Corticotroph hyperplasia and Cushing disease: diagnostic features and surgical management

Affiliations expand

 

Abstract

Objective: This study was done to compare corticotroph hyperplasia and histopathologically proven adenomas in patients with Cushing disease by analyzing diagnostic features, surgical management, and clinical outcomes.

Methods: Patients with suspected pituitary Cushing disease were included in a retrospective cohort study and were excluded if results of pathological analysis of the surgical specimen were nondiagnostic or normal. Cases were reviewed by two experienced neuropathologists. Total lesion removal was used as a dichotomized surgical variable; it was defined as an extracapsular resection (including a rim of normal gland) in patients with an adenoma, and for hyperplasia patients it was defined as removal of the presumed lesion plus a rim of surrounding normal gland. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Recurrence-free survival was compared between the two groups.

Results: The final cohort consisted of 63 patients (15 with hyperplasia and 48 with adenoma). Normal pituitary acinar architecture was highly variable. Corticotroph hyperplasia was diagnosed based on the presence of expanded acini showing retained reticulin architecture and predominant staining for adrenocorticotropic hormone. Crooke’s hyaline change was seen in 46.7% of specimens, and its frequency was equal in nonlesional tissue of both groups. The two groups differed only by MRI findings (equivocal/diffuse lesion in 46% of hyperplasia and 17% of adenoma; p = 0.03). Diagnostic uncertainty in the hyperplasia group resulted in additional confirmatory testing by 24-hour urinary free cortisol. Total lesion removal was infrequent in patients with hyperplasia compared to those with adenoma (33% vs 65%; p = 0.03). Initial biochemical remission was similar (67% in hyperplasia and 85% in adenoma; p = 0.11). There was no difference in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis recovery or disease recurrence. The median follow-up was 1.9 years (IQR 0.7-7.6 years) for the hyperplasia group and 1.2 years (IQR 0.4-2.4 years) for the adenoma group. Lack of a discrete lesion and diagnostic uncertainty were the only significant predictors of hyperplasia (sensitivity 53.3%, specificity 97.7%, positive predictive value 88.9%, negative predictive value 85.7%). An adjusted Cox proportional hazards model showed similar recurrence-free survival in the two groups.

Conclusions: This study suggests an association between biochemically proven Cushing disease and histopathologically proven corticotroph hyperplasia. Imaging and operative findings can be ambiguous, and, compared to typical adenomas with a pseudocapsule, the surgical approach is more nuanced. Nevertheless, if treated appropriately, biochemical outcomes may be similar.

Keywords: ACTH = adrenocorticotropic hormone; CRH = corticotropin-releasing hormone; Cushing disease; HPA = hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal; HR = hazard ratio; IPSS = inferior petrosal sinus sampling; ROC = receiver operating characteristic; UFC = urinary free cortisol; corticotroph adenoma; corticotroph hyperplasia; diagnosis; pathology; pituitary surgery; surgical outcomes.

From https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32886921/

RECORDATI: ISTURISA® (Osilodrostat) Phase III LINC-4 Trial Meets Its Primary Endpoint In Cushing’s Disease

Source: RECORDATI

multilang-release

RECORDATI: ISTURISA® (OSILODROSTAT) PHASE III LINC-4 TRIAL MEETS ITS PRIMARY ENDPOINT IN CUSHING’S DISEASE

Isturisa® (osilodrostat) demonstrates significant and sustained benefit over placebo at normalizing mean urinary free cortisol (mUFC) levels in patients with Cushing’s disease

Milan, 17 June 2020 – Recordati today announces positive results from the large Phase III LINC-4 study of Isturisa® (osilodrostat) for the treatment of patients with Cushing’s disease for whom pituitary surgery is not an option or has not been curative. Data from the LINC-4 study demonstrate that a significantly higher proportion of patients receiving Isturisa® achieve normal mUFC, the primary treatment goal for Cushing’s disease, after 12 weeks of treatment versus placebo (77% vs 8%; P<0.0001). Improvements in mUFC levels are sustained over 36 weeks of treatment (81% of patients). Isturisa® is well tolerated and has a manageable safety profile, with the most common adverse events in LINC-4 being arthralgia, decreased appetite, fatigue, and nausea. The findings from LINC-4, the first Phase III study of a medical therapy in Cushing’s disease to contain an upfront placebo-controlled phase, builds on existing clinical evidence and affirms the effectiveness of Isturisa® in this hard-to-treat patient population.1-3

“Cushing’s disease is a chronic and debilitating condition that can be extremely challenging to manage and, if left inadequately treated, can have a significant impact on patients’ quality of life and increase the risk of mortality”, said Richard Feelders, MD, Professor of Endocrinology at the Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam. “Data from this important Phase III study show that Isturisa® (osilodrostat) is an effective and well-tolerated therapy for Cushing’s disease, which significantly reduces and normalizes mUFC levels in most patients. These data are encouraging given the high unmet medical need for patients with this rare disorder”.

“The compelling topline LINC-4 data confirm the effectiveness of Isturisa® for the treatment of this rare, potentially life-threatening disease”, stated Andrea Recordati, CEO. “We are deeply grateful to the patients, investigators, clinicians and study staff whose ongoing participation in the clinical development of Isturisa® has helped bring this therapy to patients in need.”

Data from the LINC 4 study reinforce the clinical benefits of Isturisa® as an effective and generally well‑tolerated oral treatment option for patients with Cushing’s disease. Isturisa® has recently received marketing authorization in the European Union (January 2020) and United States (March 2020) for the treatment of Cushing’s syndrome and Cushing’s disease, respectively.

About Cushing’s syndrome

Cushing’s syndrome is caused by an inappropriate and chronic exposure to excessive levels of cortisol. The source of this excess of cortisol can be endogenous or exogenous (ie medication). When the excess cortisol production is triggered by a pituitary adenoma (ie a tumor of the pituitary gland located in the brain) secreting excess adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), the condition of the patient is defined as Cushing’s disease and comprises about 70% of Cushing’s syndrome cases.4 It is a rare, serious and difficult-to-treat disease that affects approximately one to two patients per million per year.5 Prolonged exposure to elevated cortisol levels is associated with considerable morbidity, mortality and impaired quality of life as a result of complications and comorbidities.6 Normalization of cortisol levels is therefore a primary objective in the treatment of Cushing’s syndrome.7

About LINC-4

LINC-4 is a large randomized, double-blinded, multicentre, 48-week trial with an initial 12-week placebo-controlled period to evaluate the safety and efficacy of osilodrostat in patients with Cushing’s disease. The primary endpoint in the LINC-4 trial is the proportion of patients randomized to Isturisa® and placebo, separately, with a mUFC ≤ULN at the end of the 12-week placebo-controlled period. The key secondary endpoint is the proportion of patients in both arms combined with a mUFC ≤ULN after 36 weeks. LINC-4 involved 73 patients with persistent or recurrent Cushing’s disease or those with de novo disease who were not candidates for surgery.

About Isturisa®

Isturisa® is a potent oral, reversible inhibitor of 11β-hydroxylase (CYP11B1), the enzyme that catalyses the final step of cortisol biosynthesis in the adrenal gland and is authorized in the EU and US for the treatment of adult patients with Cushing’s syndrome and Cushing’s disease, respectively.8,9 Isturisa® will be available as 1 mg, 5 mg and 10 mg film‐coated tablets. Please see prescribing information for detailed recommendations for the use of this product.8,9

  1. Bertagna X et al. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2014;99:1375–83
  2. Fleseriu M et al. Pituitary 2016;19:138–48
  3. Biller BMK et al. Abstract OR16-2. Oral presentation at the Endocrine Society Annual Congress 2019
  4. Nieman LK et al. Am J Med 2005;118:1340–6
  5. Signifor® and Signifor® LAR Summary of Product Characteristics, June 2018
  6. Pivonello R et al. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2016;4:611–29
  7. Nieman LK et al. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2015;100:2807–31
  8. Isturisa® Summary of Product Characteristics. May 2020
  9. Isturisa® Prescribing Information. March 2020

About the Recordati group

Recordati, established in 1926, is an international pharmaceutical group, listed on the Italian Stock Exchange (Reuters RECI.MI, Bloomberg REC IM, ISIN IT 0003828271), with a total staff of more than 4,300, dedicated to the research, development, manufacturing and marketing of pharmaceuticals. Headquartered in Milan, Italy, Recordati has operations throughout the whole of Europe, including Russia, Turkey, North Africa, the United States of America, Canada, Mexico, some South American countries, Japan and Australia. An efficient field force of medical representatives promotes a wide range of innovative pharmaceuticals, both proprietary and under license, in a number of therapeutic areas including a specialized business dedicated to treatments for rare diseases. Recordati is a partner of choice for new product licenses for its territories. Recordati is committed to the research and development of new specialties with a focus on treatments for rare diseases. Consolidated revenue for 2019 was € 1,481.8 million, operating income was € 465.3 million and net income was € 368.9 million.

For further information:

Recordati website:  http://www.recordati.com

Investor Relations                                                                 Media Relations
Marianne Tatschke                                                                Studio Noris Morano
(39)0248787393                                                                    (39)0276004736, (39)0276004745
e-mail: investorelations@recordati.it                                  e-mail: norismorano@studionorismorano.com

Statements contained in this release, other than historical facts, are “forward-looking statements” (as such term is defined in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995). These statements are based on currently available information, on current best estimates, and on assumptions believed to be reasonable. This information, these estimates and assumptions may prove to be incomplete or erroneous, and involve numerous risks and uncertainties, beyond the Company’s control. Hence, actual results may differ materially from those expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. All mentions and descriptions of Recordati products are intended solely as information on the general nature of the company’s activities and are not intended to indicate the advisability of administering any product in any particular instance.

Attachment

From https://www.globenewswire.com/news-release/2020/06/17/2049265/0/en/RECORDATI-ISTURISA-OSILODROSTAT-PHASE-III-LINC-4-TRIAL-MEETS-ITS-PRIMARY-ENDPOINT-IN-CUSHING-S-DISEASE.html

FDA Approves New Treatment for Adults with Cushing’s Disease

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Isturisa (osilodrostat) oral tablets for adults with Cushing’s disease who either cannot undergo pituitary gland surgery or have undergone the surgery but still have the disease. Cushing’s disease is a rare disease in which the adrenal glands make too much of the cortisol hormone. Isturisa is the first FDA-approved drug to directly address this cortisol overproduction by blocking the enzyme known as 11-beta-hydroxylase and preventing cortisol synthesis.

“The FDA supports the development of safe and effective treatments for rare diseases, and this new therapy can help people with Cushing’s disease, a rare condition where excessive cortisol production puts them at risk for other medical issues,” said Mary Thanh Hai, M.D., acting director of the Office of Drug Evaluation II in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “By helping patients achieve normal cortisol levels, this medication is an important treatment option for adults with Cushing’s disease.”

Cushing’s disease is caused by a pituitary tumor that releases too much of a hormone called adrenocorticotropin, which stimulates the adrenal gland to produce an excessive amount of cortisol. The disease is most common among adults between the ages of 30 to 50, and it affects women three times more often than men. Cushing’s disease can cause significant health issues, such as high blood pressure, obesity, type 2 diabetes, blood clots in the legs and lungs, bone loss and fractures, a weakened immune system and depression. Patients may have thin arms and legs, a round red full face, increased fat around the neck, easy bruising, striae (purple stretch marks) and weak muscles.

Isturisa’s safety and effectiveness for treating Cushing’s disease among adults was evaluated in a study of 137 adult patients (about three-quarters women) with a mean age of 41 years. The majority of patients either had undergone pituitary surgery that did not cure Cushing’s disease or were not surgical candidates. In the 24-week, single-arm, open-label period, all patients received a starting dose of 2 milligrams (mg) of Isturisa twice a day that could be increased every two weeks up to 30 mg twice a day. At the end of this 24-week period, about half of patients had cortisol levels within normal limits. After this point, 71 patients who did not need further dose increases and tolerated the drug for the last 12 weeks entered an eight-week, double-blind, randomized withdrawal study where they either received Isturisa or a placebo (inactive treatment). At the end of this withdrawal period, 86% of patients receiving Isturisa maintained cortisol levels within normal limits compared to 30% of patients taking the placebo.

The most common side effects reported in the clinical trial for Isturisa were adrenal insufficiency, headache, vomiting, nausea, fatigue and edema (swelling caused by fluid retention). Hypocortisolism (low cortisol levels), QTc prolongation (a heart rhythm condition) and elevations in adrenal hormone precursors (inactive substance converted into a hormone) and androgens (hormone that regulates male characteristics) may also occur in people taking Isturisa.

Isturisa is taken by mouth twice a day, in the morning and evening as directed by a health care provider. After treatment has started, a provider may re-evaluate dosage, depending upon the patient’s response.

Isturisa received Orphan Drug Designation, which is a special status granted to a drug intended to treat a rare disease or condition.

The FDA granted the approval of Isturisa to Novartis.

Media Contact: Monique Richards, 240-402-3014
Consumer InquiriesEmail, 888-INFO-FDA

The FDA, an agency within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, protects the public health by assuring the safety, effectiveness, and security of human and veterinary drugs, vaccines and other biological products for human use, and medical devices. The agency also is responsible for the safety and security of our nation’s food supply, cosmetics, dietary supplements, products that give off electronic radiation, and for regulating tobacco products.

SOURCE U.S. Food and Drug Administration

Related Links

http://www.fda.gov

From https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/fda-approves-new-treatment-for-adults-with-cushings-disease-301019293.html

Rare Disease Day 2020

rare disease day

 

Each and every day since 1987,  I tell anyone who will listen about Cushing’s.  I pass out a LOT Cushing’s business cards. My husband also passes out cards and brochures.

Adding to websites, blogs and more which I have maintained continuously since 2000 – at mostly my own expense.

Posting on the Cushing’s Help message boards about Rare Disease Day.

Tweeting/retweeting info about Cushing’s and Rare Disease Day today.

Adding info to one of my blogs about Cushing’s and Rare Disease Day.

Adding new and Golden Oldies bios to another blog, again most every week.

Thinking about getting the next Cushing’s Awareness Blogging Challenge set up for April…and will anyone else participate?

And updating https://www.facebook.com/CushingsInfo with a bunch of info today (and every day!)

~~~

Today is Rare Disease Day.

I had Cushing’s Disease due to a pituitary tumor. I was told to diet, told to take antidepressants and told that it was all my fault that I was so fat. My pituitary surgery in 1987 was a “success” but I still deal with the aftereffects of Cushing’s and of the surgery itself.

I also had another Rare Disease – Kidney Cancer, rare in younger, non-smoking women.

And then, there’s the secondary adrenal insufficiency…and growth hormone deficiency

If you’re interested, you can read my bio here: https://cushingsbios.com/2018/10/28/maryo-pituitary-bio/

What are YOU doing for Rare Disease Day?

 

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Clinical Trial: Multicenter Study of Seliciclib (R-roscovitine) for Cushing Disease

Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Shlomo Melmed, MD, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
Brief Summary:

This phase 2 multicenter, open-label clinical trial will evaluate safety and efficacy of 4 weeks of oral seliciclib in patients with newly diagnosed, persistent, or recurrent Cushing disease.

Funding Source – FDA Office of Orphan Products Development (OOPD)

Condition or disease  Intervention/treatment  Phase 
Cushing Disease Drug: Seliciclib Phase 2
Detailed Description:
This phase 2 multicenter, open-label clinical trial will evaluate safety and efficacy of two of three potential doses/schedules of oral seliciclib in patients with newly diagnosed, persistent, or recurrent Cushing disease. Up to 29 subjects will be treated with up to 800 mg/day oral seliciclib for 4 days each week for 4 weeks and enrolled in sequential cohorts based on efficacy outcomes. The study will also evaluate effects of seliciclib on quality of life and clinical signs and symptoms of Cushing disease.
Ages Eligible for Study: 18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study: All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers: No
Criteria

Inclusion criteria:

  • Male and female patients at least 18 years old
  • Patients with confirmed pituitary origin of excess adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) production:
    • Persistent hypercortisolemia established by two consecutive 24 h UFC levels at least 1.5x the upper limit of normal
    • Normal or elevated ACTH levels
    • Pituitary macroadenoma (>1 cm) on MRI or inferior petrosal sinus sampling (IPSS) central to peripheral ACTH gradient >2 at baseline and >3 after corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) stimulation
    • Recurrent or persistent Cushing disease defined as pathologically confirmed resected pituitary ACTH-secreting tumor or IPSS central to peripheral ACTH gradient >2 at baseline and >3 after CRH stimulation, and 24 hour UFC above the upper limit of normal reference range beyond post-surgical week 6
    • Patients on medical treatment for Cushing disease. The following washout periods must be completed before screening assessments are performed:
      • Inhibitors of steroidogenesis (metyrapone, ketoconazole): 2 weeks
      • Somatostatin receptor ligand pasireotide: short-acting, 2 weeks; long-acting, 4 weeks
      • Progesterone receptor antagonist (mifepristone): 2 weeks
      • Dopamine agonists (cabergoline): 4 weeks
      • CYP3A4 strong inducers or inhibitors: varies between drugs; minimum 5-6 times the half-life of drug

Exclusion criteria:

  • Patients with compromised visual fields, and not stable for at least 6 months
  • Patients with abutment or compression of the optic chiasm on MRI and normal visual fields
  • Patients with Cushing’s syndrome due to non-pituitary ACTH secretion
  • Patients with hypercortisolism secondary to adrenal tumors or nodular (primary) bilateral adrenal hyperplasia
  • Patients who have a known inherited syndrome as the cause for hormone over secretion (i.e., Carney Complex, McCune-Albright syndrome, Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) 1
  • Patients with a diagnosis of glucocorticoid-remedial aldosteronism (GRA)
  • Patients with cyclic Cushing’s syndrome defined by any measurement of UFC over the previous 1 months within normal range
  • Patients with pseudo-Cushing’s syndrome, i.e., non-autonomous hypercortisolism due to overactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in uncontrolled depression, anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder, morbid obesity, alcoholism, and uncontrolled diabetes mellitus
  • Patients who have undergone major surgery within 1 month prior to screening
  • Patients with serum K+< 3.5 while on replacement treatment
  • Diabetic patients whose blood glucose is poorly controlled as evidenced by HbA1C >8%
  • Patients who have clinically significant impairment in cardiovascular function or are at risk thereof, as evidenced by congestive heart failure (NYHA Class III or IV), unstable angina, sustained ventricular tachycardia, clinically significant bradycardia, high grade atrioventricular (AV) block, history of acute MI less than one year prior to study entry
  • Patients with liver disease or history of liver disease such as cirrhosis, chronic active hepatitis B and C, or chronic persistent hepatitis, or patients with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or aspartate aminotransferase (AST) more than 1.5 x ULN, serum total bilirubin more than ULN, serum albumin less than 0.67 x lower limit of normal (LLN) at screening
  • Serum creatinine > 2 x ULN
  • Patients not biochemically euthyroid
  • Patients who have any current or prior medical condition that can interfere with the conduct of the study or the evaluation of its results, such as
    • History of immunocompromise, including a positive HIV test result (ELISA and Western blot). An HIV test will not be required, however, previous medical history will be reviewed
    • Presence of active or suspected acute or chronic uncontrolled infection
    • History of, or current alcohol misuse/abuse in the 12 month period prior to screening
  • Female patients who are pregnant or lactating, or are of childbearing potential and not practicing a medically acceptable method of birth control. If a woman is participating in the trial then one form of contraception is sufficient (pill or diaphragm) and the partner should use a condom. If oral contraception is used in addition to condoms, the patient must have been practicing this method for at least two months prior to screening and must agree to continue the oral contraceptive throughout the course of the study and for 3 months after the study has ended. Male patients who are sexually active are required to use condoms during the study and for three month afterwards as a precautionary measure (available data do not suggest any increased reproductive risk with the study drugs)
  • Patients who have participated in any clinical investigation with an investigational drug within 1 month prior to screening or patients who have previously been treated with seliciclib
  • Patients with any ongoing or likely to require additional concomitant medical treatment to seliciclib for the tumor
  • Patients with concomitant treatment of strong CYP3A4 inducers or inhibitors.
  • Patients who were receiving mitotane and/or long-acting somatostatin receptor ligands octreotide long-acting release (LAR) or lanreotide
  • Patients who have received pituitary irradiation within the last 5 years prior to the baseline visit
  • Patients who have been treated with radionuclide at any time prior to study entry
  • Patients with known hypersensitivity to seliciclib
  • Patients with a history of non-compliance to medical regimens or who are considered potentially unreliable or will be unable to complete the entire study
  • Patients with presence of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg)
  • Patients with presence of Hepatitis C antibody test (anti-HCV)
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