Novel Therapy Eases Cushing’s Symptoms in Pivotal Trial

by Kristen Monaco, Staff Writer, MedPage Today

LOS ANGELES — An investigational therapy improved quality of life and reduced disease symptoms for patients with endogenous Cushing’s syndrome, according to new findings from the phase III SONICS study.

Patients taking oral levoketoconazole twice daily had significant reductions in mean scores for acne (-1.8), peripheral edema (-0.4), and hirsutism (-2.6), all secondary endpoints of the pivotal trial (P<0.03 for all), reported Maria Fleseriu, MD, of Oregon Health and Science University in Portland.

“We’re looking forward to see the results of further studies and to add this therapy to the landscape of Cushing’s,” Fleseriu said here during a presentation of the findings at AACE 2019, the annual meeting of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. “We have a newer medication and still we cannot make a dent in the outcomes of Cushing’s, especially for patient-reported outcomes.”

Free testosterone levels significantly decreased in women taking levoketoconazole (a ketoconazole stereoisomer and potent steroidogenesis inhibitor), from an average of 0.32 ng/dL down to 0.12 ng/dL (0.011 to 0.004 nmol/L, P<0.0001). Men had a non-significant increase: 5.1 ng/dL up to 5.8 ng/dL (0.177 to 0.202 nmol/L).

There were no significant changes from baseline to the end of maintenance for other secondary endpoints in the analysis: moon facies, facial plethora, striae, bruising, supraclavicular fat, irregular menstruation, and dysmenorrhea. However, significant improvements after 6 months of therapy were seen in patient-reported quality of life compared with baseline (mean 10.6 change on the Cushing QOL questionnaire) as well as a significant reduction in depressive symptoms (mean -4.3 change on the Beck Depression Inventory II).

The open-label, multicenter SONICS (Study of Levoketoconazole in Cushing’s Syndrome) trial included 94 adult men and women with a confirmed diagnosis of Cushing’s syndrome and elevated 24-hour mean urinary free cortisol (mUFC) levels at least 1.5 times the upper limit of normal.

In the dose-titration phase of the study (weeks 2 to 21), patients were titrated up to a max dose of 600 mg levoketoconazole twice daily until mUFC normalization. A 6-month maintenance phase followed with no dose increases, but decreases were allowed if adverse events emerged. An additional 6-month extended evaluation phase followed thereafter.

The study met it’s previously reported primary endpoint, with 30% of patients achieving normalized mUFC levels after 6 months of maintenance therapy without a dose increase (95% CI 21%-40%, P=0.0154).

Levoketoconazole was well tolerated, with only 12.8% of patients discontinuing treatment due to adverse events. The most commonly reported adverse events were nausea (31.9%), headache (27.7%), peripheral edema (19.1%), hypertension (17%), and fatigue (16%), some of which were expected due to steroid withdrawal, Fleseriu said.

Serious adverse events were reported in 14 patients, including prolonged QTc interval in two patients, elevated liver function in one patient, and adrenal insufficiency in another, events similar to those seen with ketoconazole (Nizoral) therapy.

Fleseriu explained that drug-drug interaction is a problem in Cushing’s, as all of the available medications prolong QT interval.

She noted that in SONICS, QT prolongation with levoketoconazole was observed in few patients. It’s still a “concern,” said Fleseriu, especially for patients on other drugs that prolong QT.

Although not yet approved, levoketoconazole has received orphan drug designation from the FDA and the European Medicines Agency for endogenous Cushing’s syndrome. The tentative brand name is Recorlev.

The study was supported by Strongbridge Biopharma.

Fleseriu reported relationships with Strongbridge, Millendo Therapeutics, and Novartis. Co-authors also disclosed relevant relationships with industry.

From https://www.medpagetoday.com/meetingcoverage/aace/79465

Cushing’s Syndrome Epidemiology

By Yolanda Smith, BPharm

Cushing’s syndrome is considered to be a rare disorder that results from prolonged exposure to glucocorticoids. However, there are few epidemiological studies to provide adequate data to describe the incidence and prevalence of the condition accurately. Most cases are diagnosed between the ages of 20 and 50, although any individual may be affected at any age.

The presentation of the symptoms of Cushing’s syndrome can vary greatly. In addition, many of the symptoms overlap with those caused by other health conditions, such as metabolic syndrome and polycystic ovary syndrome. This can make the diagnosis of the condition difficult. It is also difficult to establish epidemiological trends in Cushing’s syndrome, because not all cases of the disease are diagnosed. However, it is important that diagnosis is made as soon as possible, because early diagnosis and treatment of the condition are associated with improved morbidity and mortality rates.

Population-based Studies

There are several population-based studies that have reported the incidence and mortality rates of Cushing’s syndrome in certain populations over a discrete period of time.

A study in Denmark followed 166 patients with Cushing’s syndrome for 11 years, finding an incidence of 2 cases per million population per year. Of the 166 patients, 139 had benign disease. There was a mortality rate of 16.5% in the follow-up period of 8 years, with most deaths occurring in the year after the initial diagnosis, often before the initiation of treatment. The causes of death of patients with Cushing’s syndrome in the study included severe infections, cardiac rupture, stroke and suicide.

A study in Spain found 49 cases of Cushing’s syndrome over a period of 18 years, with an incidence of 2.4 cases per million inhabitants per year and a prevalence of 39.1 cases per million. The standard mortality ratio in this study was 3.8, in addition to an increase in morbidity rates.

Incidence

A low incidence of endogenous Cushing’s syndrome was established by the population-based studies outlined above, corresponding to approximately 2 cases per million. Some studies have an estimated incidence as low as 0.7 people per million.

However, the incidence of subclinical Cushing’s syndrome may be underestimated in certain population groups, such as those with osteoporosis, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus or hypertension. For example, of 90 obese patients with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus in one study, three had Cushing’s syndrome. This yielded a prevalence of 3.3%, which is considerably higher than the incidence reported in the population-based studies. However, these findings should be supported by larger studies.

Females are more likely to be affected by Cushing’s syndrome than males, with a risk ratio of approximately 3:1. There does not appear to be a genetic link that involves an ethnic susceptibility to the condition.

Treatment Outcomes

Surgery is the first-line treatment option for most cases of overt disease and remission is achieved in the majority of patients, approximately 65-85%. However, for up to 1 in 5 patients the condition recurs, and the risk does not appear to level off, even after 20 years of follow-up.

The risk of mortality for individuals with Cushing’s syndrome is estimated to be 2-3 times higher than that of the general population, based on epidemiological studies.

Reviewed by Dr Liji Thomas, MD.

From http://www.news-medical.net/health/Cushings-Syndrome-Epidemiology.aspx

Day 29, Cushing’s Awareness Challenge 2016

People sometimes ask me how I found out I had Cushing’s Disease.  Theoretically, it was easy.  In practice, it was very difficult.

Ladies Home Journal, 1983In 1983 I came across a little article in the Ladies Home Journal which said “If you have these symptoms…”

I found the row with my symptoms and the answer read “…ask your doctor about Cushing’s”.

After that article, I started reading everything I could on Cushing’s, I bought books that mentioned Cushing’s. I asked and asked my doctors for many years and all of them said that I couldn’t have it.  It was too rare.  I was rejected each time.

Due to all my reading at the library, I was sure I had Cushing’s but no one would believe me. My doctors would say that Cushing’s Disease is too rare, that I was making this up and that I couldn’t have it.

In med school, student doctors are told “When you hear hoofbeats, think horses, not zebras“.

According to Wikipedia: “Zebra is a medical slang term for a surprising diagnosis. Although rare diseases are, in general, surprising when they are encountered, other diseases can be surprising in a particular person and time, and so “zebra” is the broader concept.

The term derives from the aphorism “When you hear hoofbeats behind you, don’t expect to see a zebra”, which was coined in a slightly modified form in the late 1940s by Dr. Theodore Woodward, a former professor at the University of Maryland School of Medicine in Baltimore.  Since horses are the most commonly encountered hoofed animal and zebras are very rare, logically you could confidently guess that the animal making the hoofbeats is probably a horse. By 1960, the aphorism was widely known in medical circles.”

So, doctors typically go for the easily diagnosed, common diseases.  Just because something is rare doesn’t mean that no one gets it.  We shouldn’t be dismissed because we’re too hard to diagnose.

When I was finally diagnosed in 1987, 4 years later, it was only because I started bleeding under the skin. My husband made circles around the outside perimeter each hour with a marker so my leg looked like a cut log with rings.

When I went to my Internist the next day he was shocked at the size of the rings. He now thought I had a blood disorder so he sent me to a Hematologist/Oncologist.

Fortunately, that new doctor ran a twenty-four hour urine test and really looked at me and listened to me.  Both he and his partner recognized that I had Cushing’s but, of course, couldn’t do anything further with me.  They packed me off to an endo where the process started again.

My final diagnosis was in October, 1987.  Quite a long time to simply  “…ask your doctor about Cushing’s”.

Looking back, I can see Cushing’s symptoms much earlier than 1983.  But, that ‘s for a different post.

 

Straight Talk Cushing’s

awareness

 

On April 8th, people from around the world unite in support of Cushing’s Disease Awareness Day.

In this animated video, learn more about Cushing’s disease, including the mechanism of disease, clinical manifestations, symptoms and diagnosis challenges.

Day 2, Cushing’s Awareness Challenge 2016

The Seven Dwarves of Cushing's

So, these are only seven of the many, many symptoms of Cushing’s.  I had those above – and I often felt like I looked like one of those little bearded dwarves.

Cushing’s affects every part of the body.  It’s not like when I had kidney cancer and only the kidney was affected.

Here are some of the many areas affected.

  • Progressive obesity and skin changes
  • Weight gain and fatty tissue deposits, particularly around the midsection and upper back, in the face (moon face) and between the shoulders (buffalo hump). Some symptoms such as sudden weight gain, are caused by excess cortisol. The excess cortisol in the body does not increase protein and carbohydrate metabolism. It slows or nearly disables metabolism function, which can cause weight gain (fat accumulation) in the buttocks, abdomen, cheeks, neck, or upper back.
  • Loss of muscle mass. Some areas of the body, such as the arms and legs, will remain thin.
  • Pink or purple stretch marks (striae) on the skin of the abdomen, thighs, breasts and arms
  • Thinning, fragile skin that bruises easily
  • Slow healing of cuts, insect bites and infections
  • Acne

Women with Cushing’s syndrome may experience:

  • Thicker or more visible body and facial hair (hirsutism)
  • Irregular or absent menstrual periods

Men with Cushing’s syndrome may experience:

  • Decreased libido
  • Decreased fertility
  • Erectile dysfunction

Other signs and symptoms include:

  • Fatigue
  • Muscle weakness
  • Depression, anxiety and irritability
  • Loss of emotional control
  • Cognitive difficulties
  • New or worsened high blood pressure
  • Glucose intolerance that may lead to diabetes
  • Headache
  • Bone loss, leading to fractures over time
  • Hyperlipidemia (elevated lipids – cholesterol – in the blood stream)
  • Recurrent opportunistic or bacterial infections
Think you have Cushing’s?  Get to a doctor and don’t give up!

MaryO
         MaryO

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