Cushing’s Disease Treatment Market to Witness an Outstanding Growth by 2017 – 2025

Cushing disease is caused by tumour in the pituitary gland which leads to excessive secretion of a hormone called adrenocorticotrophic (ACTH), which in turn leads to increasing levels of cortisol in the body. Cortisol is a steroid hormone released by the adrenal glands and helps the body to deal with injury or infection. Increasing levels of cortisol increases the blood sugar and can even cause diabetes mellitus. However the disease is also caused due to excess production of hypothalamus corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) which stimulates the synthesis of cortisol by the adrenal glands.

The condition is named after Harvey Cushing, the doctor who first identified the disease in 1912. Cushing disease results in Cushing syndrome. Cushing syndrome is a group of signs and symptoms developed due to prolonged exposure to cortisol.

Signs and symptoms of Cushing syndrome includes hypertension, abdominal obesity, muscle weakness, headache, fragile skin, acne, thin arms and legs, red stretch marks on stomach, fluid retention or swelling, excess body and facial hair, weight gain, acne, buffalo hump, tiredness, fatigue, brittle bones, low back pain, moon shaped face etc.

Symptoms vary from individual to individual depending upon the disease duration, age and gender of the patient.  Disease diagnosis is done by measuring levels of cortisol in patient’s urine, saliva or blood. For confirming the diagnosis, a blood test for ACTH is performed. The first-line treatment of the disease is through surgical resection of ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma, however disease management is also done through medications, Cushing disease treatment market comprises of the drugs designed for lowering the level of cortisol in the body. Thus patients suffering from Cushing disease are prescribed medications such as ketoconazole, mitotane, aminoglutethimide metyrapone, mifepristone, etomidate and pasireotide.

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Cushing’s disease treatment market revenue is growing with a stable growth rate, this is attributed to increasing number of pipeline drugs. Also increasing interest of pharmaceutical companies to develop Cushing disease drugs is a major factor contributing to the revenue growth of Cushing disease treatment market over the forecast period. Current and emerging players’ focuses on physician education and awareness regarding availability of different drugs for curing Cushing disease, thus increasing the referral speeds, time to diagnosis and volume of diagnosed Cushing disease individuals. Growing healthcare expenditure and increasing awareness regarding Cushing syndrome aids in the revenue growth of Cushing’s disease treatment market. Increasing number of new product launches also drives the market for Cushing’s disease Treatment devices. However availability of alternative therapies for curing Cushing syndrome is expected to hamper the growth of the Cushing’s disease treatment market over the forecast period.

The Cushing’s disease Treatment market is segment based on the product type, technology type and end user

Cushing’s disease Treatment market is segmented into following types:

By Drug Type

  • Ketoconazole
  • Mitotane
  • Aminoglutethimide
  • Metyrapone
  • Mifepristone
  • Etomidate
  • Pasireotide

By End User

  • Hospital Pharmacies
  • Retail Pharmacies
  • Drug Stores
  • Clinics
  • e-Commerce/Online Pharmacies

Cushing’s disease treatment market revenue is expected to grow at a good growth rate, over the forecast period. The market is anticipated to perform well in the near future due to increasing awareness regarding the condition. Also the market is anticipated to grow with a fastest CAGR over the forecast period, attributed to increasing investment in R&D and increasing number of new product launches which is estimated to drive the revenue growth of Cushing’s disease treatment market over the forecast period.

Depending on geographic region, the Cushing’s disease treatment market is segmented into five key regions: North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific (APAC) and Middle East & Africa (MEA).

North America is occupying the largest regional market share in the global Cushing’s disease treatment market owing to the presence of more number of market players, high awareness levels regarding Cushing syndrome. Healthcare expenditure and relatively larger number of R&D exercises pertaining to drug manufacturing and marketing activities in the region. Also Europe is expected to perform well in the near future due to increasing prevalence of the condition in the region.

Asia Pacific is expected to grow at the fastest CAGR because of increase in the number of people showing the symptoms of Cushing syndrome, thus boosting the market growth of Cushing’s disease treatment market throughout the forecast period.

Some players of Cushing’s disease Treatment market includes CORCEPT THERAPEUTICS, HRA Pharma, Strongbridge Biopharma plc, Novartis AG, etc. However there are numerous companies producing branded generics for Cushing disease. The companies in Cushing’s disease treatment market are increasingly engaged in strategic partnerships, collaborations and promotional activities to capture a greater pie of market share.

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Diagnosis and Treatment of Pituitary Adenomas

A Review
JAMA. 2017;317(5):516-524. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.19699

Importance  Pituitary adenomas may hypersecrete hormones or cause mass effects. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment are important.

Observations  Prevalence of pituitary adenomas ranges from 1 in 865 adults to 1 in 2688 adults. Approximately 50% are microadenomas (<10 mm); the remainder are macroadenomas (≥10 mm).

Mass effects cause headache, hypopituitarism, and visual field defects. Treatments include transsphenoidal surgery, medical therapies, and radiotherapy. Prolactinomas account for 32% to 66% of adenomas and present with amenorrhea, loss of libido, galactorrhea, and infertility in women and loss of libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility in men; they are generally treated with the dopamine agonists cabergoline and bromocriptine.

Growth hormone–secreting tumors account for 8% to 16% of tumors and usually present with enlargement of the lips, tongue, nose, hands, and feet and are diagnosed by elevated insulin-like growth factor 1 levels and growth hormone levels; initial treatment is surgical. Medical therapy with somatostatin analogues, cabergoline, and pegvisomant is often also needed.

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)–secreting tumors account for 2% to 6% of adenomas and are associated with obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and other morbidity. Measurement of a late-night salivary cortisol level is the best screening test but petrosal sinus sampling for ACTH may be necessary to distinguish a pituitary from an ectopic source.

The primary treatment of Cushing disease (hypercortisolism due to ACTH-producing adenomas, which is the cause in approximately 65% of the cases of hypercortisolism) is adenoma resection and medical therapies including ketoconazole, mifepristone, and pasireotide.

Hyperthyroidism due to thyroid-stimulating hormone–secreting tumors accounts for 1% of tumors and is treated with surgery and somatostatin analogues if not surgically cured. Clinically nonfunctioning adenomas account for 15% to 54% of adenomas and present with mass effects; surgery is generally required, although incidentally found tumors can be followed if they are asymptomatic.

Conclusions and Relevance  Patients with pituitary adenomas should be identified at an early stage so that effective treatment can be implemented. For prolactinomas, initial therapy is generally dopamine agonists. For all other pituitary adenomas, initial therapy is generally transsphenoidal surgery with medical therapy being reserved for those not cured by surgery.

Read the full text here: http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/2600472

Medical Therapies in Cushing’s Syndrome

Chapter

The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis in Health and Disease

pp 165-179

Date: 03 December 2016

Medical Therapies in Cushing’s Syndrome

Abstract

Medical therapy has an important, albeit secondary, role in patients with Cushing’s syndrome. While medications are not currently used as definitive therapy of this condition, they can be very effective in controlling hypercortisolism in patients who fail surgery, those who are not surgical candidates, or those whose tumor location is unknown. Medical therapies can be particularly helpful to control hypercortisolism in patients with Cushing’s disease who underwent radiation therapy and are awaiting its salutary effects.

Currently available treatment options include several steroidogenesis inhibitors (ketoconazole, metyrapone, mitotane, etomidate), which block one or several steps in cortisol synthesis in the adrenal glands, centrally acting agents (cabergoline, pasireotide), which decrease ACTH secretion, and glucocorticoid receptor antagonists, which are represented by a single agent (mifepristone). With the exception of pasireotide and mifepristone, available agents are used “off-label” to manage hypercortisolism. Several other medications are at various stages of development and may offer additional options for the management of this serious condition.

As more potential molecular targets become known and our understanding of the pathogenesis of Cushing’s syndrome improves, it is anticipated that novel, rationally designed medical therapies may emerge. Clinical trials are needed to further investigate the relative risks and benefits of currently available and novel medical therapies and examine the potential role of combination therapy in the management of Cushing’s syndrome.

Keywords

Cabergoline, Etomidate, Ketoconazole, Levoketoconazole, Metyrapone, Mifepristone, Mitotane, Osilodrostat, Pasireotide, Pituitary adenoma

Experimental Drug Improves Cushing’s Disease

International phase 3 trial is largest study ever of rare endocrine disorder

A new investigational drug significantly reduced urinary cortisol levels and improved symptoms of Cushing’s disease in the largest clinical study of this endocrine disorder ever conducted.

Results of the clinical trial conducted at centers on four continents appear in the March 8 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine and show that treatment with pasireotide cut cortisol secretion an average of 50 percent and returned some patients’ levels to normal.

“Cushing’s disease is a rare disorder, with three to five cases per million people. It can affect all ages and both genders but is most common in otherwise healthy young women,” says Harvard Medical School Professor of Medicine Beverly M.K. Biller of the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Neuroendocrine Unit, senior author of the study.

“Often misdiagnosed, Cushing’s is associated with a broad range of health problems – causing physical changes, metabolic abnormalities, and emotional difficulties – and if not controlled, significantly increases patients’ risk of dying much younger than expected,” Biller says.

Cushing’s disease, one of several conditions that lead to Cushing’s syndrome, is characterized by chronically elevated secretion of the hormone cortisol. The disease is caused by a benign pituitary tumor that oversecretes the hormone ACTH, which in turn induces increased cortisol secretion by the adrenal glands.

Symptoms of Cushing’s syndrome include weight gain, hypertension, mood swings, irregular or absent periods, abnormalities of glucose processing (insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and type 2 diabetes), and cardiovascular disease. Because those symptoms are associated with many health problems, physicians may not consider the rare possibility of Cushing’s. The diagnosis can be difficult to make and usually requires the expertise of an endocrinologist. Because cortisol levels normally fluctuate during the day, a single blood test is unlikely to identify chronic elevation, and thus the most common diagnostic test measures a patient’s 24-hour urinary output.

First-line treatment for Cushing’s disease is surgical removal of the ACTH-secreting tumor, which leads to remission in 65 to 90 percent of patients. But symptoms return in 10 to 30 percent of those patients, requiring repeat surgery, radiation therapy, or treatment with drugs that interfere with part of the cortisol control system. Until last month, there was no specific FDA-approved medical treatment for Cushing’s syndrome; the newly approved drug mifepristone should benefit some patients, but it does not affect the pituitary source of the condition or reduce cortisol levels.

The current phase 3 trial of pasireotide — the first drug that blocks ACTH secretion by binding to somatostatin receptors on the pituitary tumor — was sponsored by Novartis Pharma. The trial enrolled 162 patients at 62 sites in 18 countries. Nearly 85 percent of participants had either persistent disease that had not responded to surgery or had recurrent disease; the other 15 percent were recently diagnosed but not appropriate candidates for surgery.

Participants were randomly assigned to two groups, one starting at two daily 600-microgram injections of pasireotide and the other receiving 900-microgram doses. Three months into the 12-month trial, participants whose urinary cortisol levels remained more than twice the normal range had their dosage levels increased. During the rest of the trial, dosage could be further increased, if necessary, or reduced if side effects occurred.

At the end of the study period, many patients had a significant decrease in their urinary cortisol levels, with 33 achieving levels within normal range at their original dosage by month six of the trial. Participants whose baseline levels were less than five times the upper limit of normal were more likely to achieve normal levels than those with higher baseline levels, and the average urinary cortisol decrease across all participants was approximately 50 percent. Many Cushing’s disease symptoms decreased, and it became apparent within the first two months whether or not an individual was going to respond to pasireotide.

Transient gastrointestinal discomfort, known to be associated with medications in the same family as pasireotide, was an expected side effect. Another side effect was elevated glucose levels in 73 percent of participants, something not seen to the same extent with other medications in this family. These elevated levels will require close attention, because many Cushing’s patients already have trouble metabolizing glucose. Biller explains, “Those patients who already were diabetic had the greatest increases in blood sugar, and those who were pre-diabetic were more likely to become diabetic than those who began with normal blood sugar. However, elevations were even seen in those who started at normal glucose levels, so this is real and needs to be monitored carefully.”

Additional trials of pasireotide are in the works, and a phase 3 study of a long-acting version of the drug was recently announced. Biller notes that the potential addition of pasireotide to available medical treatments for Cushing’s disease would have a number of advantages. “It’s very important to have medications that work at different parts of the cortisol control system – which is the case for the currently used medications that work at the adrenal gland level; pasireotide, which works at the pituitary gland; and mifepristone, which blocks the action of cortisol at receptors in the body. Having more options that work in different ways is valuable because not all patients respond to one medicine and some may be unable to tolerate a specific drug’s side effects.

“As we have more drugs available to treat Cushing’s,” Biller adds, “I think in the long run we may start using combinations of drugs, which is the approach we use in some patients with acromegaly, another disorder in which a pituitary tumor causes excess hormone secretion. Ultimately, we hope to be able to give lower doses leading to fewer overall side effects, but that remains to be determined by future studies.”

Annamaria Colao, University of Naples, Italy, is the lead author of the report. Additional co-authors are Stephan Petersenn, University of Duisberg-Essen, Germany; John Newell-Price, University of Sheffield, U.K.; James Findling, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee; Feng Gu, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing; Mario Maldonado, Ulrike Schoenherr, and David Mills, Novartis Pharma; and Luiz Roberto Salgado, University of São Paulo Medical School, Brazil.

From http://dailyrecords.us/experimental-drug-improves-cushings-disease/

Promising Pre-Clinical and Phase 1 Data Support Advance of Selective Cortisol Modulator CORT125134 as Potential Treatment for Cushing’s Syndrome and Solid-Tumor Cancers

MENLO PARK, CA–(Marketwired – Apr 28, 2016) –  Corcept Therapeutics Incorporated (NASDAQ: CORT), a pharmaceutical company engaged in the discovery, development and commercialization of drugs that treat severe metabolic, oncologic and psychiatric disorders by modulating the effects of cortisol, today released data supporting the clinical advancement of its proprietary, selective cortisol modulator, CORT125134. The company has begun recruiting patients for a Phase 1/2 trial of the compound to treat patients with solid-tumor cancers. It also expects to begin recruiting patients for a Phase 2 study of CORT125134 to treat patients with Cushing’s syndrome this quarter.

“Advancing CORT125134 is an important step in protecting and extending our growing Cushing’s syndrome franchise and in developing cortisol modulation for a wide range of other serious diseases,” said Joseph K. Belanoff, MD, Corcept’s Chief Executive Officer. “This selective cortisol modulator has shown great promise. We are optimistic that, for some patients with Cushing’s syndrome, CORT125134 may be even better than our approved product, Korlym® — just as effective, but without the side effects associated with Korlym’s affinity for the progesterone receptor. Equally important, we look forward to investigating its potential as a treatment for solid-tumor cancers.”

CORT125134 is the lead compound in Corcept’s proprietary portfolio of selective cortisol modulators. It is a non-steroidal competitive antagonist of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) that does not bind to the body’s other hormone receptors, including the progesterone receptor (PR). Korlym’s interaction with PR results in termination of pregnancy and can cause endometrial thickening and irregular vaginal bleeding in some women. CORT125134 is proprietary to Corcept and is protected by composition of matter and method of use patents extending to 2033.

Advancement to Phase 2 Trials Supported by Positive Pre-Clinical and Phase 1 Data
“The data generated so far make this compound a promising candidate to treat both Cushing’s syndrome and, potentially, a number of solid-tumor cancers,” said Hazel Hunt, Ph.D., Corcept’s Vice President of Research. “Its Phase 1 data showed that it shares Korlym’s potent affinity for GR, one of the receptors to which cortisol binds. Our clinical testing showed that it can prevent the effects of the steroid prednisone, a commonly-used synthetic GR agonist. Preventing the effects of prednisone is a very important finding, as it mirrors the essential quality of an effective medical treatment for patients with Cushing’s syndrome.”

Corcept’s Phase 1 trial of CORT125134 enrolled 124 healthy volunteers. GR antagonism was tested by measuring CORT125134’s ability to modulate prednisone’s effects on serum osteocalcin, white blood cell counts, glucose metabolism and expression of the FKBP5 gene — a marker of GR activation. With respect to all parameters, CORT125134 was as potent a modulator of prednisone’s activity as Korlym (see Figure 1; p value < 0.0003).

Pharmacokinetic data indicate that CORT125134 is suitable for once-daily dosing.

“Positive Phase 1 data, together with encouraging pre-clinical results, prompted us to advance CORT125134 as a treatment for Cushing’s syndrome as well as a treatment for cancer,” continued Dr. Hunt. “Substantial pre-clinical and clinical research suggests that cortisol modulation increases the effectiveness of chemotherapy in some solid-tumor cancers. Pre-clinical data suggest that CORT125134 may be even more potent than Korlym in treating some tumor types.”

Corcept and investigators at the University of Chicago have studied the effectiveness of CORT125134 in transgenic mouse models of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and castration-resistant prostate cancer. Mice implanted with TNBC tumor cells were treated with a combination of paclitaxel and CORT125134. Mifepristone (the active ingredient in Korlym) in combination with paclitaxel served as a positive control. As expected, the combination of mifepristone and paclitaxel significantly slowed tumor progression. However, the combination of CORT125134 and paclitaxel slowed it even more (see Figure 2; p value = 0.0004). In a similar experiment, castrated mice seeded with prostate cancer tumor cells were treated with either mifepristone or CORT125134. The outcome was comparable to the TNBC study: When combined with castration (which in humans would be achieved pharmacologically by the administration of an androgen receptor antagonist such as enzalutamide), mifepristone retarded tumor progression, but CORT125134 had an even more pronounced effect (see Figure 3; p value = 0.037).

CORT125134 may also enhance the efficacy of immune-modulation therapy. In an animal model of colon cancer, the addition of CORT125134 to PD-1 monotherapy significantly slowed tumor progression (see Figure 4; p value = 0.013):

Oncology Trial Design
This trial’s initial phase will investigate nab-paclitaxel in combination with CORT125134 to treat any solid-tumor cancer susceptible to treatment with nab-paclitaxel. (“Nab-paclitaxel” is the generic name for Celgene’s drug, Abraxane®.) Once a maximum tolerated dose is identified, Corcept plans to open one or more expansion cohorts, each containing 20 patients, to test the combination’s efficacy in one or more of the solid-tumor cancers studied in the dose-finding phase. Possible target indications include TNBC, castration-resistant prostate cancer, ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer and sarcoma. Other dose-finding cohorts may be enrolled to study CORT125134 in combination with different companion therapeutic agents, including PD-1 inhibitors.

The trial is open-label and will be conducted at sites in the United States, the first of which is open and has begun screening patients.

“That we are advancing the same selective cortisol modulator as a treatment for both a metabolic disease and one or more oncologic indications is a testament to the broad therapeutic potential of cortisol modulation,” said Robert S. Fishman, MD, Corcept’s Chief Medical Officer. “We are excited to start these trials.”

Cushing’s Syndrome Trial Design
This Phase 2 trial of CORT125134 will enroll 30 patients with endogenous Cushing’s syndrome. Patients will be assigned to a low- or high-dose group and will receive CORT125134 for 12 weeks, with up-titration possible in each group at weeks four and eight. The trial will be open label. Study centers will be located in both the European Union and the United States.

About Korlym®
Korlym modulates the effect of cortisol at GR, one of the two receptors to which cortisol binds, thereby inhibiting the effects of excess cortisol in patients with Cushing’s syndrome. Since 2012, Corcept has made Korlym available as a once-daily oral treatment of hyperglycemia secondary to endogenous Cushing’s syndrome in adult patients with glucose intolerance or diabetes mellitus type 2 who have failed surgery or are not candidates for surgery. Korlym was the first FDA-approved treatment for that illness and the FDA has designated it as an Orphan Drug for that indication.

About Cushing’s Syndrome
Endogenous Cushing’s syndrome is caused by prolonged exposure of the body’s tissues to high levels of the hormone cortisol and is generated by tumors that produce cortisol or ACTH. Cushing’s syndrome is an orphan indication that most commonly affects adults aged 20-50. An estimated 10-15 of every one million people are newly diagnosed with this syndrome each year, resulting in over 3,000 new patients annually in the United States. An estimated 20,000 patients in the United States have Cushing’s syndrome. Symptoms vary, but most people have one or more of the following manifestations: high blood sugar, diabetes, high blood pressure, upper body obesity, rounded face, increased fat around the neck, thinning arms and legs, severe fatigue and weak muscles. Irritability, anxiety, cognitive disturbances and depression are also common. Cushing’s syndrome can affect every organ system in the body and can be lethal if not treated effectively.

About Triple-Negative Breast Cancer
Triple-negative breast cancer is a form of the disease in which the three receptors that fuel most breast cancer growth — estrogen, progesterone and the HER-2/neu gene — are not present. Because the tumor cells lack the necessary receptors, treatments that target estrogen, progesterone and HER-2 receptors are ineffective. In 2013, approximately 40,000 women were diagnosed with TNBC. It is estimated that more than 75 percent of these women’s tumor cells expressed the GR receptor to which cortisol binds. There is no FDA-approved treatment and neither a targeted treatment nor an approved standard chemotherapy regimen for relapsed TNBC patients exists.

About Corcept Therapeutics Incorporated
Corcept is a pharmaceutical company engaged in the discovery, development and commercialization of drugs that treat severe metabolic, oncologic and psychiatric disorders by modulating the effects of cortisol. Korlym, a first-generation cortisol modulator, is the company’s first FDA-approved medication. The company is conducting a Phase 1/2 trial of mifepristone for the treatment of TNBC, a Phase 1/2 trial of CORT125134 to treat a variety of solid-tumor cancers and has a proprietary portfolio of other selective GR antagonists that modulate the effects of cortisol but not progesterone. Corcept owns extensive intellectual property covering the use of cortisol modulators, including mifepristone and CORT125134, in the treatment of a wide variety of metabolic, oncologic and psychiatric disorders. It also holds composition of matter patents for CORT125134 and its other selective cortisol modulators.

Forward-Looking Statements
Statements made in this news release, other than statements of historical fact, are forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements, including statements regarding the initiation and advancement of clinical trials and the development of Corcept’s pre-clinical and clinical pipeline, are subject to known and unknown risks and uncertainties that might cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by such statements, including the pace of enrollment in or the outcome of the company’s Phase 1/2 study of CORT125134 to treat solid-tumor cancers and planned Phase 2 trial of CORT125134 to treat patients with Cushing’s syndrome, the effects of rapid technological change and competition, the protections afforded by Corcept’s intellectual property rights, or the cost, pace and success of Corcept’s other product development efforts. These and other risks are set forth in the company’s SEC filings, all of which are available from the company’s website (www.corcept.com) or from the SEC’s website (www.sec.gov). Corcept disclaims any intention or duty to update any forward-looking statement made in this news release.

Abraxane® is a registered trademark of Celgene Corporation.

From http://www.marketwired.com/press-release/promising-pre-clinical-phase-1-data-support-advance-selective-cortisol-modulator-cort125134-nasdaq-cort-2119635.htm

 

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