Osilodrostat normalizes urinary free cortisol in Cushing’s disease for most at 72 weeks

More than 80% of adults with Cushing’s disease receiving osilodrostat had normalized mean urinary free cortisol levels at 72 weeks of treatment, according to findings from the LINC 3 study extension.

“Cushing’s disease is a chronic condition, and many patients require prolonged pharmacological treatment. Therefore, evaluating long-term efficacy and safety of drug therapies in clinical trials is essential,” Maria Fleseriu, MD, FACE, professor of medicine and neurological surgery and director of the Pituitary Center at Oregon Health & Science University in Portland and a Healio | Endocrine Today co-editor, told Healio. “Our findings build on the positive results of the LINC 3 study core phase, and it was reassuring to see that continued treatment with osilodrostat for over 72 weeks provided long-term normalization of cortisol levels. Furthermore, continued treatment with osilodrostat also led to sustained improvements in clinical signs and physical manifestations of hypercortisolism, as well as health-related quality of life, which are all important factors in the management of these patients.”

Fleseriu and colleagues enrolled 106 adults with Cushing’s disease who were responders to osilodrostat (Isturisa, Recordati) at 48 weeks during the LINC 3 core study to enter the extension phase of the trial. Participants continued to receive open-label osilodrostat until 72 weeks or treatment discontinuation. Mean urinary free cortisol was collected every 12 weeks. Physical manifestations of hypercortisolism were rated at 48 and 72 weeks. Participants completed the Cushing’s Quality of Life questionnaire and Beck Depression Inventory II at 48 and 72 weeks. Adults were deemed to have completely responded to treatment if mean urinary free cortisol was less than the upper limit of normal and partially responded to treatment if mean urinary free cortisol was above the upper limit of normal but decreased more than 50% from baseline.

The findings were published in the European Journal of Endocrinology.

Of the 106 participants in the extension study, 98 completed 72 weeks of treatment. At 72 weeks, 81.1% of participants were complete responders to treatment, and reductions in mean urinary free cortisol from the core phase were maintained during the extension.

Improvements in most cardiovascular and metabolic-related parameters from the core study were maintained or improved in the extension phase. The cohort also had increases in quality of life score and improvements in Beck Depression Inventory II scores.

The proportion of participants with improvements in physical manifestation of hypercortisolism were maintained or improved in all areas at 72 weeks. For hirsutism in women, 86.4% had an improved or stable severe score at 72 weeks. Improved scores were observed in participants with mild, moderate and severe physical manifestations at baseline with few adults experiencing worse manifestations at the end of the extension study.

There were no new safety signals reported in the extension study. Of the extension study participants, 11.3% discontinued osilodrostat due to adverse events, a similar percentage to the 10.9% discontinuation rate during the core phase of the study.

Several hormone concentrations, including mean adrenocorticotropic hormone, 11-deoxycortisol and plasma aldosterone, stabilized during the extension phase after changes were observed in the core study compared with baseline. Mean testosterone in women decreased from 2.6 nmol/L at 48 weeks to 2.1 nmol/L at 72 weeks. There were no changes observed in mean testosterone levels for men.

“Patients should be regularly monitored and osilodrostat dose titrated as necessary, alongside adjustment of concomitant medications, to optimize outcomes,” the researchers wrote. “Taken together, these findings support osilodrostat as an effective and well-tolerated long-term treatment option for patients with Cushing’s disease.”

For more information:

Maria Fleseriu, MD, FACE, can be reached at fleseriu@ohsu.edu.

From https://www.healio.com/news/endocrinology/20220914/osilodrostat-normalizes-urinary-free-cortisol-in-cushings-disease-for-most-at-72-weeks

Results Reinforce Efficacy of Recordati’s Isturisa in Cushing’s Disease

Recordati Rare Diseases, a US biopharma that forms part of the wider Italian group, has presented multiple positive data sets on Isturisa (osilodrostat) at the annual ENDO 2022 meeting in Atlanta, Georgia.

Isturisa is a cortisol synthesis inhibitor indicated for the treatment of adult patients with Cushing’s disease for whom pituitary surgery is not an option or has not been curative.

Among the data presented, the Phase III LINC 4 study demonstrated that Isturisa maintained normal mean urinary free cortisol long-term in patients with Cushing’s disease while the Phase III LINC 3 study found adrenal hormone levels changed during early treatment with the drug while stabilizing during long-term treatment.

The ILLUSTRATE study also showed patients treated with a prolonged titration interval tended to have greater persistence with therapy.

Mohamed Ladha, president and general manager for North America, Recordati Rare Diseases, said: “The data from these studies reinforces the efficacy and safety of Isturisa as a treatment for patients with Cushing’s disease.

“We are pleased to share these data with the endocrine community and are excited to provide patients with a much-needed step forward in the management of this rare, debilitating, and potentially life-threatening condition.”

Cushing’s disease is a rare, serious illness caused by a pituitary tumor that leads to overproduction of cortisol by the adrenal glands. Excess cortisol can contribute to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Treatment for the condition seeks to lower cortisol levels to a normal range.

Isturisa, which was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in March 2020, works by inhibiting 11-beta-hydroxylase, an enzyme responsible for the final step of cortisol biosynthesis in the adrenal gland.

From https://www.thepharmaletter.com/article/results-reinforce-efficacy-of-recordati-s-isturisa-in-cushing-s-disease

Medications Used to Treat Cushing’s

Dr. Friedman uses several medications to treat Cushing’s syndrome that are summarized in this table. Dr. Friedman especially recommends ketoconazole. An in-depth article on ketoconazole can be found on goodhormonehealth.com.

 

 

 Drug How it works Dosing Side effects
Ketoconazole  (Generic, not FDA approved in US) blocks several steps in cortisol biosynthesis Start 200 mg at 8 and 10 PM, can up titrate to 1200 mg/day • Transient increase in LFTs
• Decreased testosterone levels
• Adrenal insufficiency
Levoketoconazole (Recorlev) L-isomer of Ketoconazole Start at 150 mg at 8 and 10 PM, can uptitrate up to 1200 mg nausea, vomiting, increased blood pressure, low potassium, fatigue, headache, abdominal pain, and unusual bleeding
Isturisa (osilodrostat) blocks 11-hydroxylase 2 mg at bedtime, then go up to 2 mg at 8 and 10 pm, can go up to 30 mg  Dr. Friedman often gives with spironolactone or ketoconazole. • high testosterone (extra facial hair, acne, hair loss, irregular periods)  • low potassium
• hypertension
Cabergoline (generic, not FDA approved) D2-receptor agonist 0.5 to 7 mg • nausea,  • headache  • dizziness
Korlym (Mifepristone) glucocorticoid receptor antagonist 300-1200 mg per day • cortisol insufficiency (fatigue, nausea, vomiting, arthralgias, and headache)
• increased mineralocorticoid effects (hypertension, hypokalemia, and edema
• antiprogesterone effects (endometrial thickening)
Pasireotide (Signafor) somatostatin receptor ligand 600 μg or 900 μg twice a day Diabetes, hyperglycemia, gallbladder issues

For more information or to schedule an appointment with Dr. Friedman, go to goodhormonehealth.com

Withdrawal Study Details Effects of Levoketoconazole in Cushing’s Syndrome

Data presented at AACE 2022 detail levoketoconazole-specific effects observed among patients with endogenous Cushing’s syndrome from the phase 3 LOGICS trial.

New research presented at the American Academy of Clinical Endocrinology (AACE) annual meeting provides insight into the effects of treatment with levoketoconazole (Osilodrostat) among patients with endogenous Cushing’s syndrome.

An analysis of data from a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized withdrawal study, results of the study demonstrate levoketoconazole provided benefits across a range of etiologies and provide evidence of levoketoconazole-specific effects through the withdrawal and reintroduction of therapy during the trial.

“This LOGICS study showed that treatment with levoketoconazole benefitted patients with Cushing’s syndrome of different etiologies and a wide range in UFC elevations at baseline by frequent normalization of mUFC and concurrent improvements in serum cholesterol,” said Maria Fleseriu, MD, professor of medicine and neurological surgery and director of the Northwest Pituitary Center at Oregon Health and Science University, during her presentation. “The benefits observed were established as levoketoconazole-specific via the loss of therapeutic effect upon withdrawal to placebo and restoration upon reintroduction of levoketoconazole.”

An orally administered cortisol synthesis inhibitor approved by the US FDA for treatment of endogenous hypercortisolemia in adult patients with Cushing’s syndrome considered ineligible for surgery, levoketoconazole received approval based on results of the phase 3 open-label SONICS trial, which demonstrated . Launched on the heels of SONICS, the current trial, LOGICS, was designed as phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized withdrawal study aimed at assessing the drug-specificity of cortisol normalization in adult patients with Cushing’s syndrome through a comparison of the effects of withdrawing levoketoconazole to placebo against continuing treatment.

The trial began with an open-label titration maintenance phase followed by a double-blind randomized withdrawal phase and a subsequent restoration phase, with the randomized withdrawal and restoration phase both lasting 8 weeks. A total of 89 patients with Cushing’s syndrome received levoketoconazole to normalize mUFC. Of these, 39 patients on a stable dose for 4 weeks or more were included in the randomized withdrawal stage of the study. These 39, along with 5 completers of the SONICS trial, were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to continue therapy with levoketoconazole or placebo therapy, with 22 patients randomized to each arm.

The primary outcome of interest in the study was the proportion of patients with loss of mean urinary free cortisol response during the randomized withdrawal phase of the study, which was defined as an mUFC 1.5 times the upper limit of normal or greater or an mUFC 40% or more above baseline. Secondary outcomes of interest included mUFC normalization at the end of the randomized withdrawal phase of the study and changes in comorbidity biomarkers.

Overall, 21 of the 22 patients randomized to placebo during the withdrawal stage met the primary endpoint of loss of mUFC compared to just 9 of 22 among the levoketoconazole arm of the trial (treatment difference: -54.5% [95% CI, -75.7 to -27.4]; P=.0002). Additionally, at the conclusion of the randomization phase, mUFC normalization was observed among 11 patients in the levoketoconazole arm of the trial compared to 1 patient receiving placebo (treatment difference: 45.5% [95% CI, 19.2 to 67.9]; P=.0015).

Further analysis indicated the restoration of levoketoconazole therapy was associated with a. Reversal of loss of contrail control in most patients who had been randomized to placebo. Investigators pointed out the mean change from randomized withdrawal baseline to the end of the randomized withdrawal period in total cholesterol was -0.04 mmol/L for levoketoconazole and 0.9 mmol/L for placebo (P=.0004) and the mean change in LDL-C was -0.006 mmol/L and 0.6 mmol/L, respectively (P=0.0056), with the mean increases in cholesterol observed among the placebo arm reversed during the restoration phase.

In safety analyses, results suggest the most commonly reported adverse events seen with levoketoconazole treatment, during all study phases combined were nausea and hypokalemia, which occurred among 29% and 26% of patients, respectively. Investigators also pointed out liver-related events, QT interval prolongation, and adrenal insufficiency, which were respecified adverse events of special interest occurred among 10.7%, 10.7%, and 9.5% of patients receiving levoketoconazole, respectively.

This study, “Levoketoconazole in the Treatment of Endogenous Cushing’s Syndrome: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Withdrawal Study,” was presented at AACE 2022.

Osilodrostat Improves Physical Manifestations of Hypercortisolism for Most Adults

Osilodrostat is associated with improvements in physical manifestations of hypercortisolism and reductions in mean body weight and BMI in adults with Cushing’s syndrome, according to a speaker.

As Healio previously reported, in findings from the LINC 4 phase 3 trial, osilodrostat (Isturisa, Recordati) normalized mean urinary free cortisol level at 12 weeks in more than 75% of adults with Cushing’s disease. In new findings presented at the AACE Annual Scientific and Clinical Conference, most adults with Cushing’s syndrome participating in the LINC 3 phase 3 trial had improvements in physical manifestations of hypercortisolism 72 weeks after initiating osilodrostat, with more than 50% having no dorsal fat pad, supraclavicular fat pad, facial rubor, proximal muscle atrophy, striae, ecchymoses and hirsutism for women at 72 weeks.

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Source: Adobe Stock

“Many patients with Cushing’s syndrome suffer from clinical manifestations related to hypercortisolism,” Albert M. Pedroncelli, MD, PhD, head of clinical development and medical affairs for Recordati AG in Basel, Switzerland, told Healio. “The treatment with osilodrostat induced a rapid normalization of cortisol secretion, and improvements in physical manifestations associated with hypercortisolism were observed soon after initiation of osilodrostat and were sustained throughout the study.”

Albert M. Pedroncelli

Pedroncelli and colleagues analyzed changes in the physical manifestations of hypercortisolism in 137 adults with Cushing’s syndrome (median age, 40 years; 77.4% women) assigned osilodrostat. Dose titration took place from baseline to 12 weeks, and therapeutic doses were administered from 12 to 48 weeks, with some participants randomly assigned to withdrawal between 26 and 34 weeks. An extension phase of the trial took place from 48 to 72 weeks. Investigators subjectively rated physical manifestations of hypercortisolism in participants as none, mild, moderate or severe. Participants were evaluated at baseline and 12, 24, 34, 48 and 72 weeks.

At baseline, the majority of the study cohort had mild, moderate or severe physical manifestations of hypercortisolism in most individual categories, including dorsal fat pad, central obesity, supraclavicular fat pad, facial rubor, hirsutism in women and striae. Central obesity was the most frequent physical manifestation rated as severe.

The percentage of participants with improvements in physical manifestations of hypercortisolism increased from week 12 on for all individual manifestations evaluated in the study, and improvements were maintained through week 72. At 72 weeks, the percentage of participants who had no individual physical manifestations was higher than 50% for each category except central obesity, where 30.6% of participants had no physical manifestations.

In addition to improvement in physical manifestations, the study cohort had decreases in body weight, BMI and waist circumference at weeks 48 and 72 compared with baseline.

“The main goal of treating patients with Cushing’s syndrome is to normalize cortisol secretion,” Pedroncelli said. “The rapid reduction and normalization of cortisol levels is accompanied by improvement in the associated clinical manifestations. This represents an important objective for patients.”

From https://www.healio.com/news/endocrinology/20220512/osilodrostat-improves-physical-manifestations-of-hypercortisolism-for-most-adults

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