Treatment improved multiple cardiovascular risk and other factors in Cushing’s disease patients

 

Hypercortisolism Quickly Reversed With Oral Tx

Oral osilodrostat (Isturisa) normalized cortisol levels in Cushing’s disease patients who were ineligible for or not cured with pituitary surgery, according to the phase III LINC 3 trial.

After 24 weeks of open-label treatment with twice-daily osilodrostat, 53% of patients (72 of 137; 95% CI 43.9-61.1) were able to maintain a complete response — marked by mean 24-hour urinary free cortisol concentration of the upper limit of normal or below — without any uptitration in dosage after the initial 12-week buildup phase, reported Rosario Pivonello, MD, of the Università Federico II di Napoli in Italy, and colleagues.

As they explained in their study online in The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, following the 24-week open-label period these complete responders to treatment were then randomized 1:1 to either remain on osilodrostat or be switched to placebo.

During this 10-week randomization phase, 86% of patients maintained their complete cortisol response if they remained on osilodrostat versus only 29% of those who were switched to placebo (odds ratio 13.7, 95% CI 3.7-53.4, P<0.0001) — meeting the trial’s primary endpoint.

As for adverse events, more than half of patients experienced hypocortisolism, and the most common adverse events included nausea (42%), headache (34%), fatigue (28%), and adrenal insufficiency (28%).

“Alongside careful dose adjustments and monitoring of known risks associated with osilodrostat, our findings indicate a positive benefit-risk consideration of treatment for most patients with Cushing’s disease,” the researchers concluded.

This oral inhibitor of 11β-­hydroxylase — the enzyme involved in the last step of cortisol synthesis — was FDA approved in March 2020 based on these findings, and is currently available in 1 mg, 5 mg, and 10 mg film-coated tablets.

The prospective trial, consisting of four periods, included individuals between the ages of 18 and 75 with confirmed persistent or recurrent Cushing’s disease — marked by a mean 24-h urinary free cortisol concentration over 1.5 times the upper limit of normal (50 μg/24 hours), along with morning plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone above the lower limit of normal (9 pg/mL). All individuals had either undergone prior pituitary surgery or irradiation, were not deemed to be candidates for surgery, or had refused to have surgery.

During the first open-label study period, all participants took 2 mg of oral osilodrostat twice daily, spaced 12 hours apart. This dose was then titrated up if the average of three 24-h urinary free cortisol concentration samples exceeded the upper limit of normal. During the second study period, which spanned weeks 12 through 24, all participants remained on their osilodrostat therapeutic dose. By week 24, about 62% of the participants were taking a therapeutic dose of 5 mg or less twice daily; only about 6% of patients needed a dose higher than 10 mg twice daily.

In the third study period, which spanned weeks 26 through 34, “complete responders” who achieved normal cortisol levels were then randomized to continue treatment or be switched to placebo, while those who did not fully respond to treatment continued on osilodrostat. For the fourth study period, from weeks 24 through 48, all participants were switched back to active treatment with osilodrostat.

Overall, 96% of participants were able to achieve a complete response at some point while on osilodrostat treatment, with two-thirds of these responders maintaining this normalized cortisol level for at least 6 months. The median time to first complete response was 41 days.

Metabolic profiles also improved along with this reduction in cortisol levels. These included improvements in body weight, body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, both systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and total cholesterol levels.

“Given the known clinical burden of cardiovascular risk associated with Cushing’s disease, the improvement in clinical features shown here indicates important benefits of osilodrostat,” the researchers said. “By improving multiple cardiovascular risk factors, our findings are likely to be clinically relevant.”

Along with metabolic improvements, patients also had “clinically meaningful improvements” in quality of life, as well as reductions in depressive symptoms measured by the Beck Depression Inventory score, the investigators reported.

One limitation to the trial, they noted, was an inability to control for concomitant medications, since nearly all participants were taking other medications, particularly antihypertensive and antidiabetic therapies.

“Further examination of the effects of osilodrostat on the clinical signs of Cushing’s disease, and the reasons for changes in concomitant medications and the association between such medications and clinical outcomes would be valuable,” Pivonello’s group said.

 

RECORDATI: ISTURISA® (Osilodrostat) Phase III LINC-4 Trial Meets Its Primary Endpoint In Cushing’s Disease

Source: RECORDATI

multilang-release

RECORDATI: ISTURISA® (OSILODROSTAT) PHASE III LINC-4 TRIAL MEETS ITS PRIMARY ENDPOINT IN CUSHING’S DISEASE

Isturisa® (osilodrostat) demonstrates significant and sustained benefit over placebo at normalizing mean urinary free cortisol (mUFC) levels in patients with Cushing’s disease

Milan, 17 June 2020 – Recordati today announces positive results from the large Phase III LINC-4 study of Isturisa® (osilodrostat) for the treatment of patients with Cushing’s disease for whom pituitary surgery is not an option or has not been curative. Data from the LINC-4 study demonstrate that a significantly higher proportion of patients receiving Isturisa® achieve normal mUFC, the primary treatment goal for Cushing’s disease, after 12 weeks of treatment versus placebo (77% vs 8%; P<0.0001). Improvements in mUFC levels are sustained over 36 weeks of treatment (81% of patients). Isturisa® is well tolerated and has a manageable safety profile, with the most common adverse events in LINC-4 being arthralgia, decreased appetite, fatigue, and nausea. The findings from LINC-4, the first Phase III study of a medical therapy in Cushing’s disease to contain an upfront placebo-controlled phase, builds on existing clinical evidence and affirms the effectiveness of Isturisa® in this hard-to-treat patient population.1-3

“Cushing’s disease is a chronic and debilitating condition that can be extremely challenging to manage and, if left inadequately treated, can have a significant impact on patients’ quality of life and increase the risk of mortality”, said Richard Feelders, MD, Professor of Endocrinology at the Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam. “Data from this important Phase III study show that Isturisa® (osilodrostat) is an effective and well-tolerated therapy for Cushing’s disease, which significantly reduces and normalizes mUFC levels in most patients. These data are encouraging given the high unmet medical need for patients with this rare disorder”.

“The compelling topline LINC-4 data confirm the effectiveness of Isturisa® for the treatment of this rare, potentially life-threatening disease”, stated Andrea Recordati, CEO. “We are deeply grateful to the patients, investigators, clinicians and study staff whose ongoing participation in the clinical development of Isturisa® has helped bring this therapy to patients in need.”

Data from the LINC 4 study reinforce the clinical benefits of Isturisa® as an effective and generally well‑tolerated oral treatment option for patients with Cushing’s disease. Isturisa® has recently received marketing authorization in the European Union (January 2020) and United States (March 2020) for the treatment of Cushing’s syndrome and Cushing’s disease, respectively.

About Cushing’s syndrome

Cushing’s syndrome is caused by an inappropriate and chronic exposure to excessive levels of cortisol. The source of this excess of cortisol can be endogenous or exogenous (ie medication). When the excess cortisol production is triggered by a pituitary adenoma (ie a tumor of the pituitary gland located in the brain) secreting excess adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), the condition of the patient is defined as Cushing’s disease and comprises about 70% of Cushing’s syndrome cases.4 It is a rare, serious and difficult-to-treat disease that affects approximately one to two patients per million per year.5 Prolonged exposure to elevated cortisol levels is associated with considerable morbidity, mortality and impaired quality of life as a result of complications and comorbidities.6 Normalization of cortisol levels is therefore a primary objective in the treatment of Cushing’s syndrome.7

About LINC-4

LINC-4 is a large randomized, double-blinded, multicentre, 48-week trial with an initial 12-week placebo-controlled period to evaluate the safety and efficacy of osilodrostat in patients with Cushing’s disease. The primary endpoint in the LINC-4 trial is the proportion of patients randomized to Isturisa® and placebo, separately, with a mUFC ≤ULN at the end of the 12-week placebo-controlled period. The key secondary endpoint is the proportion of patients in both arms combined with a mUFC ≤ULN after 36 weeks. LINC-4 involved 73 patients with persistent or recurrent Cushing’s disease or those with de novo disease who were not candidates for surgery.

About Isturisa®

Isturisa® is a potent oral, reversible inhibitor of 11β-hydroxylase (CYP11B1), the enzyme that catalyses the final step of cortisol biosynthesis in the adrenal gland and is authorized in the EU and US for the treatment of adult patients with Cushing’s syndrome and Cushing’s disease, respectively.8,9 Isturisa® will be available as 1 mg, 5 mg and 10 mg film‐coated tablets. Please see prescribing information for detailed recommendations for the use of this product.8,9

  1. Bertagna X et al. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2014;99:1375–83
  2. Fleseriu M et al. Pituitary 2016;19:138–48
  3. Biller BMK et al. Abstract OR16-2. Oral presentation at the Endocrine Society Annual Congress 2019
  4. Nieman LK et al. Am J Med 2005;118:1340–6
  5. Signifor® and Signifor® LAR Summary of Product Characteristics, June 2018
  6. Pivonello R et al. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2016;4:611–29
  7. Nieman LK et al. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2015;100:2807–31
  8. Isturisa® Summary of Product Characteristics. May 2020
  9. Isturisa® Prescribing Information. March 2020

About the Recordati group

Recordati, established in 1926, is an international pharmaceutical group, listed on the Italian Stock Exchange (Reuters RECI.MI, Bloomberg REC IM, ISIN IT 0003828271), with a total staff of more than 4,300, dedicated to the research, development, manufacturing and marketing of pharmaceuticals. Headquartered in Milan, Italy, Recordati has operations throughout the whole of Europe, including Russia, Turkey, North Africa, the United States of America, Canada, Mexico, some South American countries, Japan and Australia. An efficient field force of medical representatives promotes a wide range of innovative pharmaceuticals, both proprietary and under license, in a number of therapeutic areas including a specialized business dedicated to treatments for rare diseases. Recordati is a partner of choice for new product licenses for its territories. Recordati is committed to the research and development of new specialties with a focus on treatments for rare diseases. Consolidated revenue for 2019 was € 1,481.8 million, operating income was € 465.3 million and net income was € 368.9 million.

For further information:

Recordati website:  http://www.recordati.com

Investor Relations                                                                 Media Relations
Marianne Tatschke                                                                Studio Noris Morano
(39)0248787393                                                                    (39)0276004736, (39)0276004745
e-mail: investorelations@recordati.it                                  e-mail: norismorano@studionorismorano.com

Statements contained in this release, other than historical facts, are “forward-looking statements” (as such term is defined in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995). These statements are based on currently available information, on current best estimates, and on assumptions believed to be reasonable. This information, these estimates and assumptions may prove to be incomplete or erroneous, and involve numerous risks and uncertainties, beyond the Company’s control. Hence, actual results may differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. All mentions and descriptions of Recordati products are intended solely as information on the general nature of the company’s activities and are not intended to indicate the advisability of administering any product in any particular instance.

Attachment

From https://www.globenewswire.com/news-release/2020/06/17/2049265/0/en/RECORDATI-ISTURISA-OSILODROSTAT-PHASE-III-LINC-4-TRIAL-MEETS-ITS-PRIMARY-ENDPOINT-IN-CUSHING-S-DISEASE.html

Predicting Prolonged Length of Stay After Endoscopic Transsphenoidal Surgery for Pituitary Adenoma

First published:03 May 2020
Read the entire article at https://doi.org/10.1002/alr.22540

Potential conflict of interest: None disclosed.

Presented at the 65th Annual Meeting of the American Rhinologic Society, on September 14, 2019, in New Orleans, LA.

Abstract

Background

Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery (ETS) for the resection of pituitary adenoma has become more common throughout the past decade. Although most patients have a short postoperative hospitalization, others require a more prolonged stay. We aimed to identify predictors for prolonged hospitalization in the setting of ETS for pituitary adenomas.

Methods

A retrospective chart review as performed on 658 patients undergoing ETS for pituitary adenoma at a single tertiary care academic center from 2005 to 2019. Length of stay (LoS) was defined as date of surgery to date of discharge. Patients with LoS in the top 10th percentile (prolonged LoS [PLS] >4 days, N = 72) were compared with the remainder (standard LoS [SLS], N = 586).

Results

The average age was 54 years and 52.5% were male. The mean LoS was 2.1 days vs 7.5 days (SLS vs PLS). On univariate analysis, atrial fibrillation (p = 0.002), hypertension (p = 0.033), partial tumor resection (p < 0.001), apoplexy (p = 0.020), intraoperative cerebrospinal fluid (ioCSF) leak (p = 0.001), nasoseptal flap (p = 0.049), postoperative diabetes insipidus (DI) (p = 0.010), and readmission within 30 days (p = 0.025) were significantly associated with PLS. Preoperative continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) (odds ratio, 15.144; 95% confidence interval, 2.596‐88.346; p = 0.003) and presence of an ioCSF leak (OR, 10.362; 95% CI, 2.143‐50.104; p = 0.004) remained significant on multivariable analysis.

Conclusion

For patients undergoing ETS for pituitary adenomas, an ioCSF leak or preoperative use of CPAP predicted PLS. Additional common reasons for PLS included postoperative CSF leak (10 of 72), management of DI or hypopituitarism (15 of 72), or reoperation due to surgical or medical complications (14 of 72).

From https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/alr.22540?af=R

Patients With Cushing Have New Nonsurgical Treatment Option

Cushing syndrome, a rare endocrine disorder caused by abnormally excessive amounts of the hormone cortisol, has a new pharmaceutical treatment to treat cortisol overproduction.

Osilodrostat (Isturisa) is the first FDA approved drug who either can’t undergo pituitary gland surgery or have undergone the surgery but still have the disease. The oral tablet functions by blocking the enzyme responsible for cortisol synthesis, 11-beta-hydroxylase.

“Until now, patients in need of medications…have had few approved options, either with limited efficacy or with too many adverse effects. With this demonstrated effective oral treatment, we have a therapeutic option that will help address patients’ needs in this underserved patient population,” said Maria Fleseriu, MD, FACE, professor of medicine and neurological surgery and director of the Pituitary Center at Oregon Health Sciences University.

Cushing disease is caused by a pituitary tumor that releases too much of the hormone that stimulates cortisol production, adrenocorticotropin. This causes excessive levels of cortisol, a hormone responsible for helping to maintain blood sugar levels, regulate metabolism, help reduce inflammation, assist in memory formulation, and support fetus development during pregnancy.

The condition is most common among adults aged 30-50 and affects women 3 times more than men.

Cushing disease can lead to a number of medical issues including high blood pressure, obesity, type 2 diabetes, blood clots in the arms and legs, bone loss and fractures, a weakened immune system, and depression. Patients with Cushing disease may also have thin arms and legs, a round red full face, increased fat around the neck, easy bruising, striae (purple stretch marks), or weak muscles.

Side effects of osilodrostat occurring in more than 20% of patients are adrenal insufficiency, headache, nausea, fatigue, and edema. Other side effects can include vomiting, hypocortisolism (low cortisol levels), QTc prolongation (heart rhythm condition), elevations in adrenal hormone precursors (inactive substance converted into hormone), and androgens (hormone that regulated male characteristics).

Osilodrostat’s safety and effectiveness was evaluated in a study consisting of 137 patients, of which about 75% were women. After a 24-week period, about half of patients had achieved normal cortisol levels; 71 successful cases then entered an 8-week, double-blind, randomized withdrawal study where 86% of patients receiving osilodrostat maintained normal cortisol levels, compared with 30% who were taking a placebo.

In January 2020, the European Commission also granted marketing authorization for osilodrostat.

From https://www.ajmc.com/newsroom/patients-with-cushing-have-new-nonsurgical-treatment-option

Patients on Steroids With COVID-19 Might Need Rescue Steroids

 

Endocrinologists have underlined the importance that physicians consider “a stress dose” of glucocorticoids in the event of severe COVID-19 infection in endocrine, and other, patients on long-term steroids.

 

People taking corticosteroids on a routine basis for a variety of underlying inflammatory conditions, such as asthma, allergies, and arthritis, are at elevated risk of being infected with, and adversely affected by, COVID-19.

 

This also applies to a rarer group of patients with adrenal insufficiency and uncontrolled Cushing syndrome, as well as secondary adrenal insufficiency occurring in hypopituitarism, who also rely on glucocorticoids for day-to-day living.

 

In the event of COVID-19, all of these individuals may be unable to mount a normal stress response, and “in the case of adrenal suppression…such patients may run into severe difficulties, particularly if on intensive care units,” warns Paul Stewart, MD, University of Leeds, UK, and editor-in-chief of the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism (JCEM).

 

As such, it is vitally important to recognize that “Injectable supplemental glucocorticoid therapy in this setting can reverse the risk of potentially fatal adrenal failure and should be considered in every case,” Stewart and colleagues emphasize in a newly published editorial in JCEM.

 

They note this advice must be considered alongside World Health Organization (WHO) guidance against prescribing therapeutic glucocorticoids to treat complications of COVID-19, based on prior experience in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, as well as those affected by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS).

 

The key difference here is not to use pharmacologic doses of glucocorticoids as treatment for COVID-19 (where they have no effect), but rather to prevent death from adrenal failure by using “stress” doses of replacement glucocorticoid, Stewart explained to Medscape Medical News.

 

“No patient with a history of prior exposure to chronic glucocorticoid therapy (> 3 months)…should die without consideration” for a stress dose of replacement glucocorticoid therapy.

“The intent here is to ensure that no patient with a history of prior exposure to chronic glucocorticoid therapy (> 3 months) by whatever route should die without consideration for parenteral glucocorticoid therapy,” the editorialists write.

 

He advises using physiological stress doses of hydrocortisone (50-100 mg intravenously tid).

 

Specific Advice for Adrenal Insufficiency: Follow Sick Day Rules

 

separate statement by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) also emphasizes that it is particularly important for patients with adrenal insufficiency to follow advice from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) or similar guidance on preventing COVID-19 infection, including social distancing and frequent hand washing.

 

Such patients should continue to take medications as prescribed and ensure they have appropriate supplies of oral and injectable steroids, ideally for 90 days, AACE advises.

And if there is a shortage of hydrocortisone, the statement advises patients ask a pharmacist or physician about replacement hydrocortisone with different doses that might be available.

Stewart agrees that patients with adrenal insufficiency need to be hypervigilant, but says that “if they do become ill, for the most part they are well counseled to respond appropriately to intercurrent infections.”

Nevertheless, it is “invaluable to reiterate ‘sick day rules'” for suspected COVID-19 infection.

“Any patient who develops a dry continuous cough and fever should immediately double their daily oral glucocorticoid dose and continue on this regimen until the fever has subsided.”

If a patient still deteriorates on this regimen, develops diarrhea or vomiting, or is unable to take oral glucocorticoids for other reasons, they should contact their physicians or seek urgent medical care to receive parenteral treatment with a glucocorticoid.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Published online March 31, 2020. Position statement

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From https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/928072?nlid=134869_3901&src=wnl_newsalrt_200404_MSCPEDIT&uac=295048SY&impID=2335560&faf=1&fbclid=IwAR1zZe6fqDS3tKuHUYoFpbvBMkQYJ4JN59RzC93xdzVcGGkJIz5bnmmE4LY

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