Transsphenoidal Surgery Is Safe and Effective Treatment for Cushing’s Disease

Transsphenoidal surgery, a minimally invasive surgery to remove tumors in the pituitary gland, is safe and effective to treat Cushing’s disease, a 20-year history of cases in a Belgian hospital shows.

The surgery resulted in high remission rates (83%) in patients. It was also found to be safe, rarely leading to insufficient functioning of the pituitary gland.

The study, “Outcome of transsphenoidal surgery for Cushing’s Disease: a single-center experience over 20 years,” was published in the journal World Neurosurgery.

Surgical removal of tumors in the pituitary gland of the brain remains the gold standard for Cushing’s disease treatment.

Transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) usually leads to good remission rates ranging from 68-95%, depending on the location and type of tumor, the neurosurgeon’s expertise, follow-up period, and the definition of remission.

Today, TSS consists of surgery directed through the nose to get to the bottom of the skull, where the pituitary gland is located. The tumor is reached via the nasal cavity with no need for incisions on the face.

To address the safety and effectiveness of this type of surgery for treating Cushing’s, researchers retrospectively reviewed the outcome of 71 patients who received their first TSS at Saint-Luc Hospital, Belgium, between 1996 and 2017. Patients were followed for an average of 6.8 years (82 months).

Surgeons used a type of TSS that is image-guided with the help of a microscope which magnifies the surgeon’s vision.

Remission was defined as normal fasting cortisol level, normal 24-hour urinary-free cortisol, or prolonged need for hydrocortisone replacement for one year after surgery.

Replacement therapies are sometimes needed when the pituitary is not producing enough cortisol after surgery.

Patients were mostly women, ages 15 to 84. Some of them, 32%, required multiple surgeries.

In total, 46 patients out of 71 were in remission after the first surgery, 11 after the second surgery, one after the third, and one after the fourth intervention.

A successful first surgery, resulting in a one-year remission, was a positive indicator for patients, as it was associated with high final remission rates (95%).

However, if the first surgery failed, only 36% of patients achieved a final remission.

“Obtaining a lasting remission after a first TSS could be an interesting parameter to influence future therapeutic decisions [like] performing repeated surgery rather than choosing second-line therapies,” researchers wrote.

Overall, remission was achieved in 83% of patients who underwent a single or multiple TSS intervention, a recurrence rate comparable to previous reports.

Surgery was particularly successful for curing patients with macroadenomas — tumors larger than 10 mm — leading to a 92% remission rate.

Small tumors that were not visible on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were more difficult to treat, with only 71% of patients being cured. Still, such a remission rate was better than what is commonly reported for MRI-negative tumors. This is likely explained by a higher level of expertise by the surgeon.

Levels of cortisol one day after TSS were significantly lower in patients with long-term remission. However, high levels were still observed in a few patients, especially those who had Cushing’s disease for many years.

“Therefore, high cortisol levels in the postoperative early days do not always indicate persistent disease and later [cortisol] evaluation is warranted,” the researchers wrote.

Most complications from surgery were minor and transient, except for seven patients who developed diabetes. Only 8.8% of patients developed long-term failure of the pituitary gland, likely because physicians favored a less aggressive intervention plan to leave the pituitary gland as intact as possible.

However, such an approach may also explain why some patients had to undergo multiple surgeries to completely remove the tumor.

In addition, a longer duration of Cushing’s disease symptoms and higher cortisol levels before surgery could significantly predict a poorer likelihood of being cured by TSS.

“Neuronavigation-guided microscopic TSS is a safe and effective primary treatment for [Cushing’s disease], allowing high remission rates,” the researchers wrote.

From https://cushingsdiseasenews.com/2018/07/26/transsphenoidal-surgery-safe-effective-treatment-cushings-disease/

Medical therapy ‘reasonable option’ vs. surgery in Cushing’s disease

In a large percentage of patients with Cushing’s disease, medical therapy effectively induces cortisol normalization, suggesting the choice may serve as a useful first-line treatment vs. surgery for some, according to findings from a systematic review and meta-analysis published in Pituitary.

Cushing’s syndrome is generally approached by removal of the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-producing tumor in ectopic disease and by adrenalectomy in ACTH-independent disease, Leonie H. A. Broersen, MD, of the department of medicine at Leiden University Medical Centre in Leiden, Netherlands, wrote in the study background. However, medical therapy can be used to control cortisol secretion preoperatively and as a “bridge” until control of hypercortisolism is achieved by radiotherapy, whereas use of medical therapy as a first-line treatment is increasing, they noted.

“Medical treatment is a reasonable treatment option for Cushing’s disease patients in case of a contraindication for surgery, a recurrence, or in patients choosing not to have surgery,” Broersen told Endocrine Today. “In case of side effects or no treatment effect, an alternate medical therapy or combination therapy can be considered.”

Broersen and colleagues analyzed data from 35 studies with 1,520 patients reporting on six medical therapies for Cushing’s disease, including studies assessing pasireotide (n = 2; Signifor LAR, Novartis), mitotane (n = 5; Lysodren, Bristol-Myers Squibb), cabergoline (n = 3), ketoconazole (n = 8), metyrapone (n = 5; Metopirone, HRA Pharma), mifepristone (n = 2; Korlym, Corcept Therapeutics) and multiple medical agents (n = 10), all published between 1971 and 2017. Studies included 11 single-arm trials, two randomized controlled trials with two treatment arms, and 22 cohort studies. In 28 studies, normalization of cortisol was measured by urinary free cortisol, midnight salivary cortisol or a low-dose dexamethasone test, with 25 studies reporting on clinical improvement and three studies reporting on quality of life.

Across studies, medical treatment was effective in normalizing cortisol levels in Cushing’s disease in 35.7% (cabergoline) to 81.8% (mitotane) of patients, according to the researchers. In seven studies reporting data separately for medical therapy as primary (n = 4) or secondary therapy (n = 5), researchers found medication as primary therapy normalized cortisol levels in 58.1% of patients (95% CI, 49.7-66.2), similar to the effect of medication as a secondary therapy (57.8%; 95% CI, 41.3-73.6). In studies in which at least 80% of patients with Cushing’s disease were pretreated with medication before surgery, researchers observed a preoperative normalization of cortisol levels in 32.3% of patients (95% CI, 20-45.8). Patients using medical monotherapy experienced a lower percentage of cortisol normalization vs. patients using multiple agents (49.4% vs. 65.7%), according to researchers, with normalization rates higher among patients with concurrent or previous radiotherapy.

Across studies, 39.9% of patients experienced mild adverse effects, and 15.2% experienced severe adverse effects.

“Importantly, medical agents for hypercortisolism can cause severe side effects, leading to therapy adjustment or withdrawal in 4.8% (cabergoline) to 28.4% (mitotane) of patients,” the researchers wrote. “These results suggest that medical therapy can be considered a reasonable treatment alternative to the first-choice surgical treatment when regarding treatment effectiveness and side effects.” – by Regina Schaffer

For more information: Leonie H. A. Broersen, MD, can be reached at l.h.aA.broersen@lumc.nl.

Disclosure: The authors report no relevant financial disclosures.

From https://www.healio.com/endocrinology/neuroendocrinology/news/in-the-journals/%7B294187ce-3f5e-4d3f-b02e-5023515c3b0b%7D/medical-therapy-reasonable-option-vs-surgery-in-cushings-disease

Fluorescent Metabolite Might Help Surgeons Remove Pituitary Tumors

The resection of microadenomas — small, benign tumors in the pituitary gland underlying Cushing’s disease — could be aided by a fluorescent marker that is naturally produced by the tumor, a new study shows.

The findings were presented recently at the 2018 George Washington Research Days in a poster titled, “Enhanced 5-ALA Induced Fluorescence in Hormone Secreting Pituitary Adenomas.

Cushing’s disease is characterized by high cortisol levels that cause debilitating physical, mental, and hormonal symptoms. The excess cortisol is caused by tiny benign tumors in the pituitary gland, called microadenomas, with a size of less than 10 millimeters.

On account of their small size, these microadenomas pose imaging challenges to physicians. Up to 40 percent of microadenomas remain undetected in the gold-standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Pituitary adenomas, however, have a characteristic that distinguishes them from the surrounding healthy tissue. They process (metabolize) a natural haemoglobin metabolite, called 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), into protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) at much higher rates — up to 20 to 50 times higher — than normal tissues.

Importantly, PpIX emits red fluorescence when excited with blue light.

This means that exogenous 5-ALA is taken up by the adenoma cells and rapidly metabolized into the fluorescent metabolite, PpIX, which may establish its use for fluorescence-guided resection of pituitary adenomas.

To test this, researchers incubated human-derived corticotropinoma, as well as the adjacent normal gland cells with 5-ALA. They did the same with mouse model normal pituitary cells and a mouse model pituitary tumor cell line, called AtT20.

They then analyzed the cells’ fluorescence profile by microscopy and with a technique called flow cytometry.

The analysis showed that compared to normal pituitary tissue, human-derived adenomatous cells had a significant increase of tenfold in 5-ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence intensity.

Similarly, mouse pituitary tumor cells (AtT20 cell line) fluoresced seven times more intensely than normal murine pituitary tissue.

The microscopy analysis revealed that the 5-ALA localized in subcellular organelles called mitochondria.

On June 6, 2017, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved the use of 5-ALA (under the brand name Gleolan) as an optical imaging agent for patients with gliomas (brain tumors), as an add-on compound to assist surgeons in identifying the malignant tissue during surgery.

Now, these findings suggest that 5-ALA also may be used for fluorescence-guided surgery of microadenomas in Cushing’s disease.

“The supraphysiological levels of glucocorticoids, as seen in CD [Cushing’s disease], may enhance the 5-ALA fluorescence in corticotropinomas,” researchers wrote.

From https://cushingsdiseasenews.com/2018/04/13/fluorescent-metabolite-might-help-surgeons-removepituitary-tumors/

Cushing’s Patients at Risk for Autoimmune Diseases After Condition Is Resolved

Children with Cushing’s syndrome are at risk of developing new autoimmune and related disorders after being cured of the disease, a new study shows.

The study, “Incidence of Autoimmune and Related Disorders After Resolution of Endogenous Cushing Syndrome in Children,” was published in Hormone and Metabolic Research.

Patients with Cushing’s syndrome have excess levels of the hormone cortisol, a corticosteroid that inhibits the effects of the immune system. As a result, these patients are protected from autoimmune and related diseases. But it is not known if the risk rises after their disease is resolved.

To address this, researchers at the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) examined 127 children with Cushing’s syndrome at the National Institutes of Health from 1997 until 2017.

Among the participants, 77.5 percent had a pituitary tumor causing the disease, 21.7 percent had ACTH-independent disease, and one patient had ectopic Cushing’s syndrome. All patients underwent surgery to treat their symptoms.

After a mean follow-up of 31.2 months, 7.8 percent of patients developed a new autoimmune or related disorder.

Researchers found no significant differences in age at diagnosis, gender, cortisol levels, and urinary-free cortisol at diagnosis, when comparing those who developed autoimmune disorders with those who didn’t. However, those who developed an immune disorder had a significantly shorter symptom duration of Cushing’s syndrome.

This suggests that increased cortisol levels, even for a short period of time, may contribute to more reactivity of the immune system after treatment.

The new disorder was diagnosed, on average, 9.8 months after Cushing’s treatment. The disorders reported were celiac disease, psoriasis, Hashimoto thyroiditis, Graves disease, optic nerve inflammation, skin hypopigmentation/vitiligo, allergic rhinitis/asthma, and nerve cell damage of unknown origin responsive to glucocorticoids.

“Although the size of our cohort did not allow for comparison of the frequency with the general population, it seems that there was a higher frequency of optic neuritis than expected,” the researchers stated.

It is still unclear why autoimmune disorders tend to develop after Cushing’s resolution, but the researchers hypothesized it could be a consequence of the impact of glucocorticoids on the immune system.

Overall, the study shows that children with Cushing’s syndrome are at risk for autoimmune and related disorders after their condition is managed. “The presentation of new autoimmune diseases or recurrence of previously known autoimmune conditions should be considered when concerning symptoms arise,” the researchers stated.

Additional studies are warranted to further explore this link and improve care of this specific population.

From https://cushingsdiseasenews.com/2018/03/06/after-cushings-cured-autoimmune-disease-risk-looms-study/

Benefits of Medication Before Surgery for Cushing’s Syndrome Still Unclear

In Europe, nearly 20 percent of patients with Cushing’s syndrome receive some sort of medication for the disease before undergoing surgery, a new study shows.

Six months after surgery, these patients had remission and mortality rates similar to those who received surgery as a first-line treatment, despite having worse disease manifestations when the study began. However, preoperative medication may limit doctors’ ability to determine the immediate success of surgery, researchers said.

A randomized clinical trial is needed to conclusively address if preoperative medication is a good option for Cushing’s patients waiting for surgery, they stated.

The study, “Preoperative medical treatment in Cushing’s syndrome. Frequency of use and its impact on postoperative assessment. Data from ERCUSYN,” was published in the European Journal of Endocrinology. 

Surgery usually is the first-line treatment in patients with Cushing’s syndrome. But patients also may receive preoperative medication to improve cortisol excess and correct severe diseases occurring simultaneously with Cushing’s.

Multiple studies have hypothesized that preoperative medication can have a beneficial effect on patients who undergo surgery. However, data on the beneficial impact of medication on morbidity, and the immediate surgical and long-term outcomes in patients with Cushing’s syndrome, are limited and inconclusive.

So, researchers made use of the European Registry on Cushing’s Syndrome (ERCUSYN), the largest database that collects information on diagnosis, management, and long-term follow-up in Cushing’s patients.

The team set out to collect information of the prevalence of preoperative medication in Cushing’s patients throughout Europe, and whether it influences patients’ outcomes after surgery. It also aimed to determine the differences between patients who receive preoperative medication versus those who undergo surgery directly.

Researchers analyzed 1,143 patients in the ERCUSYN database from 57 centers in 26 countries. Depending on what was causing the disease, patients were included in four major groups: pituitary-dependent Cushing’s syndrome (68%), adrenal-dependent Cushing’s syndrome (25%), Cushing’s syndrome from an ectopic source (5%), and Cushing’s syndrome from other causes (1%).

Overall, 20 percent of patients received medication – ketoconazole, metyrapone, or a combination of both – before surgery. Patients with ectopic and pituitary disease were more likely to receive medication compared to patients whose disease stemmed from the adrenal glands. Preoperative treatment lasted for a median of 109 days.

Patients in the pituitary group who were prescribed preoperative medication had more severe clinical features at diagnosis and poorer quality of life compared to those who received surgery as first-line treatment. No differences were found in the other groups.

But patients with pituitary-dependent disease receiving medication were more likely to have normal cortisol within seven days of surgery, or the immediate postoperative period, compared to patients who had surgery without prior medication. These patients also had a lower remission rate.

Within six months of surgery, however, there were no differences in morbidity or remission rates observed between each group. Also, no differences were seen in perioperative mortality rates – within one month of surgery.

Interestingly, researchers noted that patients who took medication prior to surgery were less likely to be in remission immediately after surgery. The reason, they suggest, might be because the medication already had begun to improve the clinical and biochemical signs of the disease, “so changes that take place in the first week after surgery may be less dramatic.”

“A randomized trial assessing simple endpoints, such as length of hospital stay, surgical impression and adverse effects of surgery, is needed to conclusively demonstrate that [preoperative medication] is a valid option in patients waiting for surgical correction of hypercortisolism,” the team concluded.

From https://cushingsdiseasenews.com/2018/02/22/benefits-cushings-syndrome-pre-surgery-medication-unclear-study/

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