Temozolomide Effective Against Cushing’s Caused by Aggressive Tumors

The oral chemotherapy temozolomide might be an effective treatment for Cushing’s disease caused by aggressive tumors in the pituitary gland that continue to grow after surgery and taking other medications, a case report suggests.

The study, “Successful reduction of ACTH secretion in a case of intractable Cushing’s disease with pituitary Crooke’s cell adenoma by combined modality therapy including temozolomide,” was published in the journal J-Stage.

Cushing’s disease is often caused by a tumor in the pituitary gland that secretes high levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), leading to high levels of cortisol and other symptoms.

Macroadenomas are aggressive, fast-growing tumors that reach sizes larger than 10 millimeters. Crooke’s cell adenoma is a type of macroadenoma that does not respond to conventional therapies, but has deficient mechanisms of DNA repair. That is why chemotherapeutic agents that damage the DNA, such as temozolomide, might be potential treatments.

Researchers in Japan reported the case of a 56-year-old woman with Cushing’s disease caused by a Crooke’s cell adenoma in the pituitary gland who responded positively to temozolomide.

The patient was diagnosed with Cushing’s disease at age 39 when she went to the hospital complaining of continuous weight gain. She also had excessive production of urine and a loss of vision in the right eye.

The lab tests showed high levels of cortisol and ACTH, and the MRI detected a tumor of 4.5 centimeters in the pituitary gland. The doctors removed a part of the tumor surgically, which initially reduced the levels of ACTH and cortisol.

However, the hormone levels and the size of the residual tumor started to increase gradually after the surgery, despite treatment with several medications.

By the time the patient was 56 years old, she went to the hospital complaining of general fatigue, leg edema (swelling from fluid), high blood pressure, and central obesity (belly fat).

Further examination showed a 5.7 cm tumor, identified as a Crooke’s cell macroadenoma. The patient underwent a second surgery to remove as much tumor as possible, but the levels of ACTH remained high. She took temozolomide for nine months, which normalized the levels of ACTH and cortisol. After the treatment, the patient no longer had high blood pressure or leg edema.

The tumor shrunk considerably in the year following temozolomide treatment. The patient started radiation therapy to control tumor growth. The levels of cortisol and ACHT remained normal, and the tumor did not grow in the seven years following temozolomide treatment.

“These clinical findings suggest that [temozolomide] treatment to patients with Crooke’s cell adenoma accompanied with elevated ACTH may be a good indication to induce lowering ACTH levels and tumor shrinkage,” researchers wrote.

Other cases of Cushing’s disease caused by aggressive macroadenomas showed positive results, such as reduction of tumor size and decrease in plasma ACTH, after temozolomide treatment. However, more studies are needed to establish the ideal course of chemotherapy to treat these tumors, the researchers noted.

From https://cushingsdiseasenews.com/2019/06/18/temozolomide-effective-cushings-disease-aggressive-tumors-case-report/

Surgical Removal of Pituitary Adenomas Through the Nose Remains an Effective Treatment for Pediatric Patients

Removal of pituitary adenomas by inserting surgical instruments through the nose (transsphenoidal resection) remains the best treatment option for pediatric patients, despite its inherent technical difficulties, a new study shows.

The study, “Transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenomas in pediatric patients: a multicentric retrospective study,” was published in the journal Child’s Nervous System.

Pituitary adenomas are rare, benign tumors that slowly grow in the pituitary gland. The incidence of such tumors in the pediatric population is reported to be between 1% and 10% of all childhood brain tumors and between 3% and 6% of all surgically treated adenomas.

Characteristics of patients that develop these pituitary adenomas vary significantly in different studies with regards to their age, gender, size of adenoma, hormonal activity, and recurrence rates.

As the pituitary gland is responsible for hormonal balance, alterations in hormone function due to a pituitary adenoma can significantly affect the quality of life of a child. In most cases, pituitary adenomas can be removed surgically. A common removal method is with a transsphenoidal resection, the goal of which is to completely remove the growing mass and cause the least harm to the surrounding structures.

In this study, the researchers report the surgical treatment of pediatric pituitary adenomas at three institutions. They collected data from 27 children who were operated for pituitary adenoma using one of two types of transsphenoidal surgeries — endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery (EETS) and transsphenoidal microsurgery (TMS) — at the University Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty in Istanbul, Turkey, at San Matteo Hospital in Pavia, and at the University of Insubria-Varese in Varese, Italy.

The study included 11 males (40.7%) and 16 females (59.3%), with a mean age of 15.3 (ranging between 4 and 18). Medical records indicated that 32 surgical procedures were performed in the 27 patients, as six children required a second operation. Among the patients, 13 had Cushing’s disease, while the rest had growth-hormone-secreting adenomas, prolactinomas, or non-functional adenomas.

The researchers found that most patients underwent remission following their surgery. Among the 27 patients, 22 patients (81.4%) underwent remission while five patients (18.5%) did not. Four patients underwent remission after a second operation.

Based on these findings, the team believes that the transsphenoidal surgical approach adequately removes pituitary tumors and restores normal hormonal balance in the majority of pediatric patients with pituitary adenomas.

“Satisfactory results are reported with both EETS and TMS in the literature,” they wrote. “Despite the technical difficulties in pediatric age, transsphenoidal resection of adenoma is still the mainstay treatment that provides cure in pediatric patients.”

From https://cushingsdiseasenews.com/2019/05/30/transsphenoidal-surgery-effective-remove-pituitaty-adenomas-children-study/

Transsphenoidal Surgery Recommended for Cushing Disease With Inconclusive or Normal MRI

In patients with a diagnosis of Cushing disease in whom magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows either no abnormalities or nonspecific abnormalities, surgery is preferable to medical treatment, according to study results published in The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.

There is a consensus that the first line of treatment for Cushing disease is transsphenoidal surgery to remove the pituitary adenoma causing the disease, with an 80% remission rate following the intervention. However, in the absence of clear evidence of a pituitary adenoma on imaging, there is some controversy regarding the best treatment.

The goal of this retrospective single-center study was to assess the outcomes of surgery in patients with Cushing disease with clear evidence of a pituitary adenoma on MRI compared with outcomes in patients with inconclusive or normal MRI.

The cohort included 195 patients treated with transsphenoidal surgery between 1992 and 2018 (156 women; mean age at surgery, 41 years) classified into 4 MRI groups: 89 patients were found to have microadenoma, 18 had macroadenoma, 44 had nonspecific/inconclusive abnormalities on MRI results, and 44 had normal imaging results.

The researchers reported that MRI performance in their neuroradiology department improved with time; the proportion of inconclusive or normal MRI results decreased from 60% in 1992 to 1996 to 27% in 2012 to 2018 (P =.037).

In analyzing the influence of MRI findings on remission rates, the researchers found no significant difference among the 4 groups: remission rate was 85% for microadenomas, 94% for macroadenomas, 73% for inconclusive MRI, and 75% for negative MRI (P =.11). This finding indicates the overall percentage of patients in remission after transsphenoidal surgery is only slightly lower in those with normal or inconclusive MRI results compared with patients with clear evidence of microadenoma or macroadenoma.

There was no difference in remission rate after a microscopic vs endoscopic surgical approach (P =.16). The researchers found that endoscopic-assisted surgery allowed a higher visualization rate than microscopic-assisted surgery. Although the neurosurgeon had a better visualization rate than MRI (100% vs 72%, respectively), there were some false-positive findings; thus, positive predictive value was similar (84% vs 78%, respectively).

The study had several limitations including the retrospective design. In addition, in light of the long study duration, the researchers noted that changes in MRI technology and surgical procedures occurred over time.

The researchers proposed that after exclusion of nonneoplastic hypercortisolism, patients with Cushing disease, an inconclusive or normal MRI, and a pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone gradient at bilateral inferior petrosal sampling be directed to an expert neurosurgeon for transsphenoidal surgery rather than treated medically.

 

Reference

Cristante J, Lefournier V, Sturm N, et al. Why we should still treat by neurosurgery patients with Cushing’s disease and a normal or inconclusive pituitary MRI [published online May 14, 2019]. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. doi:10.1210/jc.2019-00333

From https://www.endocrinologyadvisor.com/home/topics/adrenal/transsphenoidal-surgery-recommended-for-cushing-disease-with-inconclusive-or-normal-mri/

Sosei Heptares Starts New Clinical Development Program

TOKYO and LONDONFeb. 20, 2019 /PRNewswire/ — Sosei Group Corporation (“the Company”; TSE: 4565), announces that the first healthy subject has been dosed with a novel small molecule HTL0030310 in a Phase I clinical study, marking the start of a new in-house clinical program targeting endocrine disorders, including Cushing’s disease.

HTL0030310 is a potent and selective agonist of the SSTR5 (somatostatin 5) receptor and the sixth molecule designed by the Company using its GPCR Structure-Based Drug Design (SBDD) platform to enter clinical development.

HTL0030310 has been designed to modulate the excess release of hormones from adenomas (benign tumors) of the pituitary gland. Highly elevated plasma levels of pituitary hormones result in a number of serious endocrine disorders, including Cushing’s Disease. Cushing’s disease is characterized by excessive cortisol release, crucial in regulating metabolism, maintaining cardiovascular function and helping the body respond to stress.

A key design feature of HTL0030310 is its significant selectivity for SSTR5 over SSTR2. This selectivity is expected to improve the balance of efficacy vs. dose-limiting side effects and therefore, presents an opportunity to develop a best-in-class medicine for patients with Cushing’s disease, in particular.

The clinical trial with HTL0030310 is a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled first-in-human study in which single ascending subcutaneous doses of HTL0030310 will be administered to healthy male and female adult subjects. The study is being conducted in the UK and will assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of HTL0030310 in up to 64 subjects. Preliminary results are expected in the second half of 2019 and will provide a first insight into the effects of HTL0030310 on the control of glucose and other endocrine hormones and the potential to target Cushing’s disease and other endocrine disorders.

Dr. Malcolm Weir, Executive VP and Chief R&D Officer, said: “HTL0030310 is a novel and highly selective molecule, and is the sixth candidate originating from our SBDD platform to advance into human trials. We are not only pleased to begin this new study but also delighted with the productivity of our unique platform to generate attractive candidates targeting GPCRs involved in multiple diseases. These candidates present new prospects for our emerging proprietary pipeline, as well as unique opportunities for partnering, and provide a solid foundation to execute our strategy.”

About Cushing’s disease

Cushing’s disease is a debilitating endocrine disorder caused by the overproduction of the hormone cortisol and is often triggered by a pituitary adenoma (benign tumour) secreting excess adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Cortisol has a crucial role regulating metabolism, maintaining cardiovascular function and helping the body respond to stress. Symptoms may include weight gain, central obesity, a round, red full face, severe fatigue and weakness, striae (purple stretch marks), high blood pressure, depression and anxiety. Cushing’s disease affects 10-15 million people per year, most commonly adults between 20 to 50 years and women more often than men. The first line and most common treatment approach for Cushing’s disease is surgical removal of the pituitary tumor followed by radiotherapy and drug therapy designed to reduce cortisol production.

Ref: American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS) 

About Sosei Heptares

We are an international biopharmaceutical group focused on the design and development of new medicines originating from its proprietary GPCR-targeted StaR® technology and structure-based drug design platform capabilities. The Company is advancing a broad and deep pipeline of partnered and wholly owned product candidates in multiple therapeutic areas, including CNS, immuno-oncology, gastroenterology, inflammation and other rare/specialty indications. Its leading clinical programs include partnered candidates aimed at the symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (with Allergan) and next generation immuno-oncology approaches to treat cancer (with AstraZeneca). Our additional partners and collaborators include Novartis, Pfizer, Daiichi-Sankyo, PeptiDream, Kymab and MorphoSys. The Company is headquartered in Tokyo, Japan with R&D facilities in Cambridge, UK and Zurich, Switzerland.

“Sosei Heptares” is the corporate brand of Sosei Group Corporation, which is listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange (ticker: 4565).

For more information, please visit https://www.soseiheptares.com/

LinkedIn: @soseiheptaresco | Twitter: @soseiheptaresco | YouTube: @soseiheptaresco

Forward-looking statements

This press release contains forward-looking statements, including statements about the discovery, development and commercialization of products. Various risks may cause Sosei Group Corporation’s actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements, including: adverse results in clinical development programs; failure to obtain patent protection for inventions; commercial limitations imposed by patents owned or controlled by third parties; dependence upon strategic alliance partners to develop and commercialize products and services; difficulties or delays in obtaining regulatory approvals to market products and services resulting from development efforts; the requirement for substantial funding to conduct research and development and to expand commercialization activities; and product initiatives by competitors. As a result of these factors, prospective investors are cautioned not to rely on any forward-looking statements. We disclaim any intention or obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

View original content:https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/sosei-heptares-starts-new-clinical-development-program-300798591.html

SOURCE Sosei Heptares

Detailed MRI Analysis Provides Correlations with Clinical Features and Response to Treatment in Cushing’s Disease

Detailed imaging analysis of patients with Cushing’s disease (CD) and other disorders caused by pituitary adenomas (tumors that arise from the pituitary, a small gland in the brain) provides correlation with clinical characteristics and treatment response, a new Turkish study reports.

The research, “Clinicopathological significance of baseline T2-weighted signal intensity in functional pituitary adenomas,” appeared in the journal Pituitary.

Diagnosis of pituitary adenomas is often done with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which provides data on the tumor’s localization, its invasiveness, as well as cell death and other changes. However, MRI does not enable precise evaluation of the tumor’s hormone production and behavior.

Studies on T2-weighted signal intensity (T2-WSI) — one of the basic parameters in MRI scans that highlights fat and water in the body — shows that it correlates with collagen content, degree of fibrosis (scarring), amyloid protein accumulation, and granulation pattern of somatotroph adenomas, which produce excessive levels of growth hormone, causing acromegaly (a hormonal disorder that results from too much growth hormone in the body).

Evaluation of granulation patterns is key in predicting response to somatostatin analogues (SSAs) treatment, the researchers observed. SSAs are intended to stop excess hormone production.

In contrast, analysis of T2-WSI in corticotroph adenomas — benign tumors typical in Cushing’s disease patients that release elevated levels of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) – is still lacking.

The research team assessed the correlation of T2-WSI with clinical features, granulation patterns, and response to treatment in patients with functional pituitary adenomas (FPAs), which are collectively characterized by excessive production of one or more hormones.

Specifically, scientists focused on 29 patients with Cushing’s disease, 87 with acromegaly, and 78 with prolactinoma, a type of benign pituitary tumor that produces elevated amounts of prolactin.

Results showed that while most somatotroph adenomas (53%) were hypointense, which means a darker image on MRI, the majority of prolactinomas (55%) and corticotroph adenomas (45%) were at least generally hyperintense, meaning lighter on image.

Data also revealed that hyperintense somatotroph adenomas were larger, sparsely granulated, and exhibited reduced shrinkage after treatment with SSAs.

In contrast, hypointense tumors were associated with higher levels of baseline insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1% ULN, a predictor of insulin sensitivity, and a better response to SSAs.

In women with prolactinomas, hyperintensity correlated with smaller tumor diameter. In turn, hypointense prolactinomas were linked with younger age at diagnosis, higher baseline prolactin levels, and resistance to treatment with a dopamine agonist.

Scientists also found that hyperintense corticotroph adenomas correlated with larger tumor size and a sparsely granulated pattern. No difference was found between hyper and hypointense adenomas on cortisol and ACTH levels.

Investigators also reported that T2-WSI was not correlated with better surgical outcomes or with recurrent Cushing’s disease. Analysis of tumor shrinkage in these patients was not possible, the researchers noted.

“Although in present there is no immediate clinical application, we believe that if medical shrinkage of corticotrophs ever became a part of clinical practice, similar analyses could be performed in the future,” the researchers wrote.

“Further studies with larger series are required in order to make stronger suggestions,” they added.

From https://cushingsdiseasenews.com/2018/03/23/detailed-mri-analysis-correlates-with-cushings-disease-clinical-features/

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