Endoscopic and Microscopic Surgery Equally Effective in Cushing’s Disease

Using endoscopic or microscopic techniques to surgically remove the pituitary glands leads to similar remission and recurrence rates in Cushing’s disease patients, a review of 24 studies shows.

The study, titled “Outcome of endoscopic vs microsurgical transsphenoidal resection for Cushing’s disease,” was published in the journal Endocrine Connections.

In endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery, a surgeon uses a tiny camera as a guide, allowing for a panoramic surgical view with increased illumination of anatomic structures. In microsurgical transsphenoidal resection, a surgeon views through a microscope and uses minute instruments or lasers. Both procedures are used in transsphenoidal (TS) surgery to remove pituitary gland tumors, the root cause of Cushing’s disease. In transsphenoidal surgery, a surgeon accesses the pituitary gland through the nose and sinuses.

While endoscopic surgery seems to lead to better patient outcomes, it was unclear before this study if it has any advantages in patients with Cushing’s disease.

To gain more insight into the remission and recurrence rates of both techniques, researchers examined a total of 24 studies that included 1,670 adult patients with Cushing’s syndrome. Of these patients, 702 underwent endoscopic TS, and 968 underwent microsurgical TS.

The study’s authors found that remission rates were similar in both groups. In the endoscopic group, an average of 79.7 percent of patients experienced remission versus 76.9 percent in the microscopic group.

Patients who underwent endoscopic surgery experienced recurrence less often than those who underwent microscopic surgery, with recurrence rates of 11 percent and 15.9 percent, respectively. But researchers pointed out that follow-up times in the studies varied, making comparisons unreliable.

When recurrence rates were calculated by person per year, which takes follow-up time into account, both groups had a recurrence rate of approximately 4 percent per person per year.

Previous studies have shown that complications following either type of surgery occurred at comparable rates. These complications include hypothyroidism (underactivity of the thyroid gland), diabetes insipidus (a condition characterized by increased thirst), CSF leakage (leakage of fluid that normally bathes the brain and spinal cord), visual defects, hypocortisolemia (low cortisol blood levels), and hypogonadism (little or no hormones produced by the sex glands).

“We found that overall remission proportion was the same in CD patients who underwent endoscopic TS compared to patients who underwent microscopic TS. However, patients treated with the endoscopic approach for micro-adenomas were more likely to achieve remission than those treated microsurgically. Patients treated endoscopically were less likely to experience recurrence; however, when follow-up time is taken into account, this advantage disappears,” the researchers concluded.

 

From https://cushingsdiseasenews.com/2018/02/01/cushings-disease-transsphenoidal-surgery-study-finds-endoscopic-microscopic-procedures-equally-effective/

Endoscopic Surgery on a Pituitary Adenoma

Philip Theodosopoulos, M.D. is Professor and Vice-Chair of Neurological Surgery at the University of California, San Francisco. He is the Director of the Skull Base Tumor Program and has extensive experience performing endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery for pituitary tumors (over 1000 operations) and other disease processes as well as tumors of the base of the skull.

In this video Dr. Theodosopoulos illustrates portions of an endoscopic resection of a pituitary adenoma.

 

To learn more about Dr. Theodosopoulos and to schedule an appointment for consultation please copy this link:
neurosurgery.UCSF.edu/index.php/about_us_faculty_theodosopoulos.html

UAE Patient’s (Pituitary) Brain Tumour Removed Through Nostrils

Dubai: A 34-year-old patient working as a crane operator has undergone a remarkable new procedure of surgery at Thumbay Hospital, Dubai, that facilitated the removal of a brain tumour through the nostrils.

The patient, Mehnaj Khan, a Pakistani crane operator, underwent endoscopic trans-nasal trans-sphenoidal surgery in September, where the tumour was removed through the nose by endoscopic surgery without any cut or stitches on the skin. The father of five children has now made a full recovery, with improved vision, a hospital spokesperson said.

Khan first noticed something was wrong when his eyesight began to diminish, first the right eye, followed by the left eye. Although he had ignored his frequent bouts of headache for two years, Khan was compelled to visit an ophthalmologist due to vision deterioration. When an eye check-up revealed nothing was wrong, he was referred to to Thumbay Hospital, where an MRI scan of the brain revealed that he had a large tumour in the pituitary gland, pressing on the optic apparatus of brain and also hypothalamus, a very vital part of brain. This tumour was pressing on his optic nerves, causing him to slowly lose his sight.

Dr. Ishwar Chandra Premsagar, consultant neurosurgeon at Thumbay Hospital who operated on Khan, said: “Conventionally, such operations require surgeons to open the skull — a procedure known as a craniotomy. Alternatively, affected portions of the brain are reached via major incisions in the side of the face or inside the mouth, leaving behind major scars of the surgery. However, the patient’s tumour was removed by suctioning it out through his nose.”

An ear nose and throat (ENT) surgeon and an eye surgeon were consulted to plan the surgery and save further deterioration of vision while providing a chance for complete recovery.

Khan, who was nearly blind in one eye with the tumour growth, expressed his gratitude to the hospital and the teams of surgeons as he noticed improvement in his vision after the surgery. By the end of the week, he could read too. The patient was very thankful to the team of surgeons.

Dr Premsagar added: “The endoscope provides a close-up view of the pituitary, allowing the surgeon to remove the entire tumour out in one go through the nostrils, causing no disfigurement or damage to the brain. On the other hand, the procedure ensures far less danger of brain damage or stroke, and the patient usually makes a quicker recovery. Although post-surgery, deterioration of vision stops, but one cannot guarantee complete recovery of vision. This patient was lucky as his vision improved, but it may not happen in all patients. Hence, it is extremely important that one should ensure early consultation, diagnosis and surgery to ensure high chances of recovery.”

From http://gulfnews.com/news/uae/health/uae-patient-s-brain-tumour-removed-through-nostrils-1.1933841

Interview with a Doctor on Trans-Sphenoidal surgery

Dr. Julius July: Neurosurgeon at the Neuroscience Center of Siloam Hospitals Lippo Village Karawaci 

A SIMPLE AND QUICK WAY TO REMOVE TUMORS VIA SURGERY THROUGH THE NOSTRIL

The mention of the word “surgery” evokes images of lengthy and elaborate procedures that involve delicate acts of cutting, abrading or suturing different parts of the body to treat an injury or disease.

This widely-held perception has led some to develop an irrational fear of surgery–especially if an operation involves a critical organ, such as the heart, or in the case of trans-sphenoidal surgery, a procedure used to remove tumors from the hormone-regulating pituitary gland located at the base of the brain.

Though the procedure has been around in different forms for the past three decades, individuals who may be in dire need of it might fear or avoid it.

To demystify this specific method of surgery, J+ spoke with Julius July, a neurosurgeon at the Neuroscience Center of Siloam Hospitals Lippo Village Karawaci. He has performed hundreds of trans-sphenoidal operations on patients throughout the country since 2008. Below is our interview, edited for length and clarity.

Tell us more about trans-sphenoidal surgery.

The goal is to extract benign tumors of the pituitary gland that are called pituitary adenoma. The pituitary gland controls different secretions of hormones. If there is a tumor and it grows large, one of the consequences could be that a patient goes blind. It can also lead to symptoms manifesting in other parts of the body due to excess hormone production, depending on the type of hormone affected by the tumor.

What does a neurosurgeon do during the procedure?

As neurosurgeons we use an endoscope with a camera attached to it and insert the instrument through the nostril. We go through the right nostril and through the sinus to reach the tumor and remove it. Once that is done, we add a coagulant to prevent bleeding. The operation takes only an hour to 90 minutes to perform and is minimally invasive. People come in and expect the surgery to last five or six hours. They hear “surgery” and fearfully assume that. But modern trans-sphenoidal surgery is simple, only lasting one to two hours.

What’s the prognosis after surgery?

In 80 percent of cases, all it takes is one surgery to remove a tumor. However, some need repeated intervention, while others require radiation. Some tumors want to invade their surroundings. In these cases, the surrounding area is a blood vessel. We can’t totally remove that type of tumor. But such cases are rare. If a patient needs more than two operations, we usually recommend radiation, because who wants to have a lot of operations?

What are the symptoms of pituitary adenoma?

Symptoms depend on whether a tumor affects hormone production or the optic nerve. The principal complaints are related to a patient’s field of vision becoming narrower. If there is a tumor in the pituitary gland area, the eye can’t see too widely. The tumors would press on the optic nerve, which leads to the periphery of your vision getting blurry.

If the tumor affects hormone production, the symptoms depend on the specific type of hormone that the tumor has affected. Different hormones have different roles. Excess prolactin hormones can lead to women–or even men–producing breast milk. If a woman who isn’t pregnant is producing breast milk, they need to be checked. The basic ingredient of milk is calcium. Without treatment, the woman will have porous bone problems. It also leads to reduced libido. If men have an excess of these prolactin hormones, they cannot get erections and will become impotent.

How does these problem develop in the first place?

Mutations lead to the creation of these benign tumors. Some things make mutations easier, such as smoking or exposure to radiation or specific chemicals. It could be anything. You could have eaten tofu and it had formalin or some meatballs with borax. Preventing it obviously requires a healthy lifestyle, but that’s easier said than done.

It’s not just one thing that causes these tumors.

Who does this pituitary tumor affect?

It affects both genders equally, more or less. The risk of pituitary adenoma compared to all other types of brain tumors is 15 percent. Children are also affected, though the condition is statistically much more likely to afflict adults. Of my patients, two in 70 would be children.

How is it diagnosed?

The doctor will check your hormones after a blood test and identify the problem. For example, if the condition affects growth hormones, a person can grow to two meters or more in height, which leads to gigantism. Alternatively, a condition could lead to horizontal growth–a bigger tongue, bigger fingers and changing shoes each month. The tongue can become so big that it causes breathing problems. Growth hormone overproduction is like a factory with the machine working overtime. As a result, a person’s life span can get cut in half. The heart works overtime, they keep growing and they die prematurely.

How many operations do you perform a year?

I’ve been doing these operations since 2008. I handle 60 to 70 such surgeries a year.

Any notable success stories to share?

One patient from Central Java came in blind. I examined him and said that there was no way we could save his vision by removing his tumor. He was crying. He had been blind for a week. But if no action was taken, the tumor would keep growing and would lead him to becoming crippled. At the end, he decided that he still wanted the operation. Surprisingly though, after the operation, he was able to see. Three months later, he was driving and reading newspapers. It was a fascinating case.

From http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2016/07/30/well-being-trans-sphenoidal-surgery.html

Webinar: Endoscopic Endonasal Surgery for the Treatment of Cushing’s Disease

Mon, Jun 13, 2016 11:00 AM – 12:00 PM EDT


Presented by:
Dr. Maria Koutourousiou
Webinar DescriptionAn update on the diagnosis and treatment options of Cushing’s disease. Description of the endoscopic endonasal approach for the management of CD. Surgical videos demonstration and comparison with the microscopic transsphenoidal approach. Surgical outcomes and adjuvant treatment.

Presenter Bio

Dr. Mary Koutourousiou is an attending Neurosurgeon and Assistant Professor at the University of Louisville. She is the Director of the Pituitary and Skull Base Program. Dr. Koutourousiou received her M.D. from the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece and completed her neurosurgical residency at the General Hospital of Athens “G. Gennimatas”, in Greece. She underwent subspecialty fellowship training in Endoscopic Pituitary Surgery and Minimally Invasive Neurosurgery at the UMC St. Radboud, Nijmegen, in the Netherlands. She moved to the United States in 2010 and completed four years of research and a clinical fellowship in Endoscopic and Open Skull Base Surgery at UPMC Presbyterian in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Dr. Koutourousiou has published extensively in the field of endoscopic skull base surgery. Her studies have been presented in national and international neurosurgical meetings. Dr. Koutourousiou’s work in skull base surgery has been recognized by the European Skull Base Society and the World Federation of Skull Base Societies.

Register here: https://attendee.gotowebinar.com/register/4982773766837282305?utm_source=newsletter_199&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=webinar-announcement-endoscopic-endonasal-surgery-for-the-treatment-of-cushing-s-disease
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