Cushing’s Disease Treatment Market to Witness an Outstanding Growth by 2017 – 2025

Cushing disease is caused by tumour in the pituitary gland which leads to excessive secretion of a hormone called adrenocorticotrophic (ACTH), which in turn leads to increasing levels of cortisol in the body. Cortisol is a steroid hormone released by the adrenal glands and helps the body to deal with injury or infection. Increasing levels of cortisol increases the blood sugar and can even cause diabetes mellitus. However the disease is also caused due to excess production of hypothalamus corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) which stimulates the synthesis of cortisol by the adrenal glands.

The condition is named after Harvey Cushing, the doctor who first identified the disease in 1912. Cushing disease results in Cushing syndrome. Cushing syndrome is a group of signs and symptoms developed due to prolonged exposure to cortisol.

Signs and symptoms of Cushing syndrome includes hypertension, abdominal obesity, muscle weakness, headache, fragile skin, acne, thin arms and legs, red stretch marks on stomach, fluid retention or swelling, excess body and facial hair, weight gain, acne, buffalo hump, tiredness, fatigue, brittle bones, low back pain, moon shaped face etc.

Symptoms vary from individual to individual depending upon the disease duration, age and gender of the patient.  Disease diagnosis is done by measuring levels of cortisol in patient’s urine, saliva or blood. For confirming the diagnosis, a blood test for ACTH is performed. The first-line treatment of the disease is through surgical resection of ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma, however disease management is also done through medications, Cushing disease treatment market comprises of the drugs designed for lowering the level of cortisol in the body. Thus patients suffering from Cushing disease are prescribed medications such as ketoconazole, mitotane, aminoglutethimide metyrapone, mifepristone, etomidate and pasireotide.

Request to View Tables of Content @ http://www.persistencemarketresearch.com/toc/14155

Cushing’s disease treatment market revenue is growing with a stable growth rate, this is attributed to increasing number of pipeline drugs. Also increasing interest of pharmaceutical companies to develop Cushing disease drugs is a major factor contributing to the revenue growth of Cushing disease treatment market over the forecast period. Current and emerging players’ focuses on physician education and awareness regarding availability of different drugs for curing Cushing disease, thus increasing the referral speeds, time to diagnosis and volume of diagnosed Cushing disease individuals. Growing healthcare expenditure and increasing awareness regarding Cushing syndrome aids in the revenue growth of Cushing’s disease treatment market. Increasing number of new product launches also drives the market for Cushing’s disease Treatment devices. However availability of alternative therapies for curing Cushing syndrome is expected to hamper the growth of the Cushing’s disease treatment market over the forecast period.

The Cushing’s disease Treatment market is segment based on the product type, technology type and end user

Cushing’s disease Treatment market is segmented into following types:

By Drug Type

  • Ketoconazole
  • Mitotane
  • Aminoglutethimide
  • Metyrapone
  • Mifepristone
  • Etomidate
  • Pasireotide

By End User

  • Hospital Pharmacies
  • Retail Pharmacies
  • Drug Stores
  • Clinics
  • e-Commerce/Online Pharmacies

Cushing’s disease treatment market revenue is expected to grow at a good growth rate, over the forecast period. The market is anticipated to perform well in the near future due to increasing awareness regarding the condition. Also the market is anticipated to grow with a fastest CAGR over the forecast period, attributed to increasing investment in R&D and increasing number of new product launches which is estimated to drive the revenue growth of Cushing’s disease treatment market over the forecast period.

Depending on geographic region, the Cushing’s disease treatment market is segmented into five key regions: North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific (APAC) and Middle East & Africa (MEA).

North America is occupying the largest regional market share in the global Cushing’s disease treatment market owing to the presence of more number of market players, high awareness levels regarding Cushing syndrome. Healthcare expenditure and relatively larger number of R&D exercises pertaining to drug manufacturing and marketing activities in the region. Also Europe is expected to perform well in the near future due to increasing prevalence of the condition in the region.

Asia Pacific is expected to grow at the fastest CAGR because of increase in the number of people showing the symptoms of Cushing syndrome, thus boosting the market growth of Cushing’s disease treatment market throughout the forecast period.

Some players of Cushing’s disease Treatment market includes CORCEPT THERAPEUTICS, HRA Pharma, Strongbridge Biopharma plc, Novartis AG, etc. However there are numerous companies producing branded generics for Cushing disease. The companies in Cushing’s disease treatment market are increasingly engaged in strategic partnerships, collaborations and promotional activities to capture a greater pie of market share.

Buy Now: You can now buy a single user license of the report at http://www.persistencemarketresearch.com/checkout/14155

The final report customized as per your specific requirement will be sent to your e-mail id within 7-20 days, depending on the scope of the report.

The research report presents a comprehensive assessment of the market and contains thoughtful insights, facts, historical data, and statistically supported and industry-validated market data. It also contains projections using a suitable set of assumptions and methodologies. The research report provides analysis and information according to categories such as market segments, geographies, types, technology and applications.

For more information, please e-mail us at sales@persistencemarketresearch.com

About Us 

Persistence Market Research (PMR) is a U.S.-based full-service market intelligence firm specializing in syndicated research, custom research, and consulting services. PMR boasts market research expertise across the Healthcare, Chemicals and Materials, Technology and Media, Energy and Mining, Food and Beverages, Semiconductor and Electronics, Consumer Goods, and Shipping and Transportation industries. The company draws from its multi-disciplinary capabilities and high-pedigree team of analysts to share data that precisely corresponds to clients’ business needs.

PMR stands committed to bringing more accuracy and speed to clients’ business decisions. From ready-to-purchase market research reports to customized research solutions, PMR’s engagement models are highly flexible without compromising on its deep-seated research values.

Contact

Persistence Market Research Pvt. Ltd

305 Broadway

7th Floor, New York City,

NY 10007, United States,

USA – Canada Toll Free: 800-961-0353

Email: sales@persistencemarketresearch.com

 media@persistencemarketresearch.com

 Web: http://www.persistencemarketresearch.com

Diagnosis and Treatment of Pituitary Adenomas

A Review
JAMA. 2017;317(5):516-524. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.19699

Importance  Pituitary adenomas may hypersecrete hormones or cause mass effects. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment are important.

Observations  Prevalence of pituitary adenomas ranges from 1 in 865 adults to 1 in 2688 adults. Approximately 50% are microadenomas (<10 mm); the remainder are macroadenomas (≥10 mm).

Mass effects cause headache, hypopituitarism, and visual field defects. Treatments include transsphenoidal surgery, medical therapies, and radiotherapy. Prolactinomas account for 32% to 66% of adenomas and present with amenorrhea, loss of libido, galactorrhea, and infertility in women and loss of libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility in men; they are generally treated with the dopamine agonists cabergoline and bromocriptine.

Growth hormone–secreting tumors account for 8% to 16% of tumors and usually present with enlargement of the lips, tongue, nose, hands, and feet and are diagnosed by elevated insulin-like growth factor 1 levels and growth hormone levels; initial treatment is surgical. Medical therapy with somatostatin analogues, cabergoline, and pegvisomant is often also needed.

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)–secreting tumors account for 2% to 6% of adenomas and are associated with obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and other morbidity. Measurement of a late-night salivary cortisol level is the best screening test but petrosal sinus sampling for ACTH may be necessary to distinguish a pituitary from an ectopic source.

The primary treatment of Cushing disease (hypercortisolism due to ACTH-producing adenomas, which is the cause in approximately 65% of the cases of hypercortisolism) is adenoma resection and medical therapies including ketoconazole, mifepristone, and pasireotide.

Hyperthyroidism due to thyroid-stimulating hormone–secreting tumors accounts for 1% of tumors and is treated with surgery and somatostatin analogues if not surgically cured. Clinically nonfunctioning adenomas account for 15% to 54% of adenomas and present with mass effects; surgery is generally required, although incidentally found tumors can be followed if they are asymptomatic.

Conclusions and Relevance  Patients with pituitary adenomas should be identified at an early stage so that effective treatment can be implemented. For prolactinomas, initial therapy is generally dopamine agonists. For all other pituitary adenomas, initial therapy is generally transsphenoidal surgery with medical therapy being reserved for those not cured by surgery.

Read the full text here: http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/2600472

Cushing’s Syndrome Treatments

Medications, Surgery, and Other Treatments for Cushing’s Syndrome

Written by | Reviewed by Daniel J. Toft MD, PhD

Treatment for Cushing’s syndrome depends on what symptoms you’re experiencing as well as the cause of Cushing’s syndrome.

Cushing’s syndrome is caused by an over-exposure to the hormone cortisol. This excessive hormone exposure can come from a tumor that’s over-producing either cortisol or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH—which stimulates the body to make cortisol). It can also come from taking too many corticosteroid medications over a long period of time; corticosteroids mimic the effect of cortisol in the body.

The goal of treatment is to address the over-exposure. This article walks you through the most common treatments for Cushing’s syndrome.

Gradually decreasing corticosteroid medications: If your doctor has identified that the cause of your Cushing’s syndrome is corticosteroid medications, you may be able to manage your Cushing’s syndrome symptoms by reducing the overall amount of corticosteroids you take.

It’s common for some people with certain health conditions—such as arthritis and asthma—to take corticosteroids to help them manage their symptoms. In these cases, your doctor can prescribe non-corticosteroid medications, which will allow you to reduce—or eliminate—your use of corticosteroids.

It’s important to note that you shouldn’t stop taking corticosteroid medications on your own—suddenly stopping these medications could lead to a drop in cortisol levels—and you need a healthy amount of cortisol. When cortisol levels get too low, it can cause a variety of symptoms, such as muscle weakness, fatigue, weight loss, and low blood pressure, which may be life-threatening.

Instead, your doctor will gradually reduce your dose of corticosteroids to allow your body to resume normal production of cortisol.

If for some reason you cannot stop taking corticosteroids, your doctor will monitor your condition very carefully, frequently checking to make sure your blood glucose levels as well as your bone mass levels are normal. Elevated blood glucose levels and low bone density are signs of Cushing’s syndrome.

Surgery to remove a tumor: If it’s a tumor causing Cushing’s syndrome, your doctor may recommend surgery to remove the tumor. The 2 types of tumors that can cause Cushing’s are pituitary tumors (also called pituitary adenomas) and adrenal tumors. However, other tumors in the body (eg, in the lungs or pancreas) can cause Cushing’s syndrome, too.

Pituitary adenomas are benign (non-cancerous), and most adrenal tumors are as well. However, in rare cases, adrenal tumors can be malignant (cancerous). These tumors are called adrenocortical carcinomas, and it’s important to treat them right away.

Surgery for removing a pituitary tumor is a delicate process. It’s typically performed through the nostril, and your surgeon will use tiny specialized tools. The success, or cure, rate of this procedure is more than 80% when performed by a surgeon with extensive experience. If surgery fails or only produces a temporary cure, surgery can be repeated, often with good results.

If you have surgery to remove an adrenal tumor or tumor in your lungs or pancreas, your surgeon will typically remove it through a standard open surgery (through an incision in your stomach or back) or minimally invasive surgery in which small incisions are made and tiny tools are used.

In some cases of adrenal tumors, surgical removal of the adrenal glands may be necessary.

Radiation therapy for tumors: Sometimes your surgeon can’t remove the entire tumor. If that happens, he or she may recommend radiation therapy—a type of treatment that uses high-energy radiation to shrink tumors and/or destroy cancer cells.

Radiation therapy may also be prescribed if you’re not a candidate for surgery due to various reasons, such as location or size of the tumor. Radiation therapy for Cushing’s syndrome is typically given in small doses over a period of 6 weeks or by a technique called stereotactic radiosurgery or gamma-knife radiation.

Stereotactic radiosurgery is a more precise form of radiation. It targets the tumor without damaging healthy tissue.

With gamma-knife radiation, a large dose of radiation is sent to the tumor, and radiation exposure to the healthy surrounding tissues is minimized. Usually one treatment is needed with this type of radiation.

Medications for Cushing’s syndrome: If surgery and/or radiation aren’t effective, medications can be used to regulate cortisol production in the body. However, for people who have severe Cushing’s syndrome symptoms, sometimes medications are used before surgery and radiation treatment. This can help control excessive cortisol production and reduce risks during surgery.

Examples of medications your doctor may prescribe for Cushing’s syndrome are: aminoglutethimide (eg, Cytadren), ketoconazole (eg, Nizoral), metyrapone (eg, Metopirone), and mitotane (eg, Lysodren). Your doctor will let you know what medication—or combination of medications—is right for you.

You may also need to take medication after surgery to remove a pituitary tumor or adrenal tumor. Your doctor will most likely prescribe a cortisol replacement medication. This medication helps provide the proper amount of cortisol in your body. An example of this type of medication is hydrocortisone (a synthetic form of cortisol).

Experiencing the full effects of the medication can take up to a year or longer. But in most cases and under your doctor’s careful supervision, you can slowly reduce your use of cortisol replacement medications because your body will be able to produce normal cortisol levels again on its own. However, in some cases, people who have surgery to remove a tumor that causes Cushing’s syndrome won’t regain normal adrenal function, and they’ll typically need lifelong replacement therapy.2

Treating Cushing’s Syndrome Conclusion
You may need one treatment or a combination of these treatments to effectively treat your Cushing’s syndrome. Your doctor will let you know what treatments for Cushing’s syndrome you’ll need.

From https://www.endocrineweb.com/conditions/cushings-syndrome/cushings-syndrome-treatments

Medical Therapies in Cushing’s Syndrome

Chapter

The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis in Health and Disease

pp 165-179

Date: 03 December 2016

Medical Therapies in Cushing’s Syndrome

Abstract

Medical therapy has an important, albeit secondary, role in patients with Cushing’s syndrome. While medications are not currently used as definitive therapy of this condition, they can be very effective in controlling hypercortisolism in patients who fail surgery, those who are not surgical candidates, or those whose tumor location is unknown. Medical therapies can be particularly helpful to control hypercortisolism in patients with Cushing’s disease who underwent radiation therapy and are awaiting its salutary effects.

Currently available treatment options include several steroidogenesis inhibitors (ketoconazole, metyrapone, mitotane, etomidate), which block one or several steps in cortisol synthesis in the adrenal glands, centrally acting agents (cabergoline, pasireotide), which decrease ACTH secretion, and glucocorticoid receptor antagonists, which are represented by a single agent (mifepristone). With the exception of pasireotide and mifepristone, available agents are used “off-label” to manage hypercortisolism. Several other medications are at various stages of development and may offer additional options for the management of this serious condition.

As more potential molecular targets become known and our understanding of the pathogenesis of Cushing’s syndrome improves, it is anticipated that novel, rationally designed medical therapies may emerge. Clinical trials are needed to further investigate the relative risks and benefits of currently available and novel medical therapies and examine the potential role of combination therapy in the management of Cushing’s syndrome.

Keywords

Cabergoline, Etomidate, Ketoconazole, Levoketoconazole, Metyrapone, Mifepristone, Mitotane, Osilodrostat, Pasireotide, Pituitary adenoma

Cushing’s Syndrome Masquerading as Treatment Resistant Depression

Indian J Psychol Med. 2016 May-Jun; 38(3): 246–248.
PMCID: PMC4904762

Abstract

Treatment resistant depression (TRD) is a common clinical occurrence among patients treated for major depressive disorder. A significant proportion of patients remain significantly depressed in spite of aggressive pharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches. Management of patient with treatment resistant depression requires thorough evaluation for physical causes. We report a case of recurrent depressive disorder, who presented with severe depressive episode without psychotic symptoms, not responding to multiple adequate trials of antidepressants, who on investigation was found to have Cushing’s syndrome and responded well to Ketoconazole.

Keywords: Antiglucocorticoid drugs, Cushing’s syndrome, treatment-resistant depression

INTRODUCTION

The main aim of management of depression is remission of the episode. However, in a proportion of the patients with major depression, despite the use of adequate antidepressant doses for the adequate duration, clinical remission is not achieved. Although there is no consensus, but in general it is accepted that those patients with major depression who do not respond to 2-3 adequate trials of antidepressants are considered to have treatment-resistant depression (TRD).[1] Some of the authors[2] have suggested staging for TRD and based on the level of nonresponse the patient is allocated to different stages of TRD. The prevalence of TRD varies depending on the stage.[1] It is suggested that whenever a patient present’s with TRD, a thorough evaluation needs to be done to evaluate the underlying organic and psychosocial causes.[1] We here, report a case of recurrent depressive disorder, current episode severe depressive episode without psychotic symptoms, who did not respond to adequate trials of antidepressants and showed minimal response to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). In view of the lack of remission, on investigation she was found to have adrenal adenoma and raised cortisol levels. She was managed with ketoconazole 400 mg/day along with the continuation of antidepressants with which she achieved remission.

CASE REPORT

Mrs. A, 40-year-old, known case of recurrent depressive disorder, with first episode occurring at the age of 36 years, with two episodes in the past which responded to antidepressant treatment, presented with severe depressive episode without psychotic symptoms of 18 months duration. For the current episode, the onset was insidious with the evolution of symptoms over the period of 1-month, without any precipitating event and the course was continuous for the current episode. Her clinical presentation was characterized by persistent sadness of mood with morning worsening, poor interaction, anhedonia, lethargy, psychomotor retardation, sleep disturbance in the form of difficulty in falling asleep with frequent midnight awakenings, reduced appetite associated with weight loss of 3 kg, reduced libido, ideas of guilt, suicidal ideations, suicidal planning with one unsuccessful attempt and off and on anxiety symptoms. Her treatment history revealed that during the current episode she was treated with tablet paroxetine 12.5-37.5 mg/day for 4 months, tablet mirtazapine 15-30 mg/day for 3 months, tablet imipramine up to 175 mg/day for 5 months, C. venlafaxine up to 300 mg/day for 2 months with no response. Later she was treated with C. venlafaxine 300 mg/day along with thyroxine 75 µg/day (for 2 months) and C. venlafaxine 300 mg/day and lithium 600 mg/day for a period of 2 months but with minimal improvement. Her compliance with the medication throughout was satisfactory.

Her general physical examination and systemic examination were normal. On mental status examination, she had sadness of mood, psychomotor retardation, ideas of hopelessness, worthlessness, guilt, and suicidal ideas. Investigations in the form of hemogram, liver function test, renal function test, serum electrolytes, thyroid function test, serum vitamin B12 levels were did not reveal any abnormality. Her magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the brain did not show any abnormality. Her psychosocial history did not reveal any evidence of chronic stressors and her family was very supportive. There was no history suggestive of mania, psychotic symptoms, alcohol or drug abuse, seizure, head injury, and cognitive decline. Her Hamilton Depression Rating scale (HDRS) score was 35.

She was continued on C. venlafaxine 300 mg/day along with tablet lithium carbonate 300 mg/day (with serum levels in the therapeutic range). In addition, due to lack of response to adequate doses of antidepressants she was treated with 14 sessions of modified ECT over the period of 6 weeks with minimal improvement (HDRS score reduced to 32). In view of the lack of response to ECT, further investigations were done for Cushing’s syndrome although her physical examination was not suggestive of the same. Workup for Cushing’s syndrome revealed raised plasma cortisol level (722.7 nmol/L [normal range 193-634 nmol/L]), dexamethasone nonsuppression and reduced plasma adreno corticotrophin hormone. MRI scan of the abdomen revealed small homogenous, well-defined lesion measuring 2 cm in the adrenal cortex with clear margins suggestive of an adrenal adenoma. She was advised surgical intervention for the same. However, she was reluctant for the same. As a result, she was started on tablet ketoconazole 200 mg/day and increased to 400 mg/day over next 15 days along with the continuation of C. venlafaxine 300 mg/day. Patient improvement was monitored clinically and using HAM-D score. Over a period of next 4 weeks, the patient showed significant improvement in her depressive symptoms with no associated side effects. Her HDRS score reduced from 32 to 5. After remission she was clinically monitored. She has been maintaining well on tablet ketoconazole 400 mg/day and of C. venlafaxine 225 mg/day for the last 4 years. Her adrenal mass has been monitored with no increase in the size of the tumor.

DISCUSSION

According to the staging of TRD by Thase and Rush,[2] the index case can be considered as stage-5 TRD, that is, patient who has not responded to antidepressants of two different classes, tricyclic antidepressants and ECT. In addition, the patient had also not responded to augmentation with thyroxine and lithium. It is suggested that whenever a patient presents with TRD, first there is a need to evaluate the patient for pseudo-resistance. The factors that contribute to pseudo-resistance include poor compliance, inadequate dosing, and discontinuation of antidepressant before adequate duration.[3] The history of the index case did not reveal the same. In view of the stage-5 nonresponse, she was empirically evaluated for Cushing’s syndrome and was found to have positive evidence for the same. Addition of ketoconazole led to remission of the episode.

Due to the role of stress and involvement of cortisol in understanding the etiopathogenesis of depression, researchers have used antiglucocorticoid drugs such as metyrapone, aminoglutethimide, ketoconazole, and Mifepristone in the management of TRD. In a review, which included 11 studies, authors reported that 67-77% of the patients show at least a partial antidepressant response and largest two series documenting response rates of 70-73%.[4]

Our case highlights the fact that while dealing with patients with TRD, psychiatrists should look into all possible medical causes for depression. Further, our case suggests that antiglucocorticoid medications can be considered in patients with TRD who do not respond to conventional treatments.

Footnotes

Source of Support: Nil

Conflict of Interest: None.

REFERENCES

1. Nemeroff CB. Prevalence and management of treatment-resistant depression. J Clin Psychiatry. 2007;68(Suppl 8):17–25. [PubMed]
2. Thase ME, Rush AJ. When at first you don’t succeed: Sequential strategies for antidepressant nonresponders. J Clin Psychiatry. 1997;58(Suppl 13):23–9. [PubMed]
3. Souery D, Papakostas GI, Trivedi MH. Treatment-resistant depression. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006;67(Suppl 6):16–22. [PubMed]
4. Wolkowitz OM, Reus VI. Treatment of depression with antiglucocorticoid drugs. Psychosom Med.1999;61:698–711. [PubMed]

Articles from Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine are provided here courtesy of Medknow Publications
%d bloggers like this: