Cushing’s Disease Treatment Market to Witness an Outstanding Growth by 2017 – 2025

Cushing disease is caused by tumour in the pituitary gland which leads to excessive secretion of a hormone called adrenocorticotrophic (ACTH), which in turn leads to increasing levels of cortisol in the body. Cortisol is a steroid hormone released by the adrenal glands and helps the body to deal with injury or infection. Increasing levels of cortisol increases the blood sugar and can even cause diabetes mellitus. However the disease is also caused due to excess production of hypothalamus corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) which stimulates the synthesis of cortisol by the adrenal glands.

The condition is named after Harvey Cushing, the doctor who first identified the disease in 1912. Cushing disease results in Cushing syndrome. Cushing syndrome is a group of signs and symptoms developed due to prolonged exposure to cortisol.

Signs and symptoms of Cushing syndrome includes hypertension, abdominal obesity, muscle weakness, headache, fragile skin, acne, thin arms and legs, red stretch marks on stomach, fluid retention or swelling, excess body and facial hair, weight gain, acne, buffalo hump, tiredness, fatigue, brittle bones, low back pain, moon shaped face etc.

Symptoms vary from individual to individual depending upon the disease duration, age and gender of the patient.  Disease diagnosis is done by measuring levels of cortisol in patient’s urine, saliva or blood. For confirming the diagnosis, a blood test for ACTH is performed. The first-line treatment of the disease is through surgical resection of ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma, however disease management is also done through medications, Cushing disease treatment market comprises of the drugs designed for lowering the level of cortisol in the body. Thus patients suffering from Cushing disease are prescribed medications such as ketoconazole, mitotane, aminoglutethimide metyrapone, mifepristone, etomidate and pasireotide.

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Cushing’s disease treatment market revenue is growing with a stable growth rate, this is attributed to increasing number of pipeline drugs. Also increasing interest of pharmaceutical companies to develop Cushing disease drugs is a major factor contributing to the revenue growth of Cushing disease treatment market over the forecast period. Current and emerging players’ focuses on physician education and awareness regarding availability of different drugs for curing Cushing disease, thus increasing the referral speeds, time to diagnosis and volume of diagnosed Cushing disease individuals. Growing healthcare expenditure and increasing awareness regarding Cushing syndrome aids in the revenue growth of Cushing’s disease treatment market. Increasing number of new product launches also drives the market for Cushing’s disease Treatment devices. However availability of alternative therapies for curing Cushing syndrome is expected to hamper the growth of the Cushing’s disease treatment market over the forecast period.

The Cushing’s disease Treatment market is segment based on the product type, technology type and end user

Cushing’s disease Treatment market is segmented into following types:

By Drug Type

  • Ketoconazole
  • Mitotane
  • Aminoglutethimide
  • Metyrapone
  • Mifepristone
  • Etomidate
  • Pasireotide

By End User

  • Hospital Pharmacies
  • Retail Pharmacies
  • Drug Stores
  • Clinics
  • e-Commerce/Online Pharmacies

Cushing’s disease treatment market revenue is expected to grow at a good growth rate, over the forecast period. The market is anticipated to perform well in the near future due to increasing awareness regarding the condition. Also the market is anticipated to grow with a fastest CAGR over the forecast period, attributed to increasing investment in R&D and increasing number of new product launches which is estimated to drive the revenue growth of Cushing’s disease treatment market over the forecast period.

Depending on geographic region, the Cushing’s disease treatment market is segmented into five key regions: North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific (APAC) and Middle East & Africa (MEA).

North America is occupying the largest regional market share in the global Cushing’s disease treatment market owing to the presence of more number of market players, high awareness levels regarding Cushing syndrome. Healthcare expenditure and relatively larger number of R&D exercises pertaining to drug manufacturing and marketing activities in the region. Also Europe is expected to perform well in the near future due to increasing prevalence of the condition in the region.

Asia Pacific is expected to grow at the fastest CAGR because of increase in the number of people showing the symptoms of Cushing syndrome, thus boosting the market growth of Cushing’s disease treatment market throughout the forecast period.

Some players of Cushing’s disease Treatment market includes CORCEPT THERAPEUTICS, HRA Pharma, Strongbridge Biopharma plc, Novartis AG, etc. However there are numerous companies producing branded generics for Cushing disease. The companies in Cushing’s disease treatment market are increasingly engaged in strategic partnerships, collaborations and promotional activities to capture a greater pie of market share.

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Diagnosis and Treatment of Pituitary Adenomas

A Review
JAMA. 2017;317(5):516-524. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.19699

Importance  Pituitary adenomas may hypersecrete hormones or cause mass effects. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment are important.

Observations  Prevalence of pituitary adenomas ranges from 1 in 865 adults to 1 in 2688 adults. Approximately 50% are microadenomas (<10 mm); the remainder are macroadenomas (≥10 mm).

Mass effects cause headache, hypopituitarism, and visual field defects. Treatments include transsphenoidal surgery, medical therapies, and radiotherapy. Prolactinomas account for 32% to 66% of adenomas and present with amenorrhea, loss of libido, galactorrhea, and infertility in women and loss of libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility in men; they are generally treated with the dopamine agonists cabergoline and bromocriptine.

Growth hormone–secreting tumors account for 8% to 16% of tumors and usually present with enlargement of the lips, tongue, nose, hands, and feet and are diagnosed by elevated insulin-like growth factor 1 levels and growth hormone levels; initial treatment is surgical. Medical therapy with somatostatin analogues, cabergoline, and pegvisomant is often also needed.

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)–secreting tumors account for 2% to 6% of adenomas and are associated with obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and other morbidity. Measurement of a late-night salivary cortisol level is the best screening test but petrosal sinus sampling for ACTH may be necessary to distinguish a pituitary from an ectopic source.

The primary treatment of Cushing disease (hypercortisolism due to ACTH-producing adenomas, which is the cause in approximately 65% of the cases of hypercortisolism) is adenoma resection and medical therapies including ketoconazole, mifepristone, and pasireotide.

Hyperthyroidism due to thyroid-stimulating hormone–secreting tumors accounts for 1% of tumors and is treated with surgery and somatostatin analogues if not surgically cured. Clinically nonfunctioning adenomas account for 15% to 54% of adenomas and present with mass effects; surgery is generally required, although incidentally found tumors can be followed if they are asymptomatic.

Conclusions and Relevance  Patients with pituitary adenomas should be identified at an early stage so that effective treatment can be implemented. For prolactinomas, initial therapy is generally dopamine agonists. For all other pituitary adenomas, initial therapy is generally transsphenoidal surgery with medical therapy being reserved for those not cured by surgery.

Read the full text here: http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/2600472

Medical Therapies in Cushing’s Syndrome

Chapter

The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis in Health and Disease

pp 165-179

Date: 03 December 2016

Medical Therapies in Cushing’s Syndrome

Abstract

Medical therapy has an important, albeit secondary, role in patients with Cushing’s syndrome. While medications are not currently used as definitive therapy of this condition, they can be very effective in controlling hypercortisolism in patients who fail surgery, those who are not surgical candidates, or those whose tumor location is unknown. Medical therapies can be particularly helpful to control hypercortisolism in patients with Cushing’s disease who underwent radiation therapy and are awaiting its salutary effects.

Currently available treatment options include several steroidogenesis inhibitors (ketoconazole, metyrapone, mitotane, etomidate), which block one or several steps in cortisol synthesis in the adrenal glands, centrally acting agents (cabergoline, pasireotide), which decrease ACTH secretion, and glucocorticoid receptor antagonists, which are represented by a single agent (mifepristone). With the exception of pasireotide and mifepristone, available agents are used “off-label” to manage hypercortisolism. Several other medications are at various stages of development and may offer additional options for the management of this serious condition.

As more potential molecular targets become known and our understanding of the pathogenesis of Cushing’s syndrome improves, it is anticipated that novel, rationally designed medical therapies may emerge. Clinical trials are needed to further investigate the relative risks and benefits of currently available and novel medical therapies and examine the potential role of combination therapy in the management of Cushing’s syndrome.

Keywords

Cabergoline, Etomidate, Ketoconazole, Levoketoconazole, Metyrapone, Mifepristone, Mitotane, Osilodrostat, Pasireotide, Pituitary adenoma

Experimental Drug Improves Cushing’s Disease

International phase 3 trial is largest study ever of rare endocrine disorder

A new investigational drug significantly reduced urinary cortisol levels and improved symptoms of Cushing’s disease in the largest clinical study of this endocrine disorder ever conducted.

Results of the clinical trial conducted at centers on four continents appear in the March 8 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine and show that treatment with pasireotide cut cortisol secretion an average of 50 percent and returned some patients’ levels to normal.

“Cushing’s disease is a rare disorder, with three to five cases per million people. It can affect all ages and both genders but is most common in otherwise healthy young women,” says Harvard Medical School Professor of Medicine Beverly M.K. Biller of the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Neuroendocrine Unit, senior author of the study.

“Often misdiagnosed, Cushing’s is associated with a broad range of health problems – causing physical changes, metabolic abnormalities, and emotional difficulties – and if not controlled, significantly increases patients’ risk of dying much younger than expected,” Biller says.

Cushing’s disease, one of several conditions that lead to Cushing’s syndrome, is characterized by chronically elevated secretion of the hormone cortisol. The disease is caused by a benign pituitary tumor that oversecretes the hormone ACTH, which in turn induces increased cortisol secretion by the adrenal glands.

Symptoms of Cushing’s syndrome include weight gain, hypertension, mood swings, irregular or absent periods, abnormalities of glucose processing (insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and type 2 diabetes), and cardiovascular disease. Because those symptoms are associated with many health problems, physicians may not consider the rare possibility of Cushing’s. The diagnosis can be difficult to make and usually requires the expertise of an endocrinologist. Because cortisol levels normally fluctuate during the day, a single blood test is unlikely to identify chronic elevation, and thus the most common diagnostic test measures a patient’s 24-hour urinary output.

First-line treatment for Cushing’s disease is surgical removal of the ACTH-secreting tumor, which leads to remission in 65 to 90 percent of patients. But symptoms return in 10 to 30 percent of those patients, requiring repeat surgery, radiation therapy, or treatment with drugs that interfere with part of the cortisol control system. Until last month, there was no specific FDA-approved medical treatment for Cushing’s syndrome; the newly approved drug mifepristone should benefit some patients, but it does not affect the pituitary source of the condition or reduce cortisol levels.

The current phase 3 trial of pasireotide — the first drug that blocks ACTH secretion by binding to somatostatin receptors on the pituitary tumor — was sponsored by Novartis Pharma. The trial enrolled 162 patients at 62 sites in 18 countries. Nearly 85 percent of participants had either persistent disease that had not responded to surgery or had recurrent disease; the other 15 percent were recently diagnosed but not appropriate candidates for surgery.

Participants were randomly assigned to two groups, one starting at two daily 600-microgram injections of pasireotide and the other receiving 900-microgram doses. Three months into the 12-month trial, participants whose urinary cortisol levels remained more than twice the normal range had their dosage levels increased. During the rest of the trial, dosage could be further increased, if necessary, or reduced if side effects occurred.

At the end of the study period, many patients had a significant decrease in their urinary cortisol levels, with 33 achieving levels within normal range at their original dosage by month six of the trial. Participants whose baseline levels were less than five times the upper limit of normal were more likely to achieve normal levels than those with higher baseline levels, and the average urinary cortisol decrease across all participants was approximately 50 percent. Many Cushing’s disease symptoms decreased, and it became apparent within the first two months whether or not an individual was going to respond to pasireotide.

Transient gastrointestinal discomfort, known to be associated with medications in the same family as pasireotide, was an expected side effect. Another side effect was elevated glucose levels in 73 percent of participants, something not seen to the same extent with other medications in this family. These elevated levels will require close attention, because many Cushing’s patients already have trouble metabolizing glucose. Biller explains, “Those patients who already were diabetic had the greatest increases in blood sugar, and those who were pre-diabetic were more likely to become diabetic than those who began with normal blood sugar. However, elevations were even seen in those who started at normal glucose levels, so this is real and needs to be monitored carefully.”

Additional trials of pasireotide are in the works, and a phase 3 study of a long-acting version of the drug was recently announced. Biller notes that the potential addition of pasireotide to available medical treatments for Cushing’s disease would have a number of advantages. “It’s very important to have medications that work at different parts of the cortisol control system – which is the case for the currently used medications that work at the adrenal gland level; pasireotide, which works at the pituitary gland; and mifepristone, which blocks the action of cortisol at receptors in the body. Having more options that work in different ways is valuable because not all patients respond to one medicine and some may be unable to tolerate a specific drug’s side effects.

“As we have more drugs available to treat Cushing’s,” Biller adds, “I think in the long run we may start using combinations of drugs, which is the approach we use in some patients with acromegaly, another disorder in which a pituitary tumor causes excess hormone secretion. Ultimately, we hope to be able to give lower doses leading to fewer overall side effects, but that remains to be determined by future studies.”

Annamaria Colao, University of Naples, Italy, is the lead author of the report. Additional co-authors are Stephan Petersenn, University of Duisberg-Essen, Germany; John Newell-Price, University of Sheffield, U.K.; James Findling, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee; Feng Gu, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing; Mario Maldonado, Ulrike Schoenherr, and David Mills, Novartis Pharma; and Luiz Roberto Salgado, University of São Paulo Medical School, Brazil.

From http://dailyrecords.us/experimental-drug-improves-cushings-disease/

A Single-Center 10-Year Experience with Pasireotide in Cushing’s Disease: Patients’ Characteristics and Outcome

Pasireotide is the first pituitary-directed drug approved for treating patients with Cushing’s disease (CD). Our 10-year experience with pasireotide in CD is reported here.

Twenty patients with de novo, persistent, or recurrent CD after pituitary surgery were treated with pasireotide from December 2003 to December 2014. Twelve patients were treated with pasireotide in randomized trials and 8 patients with pasireotide sc (Signifor®; Novartis AG, Basel, Switzerland) in clinical practice. The mean treatment duration was 20.5 months (median 9 months; range, 3-72 months).

Urinary free cortisol (UFC) levels mean percentage change (± SD) at last follow-up was-40.4% (± 35.1; range, 2-92%; median reduction 33.3%) with a normalization rate of 50% (10/20). Ten patients achieved sustained normalized late night salivary cortisol (LNSC) levels during treatment. LNSC normalization was associated with UFC normalization in 7/10 patients. Serum cortisol and plasma ACTH significantly decreased from baseline to last follow-up. Body weight decrease and blood pressure improvement during pasireotide treatment were independent from UFC response. Glucose profile worsening was observed in all patients except one. The frequency of diabetes mellitus increased from 40% (8/20) at baseline to 85% (17/20) at last follow-up requiring initiation of medical treatment only in 44% of patients.

Pasireotide treatment was associated with sustained biochemical and clinical benefit in about 60% of CD patients. Glucose profile alteration is a frequent complication of pasireotide treatment; however, it seems to be easy to manage with diet and lifestyle intervention in almost half of the patients.

From http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27127913

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