Osilodrostat Continues to Show Promise for Cushing’s Disease

NEW ORLEANS — The investigational drug osilodrostat (Novartis) continues to show promise for treating Cushing’s disease, now with new phase 3 trial data.

The data from the phase 3, multicenter, double-blind randomized withdrawal study (LINC-3) of osilodrostat in 137 patients with Cushing’s disease were presented here at ENDO 2019: The Endocrine Society Annual Meeting by Beverly M.K. Biller, MD, of the Neuroendocrine & Pituitary Tumor Center at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston.

“Osilodrostat was effective and shows promise for the treatment of patients with Cushing’s disease,” Biller said.

Osilodrostat is an oral 11β-hydroxylase inhibitor, the enzyme that catalyzes the last step of cortisol biosynthesis in the adrenal cortex. Its mechanism of action is similar to that of the older Cushing’s drug metyrapone, but osilodrostat has a longer plasma half-life and is more potent against 11β-hydroxylase.

Significantly more patients randomized to osilodrostat maintained a mean urinary free cortisol (mUFC) response versus placebo at 34 weeks following a 24-week open-label period plus 8-week randomized phase, with rapid and sustained mUFC reduction in most patients.

Patients also experienced improvements in clinical signs of hypercortisolism and quality of life. The drug was generally well-tolerated and had no unexpected side effects.

Asked to comment, session comoderator Julia Kharlip, MD, associate medical director of the Pituitary Center at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, told Medscape Medical News, “This drug is incredibly exciting because over 80% of people were controlled fairly rapidly. People could get symptom relief but also a reliable response. You don’t have to wonder when you’re treating a severely affected patient if it’s going to work. It’s likely going to work.”

However, Kharlip cautioned that it remains to be seen whether osilodrostat continues to work long-term, given that the older drug metyrapone — which must be given four times a day versus twice daily for osilodrostat — is known to become ineffective over time because the pituitary tumor eventually overrides the enzyme blockade.

“Based on how osilodrostat is so much more effective at smaller doses, there’s more hope that it will be effective long term…If the effectiveness and safety profile that we’re observing now continues to show the same performance years in a row, then we’ve got our drug.”

Osilodrostat Potentially Addresses an Unmet Medical Need

Cushing’s disease is a rare disorder of chronic hypercortisolism with significant burden, increased mortality, and decreased quality of life. Pituitary surgery is the recommended first-line treatment for most patients, but not all patients remit with surgery and some require additional treatment.

Pasireotide (Signifor, Novartis), an orphan drug approved in the United States and Europe for the treatment of Cushing’s disease in patients who fail or are ineligible for surgical therapy, is also only effective in a minority of patients.

“There hasn’t been a medicine effective for long-term treatment, so a lot of patients end up getting bilateral adrenalectomy, thereby exchanging one chronic medical disease for another,” Kharlip explained.

Biller commented during the question-and-answer period, “I think because not all patients are placed in remission with surgery initially and because other patients subsequently recur — a problem that is more common than we used to believe — we do need medical therapies.”

She continued, “I think it’s important to have a large choice of medical therapies that work in different places in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

“Even though surgery is the right initial therapy for everyone, I think in terms of subsequent medical therapy we have to tailor that to the individual circumstances of the patient in terms of the goals of treatment, and perhaps what other medicines they’re on, the degree of cortisol excess [and other factors].”

Highly Significant Normalization in Mean UFC Versus Placebo

In a prior 22-week phase 2 study (LINC-2), osilodrostat normalized mUFC in most patients. Results of the extension phase were reported by Medscape Medical News 2 years ago.

The current phase 3 study, LINC-3, was conducted on the basis of that proof-of-concept study, Biller said.

The trial was conducted in 19 countries across four continents in patients with persistent or recurrent Cushing’s disease screened for mUFC > 1.5 times the upper limit of normal and other entry criteria. In total, 137 patients were enrolled and randomized.

Participants were a median age of 40 years, 77% were female, and 88% had undergone prior pituitary surgery. Nearly all (96%) had received at least one previous treatment for Cushing’s.

At baseline, patients’ mean mUFC (364 µg/24 hours) was 7.3 times the upper limit of normal, which is “quite significant hypercortisolemia,” Biller noted.

All patients initially received osilodrostat, with a rapid dose uptitration every 2 weeks from 2 to 30 mg orally twice daily until they achieved a normal UFC.

They continued on open-label medication until week 24, when urine samples were collected. Patients who had an mUFC less than the upper limit of normal and had not had a dose increase in the prior 12 weeks were eligible for the double-blind phase. Those who were ineligible continued taking open-label drug.

The 70 eligible patients were randomized to continue taking osilodrostat (n = 36) or were switched to placebo (n = 34) for another 8 weeks. After that, the patients taking placebo were switched back to osilodrostat until week 48. A total of 113 patients completed the 48 weeks.

The primary efficacy endpoint was mUFC at 34 weeks (the end of the 8-week randomized phase).

For those randomized to continue on the drug, mUFC remained in the normal range in 86.1% of patients versus just 29.4% of those who had been switched to placebo for the 8 weeks. The difference was highly significant (odds ratio, 13.7; P < .001), Biller reported.

A key secondary endpoint, proportion of patients with an mUFC at or below the ULN at 24 weeks without up-titration after week 12, was achieved in 53%.

The mean dose at 48 weeks was 11.0 mg/day, “a fairly low dose,” she noted.

Clinical features were also improved at week 48, including systolic and diastolic blood pressure (percentage change –6.8 and –6.6, respectively), weight (–4.6), waist circumference (–4.2), fasting plasma glucose (–7.1), and HbA1c (–5.4).

Scores on the Cushing Quality of Life scale improved by 52.4 points, and Beck Depression Inventory scores dropped by 31.8 points.

Most Adverse Events Temporary, Manageable

The most commonly reported adverse events were nausea (41.6%), headache (33.6%), fatigue (28.5%), and adrenal insufficiency (27.7%), and 10.9% of patients overall discontinued because of an adverse event.

Adverse events related to hypocortisolism occurred in 51.1% of patients overall, with 10.2% being grade 3 or 4.  However, most of these were single episodes of mild-to-moderate intensity and mainly occurred during the initial 12-week titration period. Most patients responded to dose reduction or glucocorticoid supplementation.

Adverse events related to accumulation of adrenal hormone precursors occurred in 42.3% of patients overall, with the most common being hypokalemia (13.1%) and hypertension (12.4%).

No male patients had signs or symptoms related to increased androgens or estrogens. However, 12 female patients experienced hirsutism, most of those patients also had acne, and one had hypertrichosis. None discontinued because of those symptoms.

Kharlip commented, “What’s really inspiring was that even though half of the patients had symptoms related to adrenal insufficiency, it sounded as if they were quickly resolved with treatment and none discontinued because of it.”

“And it may have been related to study design where the medication was titrated very rapidly. There is probably a way to do this more gently and get the good results without the side effects.”

Kharlip also praised the international consortium that devised the protocol and collaborated in the research effort.

“It’s incredibly exciting and gratifying to see the world come together to get these data. It’s such a rare disease. To be able to have something like that in the field is a dream, to have a working consortium. The protocol was effective in demonstrating efficacy. It’s just a win on so many levels for a disease that currently doesn’t have a good therapy…I struggle with these patients all the time so I’m thrilled that there is hope.”

An ongoing confirmatory phase 3 study, LINC-4, is evaluating patients up to 48 weeks.

Biller is a consultant for and has received grants from Novartis and Strongbridge. Kharlip has  reported no relevant financial relationships.

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From https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/910864#vp_1

Rare Disease Day 2019

rare disease day

 

Each and every day since 1987,  I tell anyone who will listen about Cushing’s.  I pass out a LOT Cushing’s business cards. My husband also passes out cards and brochures.

Adding to websites, blogs and more which I have maintained continuously since 2000 – at mostly my own expense.

Posting on the Cushing’s Help message boards about Rare Disease Day.  I post there most every day.

Tweeting/retweeting info about Cushing’s and Rare Disease Day today.

Adding info to one of my blogs about Cushing’s and Rare Disease Day.

Adding new and Golden Oldies bios to another blog, again most every day.

Thinking about getting the next Cushing’s Awareness Blogging Challenge set up for April…and will anyone else participate?

And updating https://www.facebook.com/CushingsInfo with a bunch of info today (and every day!)

~~~

Today is Rare Disease Day.

I had Cushing’s Disease due to a pituitary tumor. I was told to diet, told to take antidepressants and told that it was all my fault that I was so fat. My pituitary surgery in 1987 was a “success” but I still deal with the aftereffects of Cushing’s and of the surgery itself.

I also had another Rare Disease – Kidney Cancer, rare in younger, non-smoking women.

And then, there’s the secondary adrenal insufficiency…and growth hormone deficiency

If you’re interested, you can read my bio here: https://cushingsbios.com/2018/10/28/maryo-pituitary-bio/

What are YOU doing for Rare Disease Day?

 

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Sosei Heptares Starts New Clinical Development Program

TOKYO and LONDONFeb. 20, 2019 /PRNewswire/ — Sosei Group Corporation (“the Company”; TSE: 4565), announces that the first healthy subject has been dosed with a novel small molecule HTL0030310 in a Phase I clinical study, marking the start of a new in-house clinical program targeting endocrine disorders, including Cushing’s disease.

HTL0030310 is a potent and selective agonist of the SSTR5 (somatostatin 5) receptor and the sixth molecule designed by the Company using its GPCR Structure-Based Drug Design (SBDD) platform to enter clinical development.

HTL0030310 has been designed to modulate the excess release of hormones from adenomas (benign tumors) of the pituitary gland. Highly elevated plasma levels of pituitary hormones result in a number of serious endocrine disorders, including Cushing’s Disease. Cushing’s disease is characterized by excessive cortisol release, crucial in regulating metabolism, maintaining cardiovascular function and helping the body respond to stress.

A key design feature of HTL0030310 is its significant selectivity for SSTR5 over SSTR2. This selectivity is expected to improve the balance of efficacy vs. dose-limiting side effects and therefore, presents an opportunity to develop a best-in-class medicine for patients with Cushing’s disease, in particular.

The clinical trial with HTL0030310 is a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled first-in-human study in which single ascending subcutaneous doses of HTL0030310 will be administered to healthy male and female adult subjects. The study is being conducted in the UK and will assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of HTL0030310 in up to 64 subjects. Preliminary results are expected in the second half of 2019 and will provide a first insight into the effects of HTL0030310 on the control of glucose and other endocrine hormones and the potential to target Cushing’s disease and other endocrine disorders.

Dr. Malcolm Weir, Executive VP and Chief R&D Officer, said: “HTL0030310 is a novel and highly selective molecule, and is the sixth candidate originating from our SBDD platform to advance into human trials. We are not only pleased to begin this new study but also delighted with the productivity of our unique platform to generate attractive candidates targeting GPCRs involved in multiple diseases. These candidates present new prospects for our emerging proprietary pipeline, as well as unique opportunities for partnering, and provide a solid foundation to execute our strategy.”

About Cushing’s disease

Cushing’s disease is a debilitating endocrine disorder caused by the overproduction of the hormone cortisol and is often triggered by a pituitary adenoma (benign tumour) secreting excess adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Cortisol has a crucial role regulating metabolism, maintaining cardiovascular function and helping the body respond to stress. Symptoms may include weight gain, central obesity, a round, red full face, severe fatigue and weakness, striae (purple stretch marks), high blood pressure, depression and anxiety. Cushing’s disease affects 10-15 million people per year, most commonly adults between 20 to 50 years and women more often than men. The first line and most common treatment approach for Cushing’s disease is surgical removal of the pituitary tumor followed by radiotherapy and drug therapy designed to reduce cortisol production.

Ref: American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS) 

About Sosei Heptares

We are an international biopharmaceutical group focused on the design and development of new medicines originating from its proprietary GPCR-targeted StaR® technology and structure-based drug design platform capabilities. The Company is advancing a broad and deep pipeline of partnered and wholly owned product candidates in multiple therapeutic areas, including CNS, immuno-oncology, gastroenterology, inflammation and other rare/specialty indications. Its leading clinical programs include partnered candidates aimed at the symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (with Allergan) and next generation immuno-oncology approaches to treat cancer (with AstraZeneca). Our additional partners and collaborators include Novartis, Pfizer, Daiichi-Sankyo, PeptiDream, Kymab and MorphoSys. The Company is headquartered in Tokyo, Japan with R&D facilities in Cambridge, UK and Zurich, Switzerland.

“Sosei Heptares” is the corporate brand of Sosei Group Corporation, which is listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange (ticker: 4565).

For more information, please visit https://www.soseiheptares.com/

LinkedIn: @soseiheptaresco | Twitter: @soseiheptaresco | YouTube: @soseiheptaresco

Forward-looking statements

This press release contains forward-looking statements, including statements about the discovery, development and commercialization of products. Various risks may cause Sosei Group Corporation’s actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements, including: adverse results in clinical development programs; failure to obtain patent protection for inventions; commercial limitations imposed by patents owned or controlled by third parties; dependence upon strategic alliance partners to develop and commercialize products and services; difficulties or delays in obtaining regulatory approvals to market products and services resulting from development efforts; the requirement for substantial funding to conduct research and development and to expand commercialization activities; and product initiatives by competitors. As a result of these factors, prospective investors are cautioned not to rely on any forward-looking statements. We disclaim any intention or obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

View original content:https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/sosei-heptares-starts-new-clinical-development-program-300798591.html

SOURCE Sosei Heptares

Active Cushing’s disease is characterized by increased adipose tissue macrophage presence

Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism — Lee IT, et al. | February 07, 2019

Using immunohistochemistry, researchers determined whether adipose tissue (AT) inflammation in humans is associated with chronic endogenous glucocorticoid (GC) exposure due to Cushing’s disease (CD).

Abdominal subcutaneous AT samples were evaluated for macrophage infiltration and mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in 10 patients with active CD and 10 age, gender and BMI- matched healthy subjects.

The presence of AT macrophages, a hallmark of AT inflammation, increases chronic exposure to GCs due to CD. AT inflammation can, therefore, be the source of systemic inflammation in these patients, which in turn can contribute to obesity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. In patients with CD, PCR showed no differences in mRNA expression of any analyzed markers.

Read the full article on Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

Transsphenoidal Surgery Leads to Remission in Children with Cushing’s Disease

Transsphenoidal surgery — a minimally invasive surgery for removing pituitary tumors in Cushing’s disease patients — is also effective in children and adolescents with the condition, leading to remission with a low rate of complications, a study reports.

The research, “Neurosurgical treatment of Cushing disease in pediatric patients: case series and review of literature,” was published in the journal Child’s Nervous System.

Transsphenoidal (through the nose) pituitary surgery is the main treatment option for children with Cushing’s disease. It allows the removal of pituitary adenomas without requiring long-term replacement therapy, but negative effects on growth and puberty have been reported.

In the study, a team from Turkey shared its findings on 10 children and adolescents (7 females) with the condition, who underwent microsurgery (TSMS) or endoscopic surgery (ETSS, which is less invasive) — the two types of transsphenoidal surgery.

At the time of surgery, the patients’ mean age was 14.8 years, and they had been experiencing symptoms for a mean average of 24.2 months. All but one had gained weight, with a mean body mass index of 29.97.

Their symptoms included excessive body hair, high blood pressure, stretch marks, headaches, acne, “moon face,” and the absence of menstruation.

The patients were diagnosed with Cushing’s after their plasma cortisol levels were measured, and there was a lack of cortical level suppression after they took a low-dose suppression treatment. Measurements of their adrenocorticotropic (ACTH) hormone levels then revealed the cause of their disease was likely pituitary tumors.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, however, only enabled tumor localization in seven patients: three with a microadenoma (a tumor smaller than 10 millimeters), and four showed a macroadenoma.

CD diagnosis was confirmed by surgery and the presence of characteristic pituitary changes. The three patients with no sign of adenoma on their MRIs showed evidence of ACTH-containing adenomas on tissue evaluation.

Eight patients underwent TSMS, and 2 patients had ETSS, with no surgical complications. The patients were considered in remission if they showed clinical adrenal insufficiency and serum cortisol levels under 2.5 μg/dl 48 hours after surgery, or a cortisol level lower than 1.8 μg/dl with a low-dose dexamethasone suppression test at three months post-surgery. Restoration of normal plasma cortisol variation, eased symptoms, and no sign of adenoma in MRI were also requirements for remission.

Eight patients (80%) achieved remission, 4 of them after TSMS. Two patients underwent additional TSMS for remission. Also, 1 patient had ETSS twice after TSMS to gain remission, while another met the criteria after the first endoscopic surgery.

The data further showed that clinical recovery and normalized biochemical parameters were achieved after the initial operation in 5 patients (50%). Three patients (30%) were considered cured after additional operations.

The mean cortisol level decreased to 8.71 μg/dl post-surgery from 23.435 μg/dl pre-surgery. All patients were regularly evaluated in an outpatient clinic, with a mean follow-up period of 11 years.

Two patients showed pituitary insufficiency. Also, 2 had persistent hypocortisolism — too little cortisol — one of whom also had diabetes insipidus, a disorder that causes an imbalance of water in the body. Radiotherapy was not considered in any case.

“Transsphenoidal surgery remains the mainstay therapy for CD [Cushing’s disease] in pediatric patients as well as adults,” the scientists wrote. “It is an effective treatment option with low rate of complications.”

 

From https://cushingsdiseasenews.com/2019/01/15/transsphenoidal-surgery-enables-cushings-disease-remission-pediatric-patients-study/

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