%) patients and adrenostatic treatment in eight (73%) patients. One patient received treatment with multityrosine kinase inhibitor (MKI) to control hypercortisolism. All patients experienced complete resolution of symptoms of Cushing’s syndrome and biochemical control of hypercortisolism. Patients with ECS showed a shorter median OS of 87 months (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 64–111) than matched controls (190 months, 95% CI: 95–285). Of the nine deaths, four were related to progressive disease (PD). Four patients showed PD as well as complications and comorbidities of hypercortisolism before death.

Conclusion

This study shows that ECS occurs in advanced stage MTC and is associated with a poor prognosis. Adrenostatic treatment and BADX were effective systemic treatment options in patients with MTC and ECS to control their hypercortisolism. MKI treatment achieved complete remission of hypercortisolism and sustained tumour control in one treated case.

1 INTRODUCTION

Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) arises from calcitonin-producing parafollicular C-cells of the thyroid gland and accounts for 2%–5% of all thyroid malignancies.1 In about 25% of cases, MTC occurs in a hereditary manner as a part of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) caused by oncogenic germline REarranged during Transfection (RET)-mutations. Up to 65% of patients with the sporadic disease have somatic RET-mutations, among which RETM918T is the most common and associated with adverse outcome.25 At diagnosis, cervical lymph node metastases are present in about half of patients and distant metastases in around 10% of MTC patients.6 While the localized disease has a 10-year disease-specific survival (DSS) of 96%, 10-year DSS is only 44% in cases with distant metastases.79

Besides calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), C-cells may also ectopically secrete corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Cushing’s syndrome (CS) due to ectopic CRH or ACTH secretion induced by MTC is rare and data on clinical characteristics, treatment and outcome are limited and mostly from case studies. In a retrospective study of 1640 adult patients with MTC, ectopic Cushing’s syndrome (ECS) due to ACTH secretion was reported in only 0.6% of patients, whereas previous studies reported a higher prevalence, possibly due to selection bias.1012 ECS mostly occurs in metastatic cases and significantly impairs prognosis: around 50% of the mortality in patients with ECS has been attributed to complications of hypercortisolism.12 Diagnosis of ECS is difficult and includes a combination of clinical assessment, dynamic biochemical tests (e.g., 24 h urinary-free cortisol, midnight salivary cortisol, 1 and 8 mg dexamethasone suppression test), inferior petrosal sinus sampling (IPSS) and multimodal imaging.13

This retrospective study aims at describing clinical characteristics, treatment and prognosis of 11 patients with MTC and ECS at 3 German and 1 Swiss tertiary care centres and to illustrate effective treatment in this ultrarare condition.

2 PATIENTS AND METHODS

2.1 Setting

This registry study was conducted as part of the German Study Group for Rare Malignant Tumours of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands. Data were obtained from records of patients diagnosed with MTC between 1990 and 2020 and concomitant ECS diagnosed between 1995 and 2020 in three German and one Swiss tertiary care centres. All patients provided written informed consent and the study was approved by the ethics committee of the University of Würzburg (96/13) and subsequently by the ethics committees of all participating centres.

2.2 Data acquisition

Eligible patients were 11 adults with histopathological evidence of MTC and the diagnosis of ECS at initial diagnosis (synchronous CS) or during the course of disease (metachronous CS). This group was matched with 22 patients with histologically confirmed MTC without evidence of ECS by sex, age at MTC diagnosis (±5 years), tumour stage and calcitonin doubling time (CDT).

The diagnosis of ECS was established by standard endocrine testing according to international guideline recommendations,14 local good clinical practice procedures and laboratory assays in participating centres. The primary endpoint of this study was the assessment of overall survival (OS) in MTC patients with ECS from the date of MTC-diagnosis and the date of ECS-diagnosis versus matched MTC patients without ECS (1:2 ratio). The secondary endpoints were assessment of progression-free survival (PFS) and efficacy of multityrosine kinase inhibitors (MKIs) treatment (based on routine clinical imaging in analogy to RECIST 1.0 and 1.1). Treatment and follow-up of patients were performed according to the local practice of participating centres. Efficacy was assessed locally by imaging (positron emission tomography/computed tomography [PET/CT], CT, magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] of the liver and bone scintigraphy) and measurement of serum calcitonin and CEA levels every 3–6 months. Clinical data were recorded by trained personnel at all sites. Tumour stage was defined according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM classification, seventh edition,15 based on clinical and histopathological assessments.

2.3 Statistical analysis

PFS and OS probabilities were estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method. The log-rank test was not used to test the difference between the study group and the control group due to the paired sample design. For the comparison of nonnormally distributed data, we used the Mann–Whitney U test. p Values less than .05 were considered statistically significant. Statistical analyses were performed with SPSS Version 26 (IBM).

3 RESULTS

3.1 Clinical characteristics of patients with ECS

Eleven patients (five male and six female) with histopathological evidence of MTC with ECS in three German and one Swiss tertiary care centres were included. Twenty-two controls with histologically confirmed MTC without the diagnosis of ECS matched by sex, age at MTC diagnosis (±5 years), tumour stage and CDT were enroled. Baseline clinical characteristics of the study population and the control group are shown in Table 1. In patients with ECS, median follow-up from initial MTC diagnosis was 6.3 years (range: 0–17) and median follow-up from diagnosis of ECS 7 months (range: 0–110). Median age at initial diagnosis of sporadic MTC was 45 (range: 31–67, n = 7) and 52 years (range: 35–55, n = 3) for patients with germline RET mutant MTC.

Read more at https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/cen.14617

Thyroid dysfunction highly prevalent in Cushing’s syndrome

Central hypothyroidism is prevalent in about 1 in 2 adults with Cushing’s syndrome, and thyroid function can be restored after curative surgery for most patients, according to study findings.

“Our study findings have confirmed and greatly extended previous smaller studies that suggested a link between hypercortisolism and thyroid dysfunction but were inconclusive due to smaller sample size and short follow-up,” Skand Shekhar, MD, an endocrinologist and clinical investigator in the reproductive physiology and pathophysiology group at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, told Healio. “Due to our large sample and longer follow-up, we firmly established a significant negative correlation between hypercortisolemia measures — serum and urinary cortisol, serum adrenocorticotropic hormone — and thyroid hormones triiodothyronine, free thyroxine and thyrotropin.”

Shekhar and colleagues conducted a retrospective review of two groups of adults aged 18 to 60 years with Cushing’s syndrome. The first group was evaluated at the NIH Clinical Center from 2005 to 2018 (n = 68; mean age, 43.8 years; 62% white), and the second group was evaluated from 1985 to 1994 (n = 55; mean age, 37.2 years; 89% white). The first cohort was followed for 6 to 12 months to observe the pattern of thyroid hormone changes after surgical cure of adrenocorticotropic hormone-dependent Cushing’s syndrome. The second group underwent diurnal thyroid-stimulating hormone evaluation before treatment and during remission for some cases.

Urinary free cortisol and morning thyroid hormone levels were collected for all participants. In the second group, researchers evaluated diurnal patterns of TSH concentrations with hourly measurements from 3 to 7 p.m. and midnight to 4 p.m. In the first group, adrenocorticotropic hormone and serum cortisol were measured.

In the first cohort, seven participants were receiving levothyroxine for previously diagnosed primary or central hypothyroidism. Of the remaining 61 adults, 32 had untreated central hypothyroidism. Thirteen participants had free T4 at the lower limit of normal, and 19 had subnormal levels. There were 29 adults with subnormal levels of T3 and seven with subnormal TSH.

Before surgery, 36 participants in the first group had central hypothyroidism. Six months after surgery, central hypothyroidism remained for 10 participants. After 12 months, the number of adults with central hypothyroidism dropped to six. Preoperative T3 and TSH levels were negatively associated with morning and midnight cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone and urinary free cortisol. In post hoc analysis, a baseline urinary free cortisol of more than 1,000 g per day was adversely associated with baseline and 6-month T3 and free T4 levels.

In the second group, there were 51 participants not on thyroid-modifying drugs who had a thyroid function test 6 or 12 months after surgery. Before surgery, free Tlevels were subnormal in 17 participants, T3 levels were subnormal in 22, and TSH levels were in the lower half of the reference range or below in all but one participant.

After surgery, two participants had below normal free T4, one had subnormal T3, and TSH levels were in the lower half of the reference range or below in 23 of 48 participants. Before surgery, there was no difference in mean TSH between daytime and nighttime. A mean 8 months after surgery, the second group had a normal nocturnal TSH surge from 1.3 mIU/L during the day to 2.17 mIU/L at night (P = .01). The nocturnal TSH increase persisted as long as 3 years in participants who had follow-up evaluations.

“We found a very high prevalence of thyroid hormone deficiency that appears to start at the level of the hypothalamus-pituitary gland and extend to the tissue level,” Shekhar said. “Some of these patients may experience thyroid hormone deficiency symptoms, such as fatigue, depression, cold intolerance, weight gain, etc, as a result of systematic and tissue-level thyroid hormone deficiency. We also noted a strong correlation between hypothyroidism and hypogonadism, which implies that hypothyroid patients are also likely to suffer adverse reproductive effects. Thus, it is imperative to perform thorough thyroid hormone assessment in patients with Cushing’s syndrome, and thyroid hormone supplementation should be considered for these patients unless cure of Cushing’s syndrome is imminent.”

Researchers said providers should routinely screen for hypothyroidism in adults with Cushing’s syndrome. Even after thyroid function is restored, regular follow-up should also be conducted.

Further research is needed to investigate thyroid dysfunction in iatrogenic Cushing’s syndrome and the impact of these findings on euthyroid sick syndrome, Shekhar said.

For more information:

Skand Shekhar, MD, can be reached at skand.shekhar@nih.gov.

From https://www.healio.com/news/endocrinology/20210208/thyroid-dysfunction-highly-prevalent-in-cushings-syndrome

Thyroid cancer: Cushing syndrome is a lesser-known warning sign – what is it?

Thyroid cancer survival rates are 84 percent for 10 years or more if diagnosed early. Early diagnosis is crucial therefore and spotting the unusual signs could be a matter of life and death. A sign your thyroid cancer has advanced includes Cushing syndrome.

What is it?

What is Cushing syndrome?

 

Cushing syndrome occurs when your body is exposed to high levels of the hormone cortisol for a long time, said the Mayo Clinic.

The health site continued: “Cushing syndrome, sometimes called hypercortisolism, may be caused by the use of oral corticosteroid medication.

“The condition can also occur when your body makes too much cortisol on its own.

“Too much cortisol can produce some of the hallmark signs of Cushing syndrome — a fatty hump between your shoulders, a rounded face, and pink or purple stretch marks on your skin.”

In a study published in the US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, thyroid carcinoma and Cushing’s syndrome was further investigated.

The study noted: “Two cases of thyroid carcinoma and Cushing’s syndrome are reported.

“Both of our own cases were medullary carcinomas of the thyroid, and on reviewing the histology of five of the other cases all proved to be medullary carcinoma with identifiable amyloid in the stroma.

“A consideration of the temporal relationships of the development of the carcinoma and of Cushing’s syndrome suggested that in the two cases with papillary carcinoma these conditions could have been unrelated, but that in eight of the nine cases with medullary carcinoma there was evidence that thyroid carcinoma was present at the time of diagnosis of Cushing’s syndrome.

“Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid is also probably related to this group of tumours. It is suggested that the great majority of the tumours associated with Cushing’s syndrome are derived from cells of foregut origin which are endocrine in nature.”

In rare cases, adrenal tumours can cause Cushing syndrome a condition arising when a tumour secretes hormones the thyroid wouldn’t normally create.

Cushing syndrome associated with medullary thyroid cancer is uncommon.

The syndrome is more commonly caused by the pituitary gland overproducing adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), or by taking oral corticosteroid medication.

See a GP if you have symptoms of thyroid cancer, warns the NHS.

The national health body added: “The symptoms may be caused by less serious conditions, such as an enlarged thyroid, so it’s important to get them checked.

“A GP will examine your neck and can organise a blood test to check how well your thyroid is working.

“If they think you could have cancer or they’re not sure what’s causing your symptoms, you’ll be referred to a hospital specialist for more tests.”

 

Adapted from https://www.express.co.uk/life-style/health/1351753/thyroid-cancer-signs-symptoms-cushing-syndrome

Cushing’s Syndrome Revealing Carney Complex: A Case Report

 

Carney complex (CNC) is a rare multisystem disorder, inherited in an autosomal dominant manner and characterized by distinctive spotty skin pigmentation, myxomas and endocrine abnormalities.

We report a case of a 35-year-old patient diagnosed with Cushing’s syndrome complicated with an impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and a severe psychiatric disturbance. The diagnosis of CNC was made by having two major criteria, namely a primary pigmented nodular adrenal disease (PPNAD) and thyroid carcinoma.

Read the entire report here: Cushing’s Syndrome Revealing Carney Complex: A Case
Report

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