Cushing’s Disease Treatment Market to Witness an Outstanding Growth by 2017 – 2025

Cushing disease is caused by tumour in the pituitary gland which leads to excessive secretion of a hormone called adrenocorticotrophic (ACTH), which in turn leads to increasing levels of cortisol in the body. Cortisol is a steroid hormone released by the adrenal glands and helps the body to deal with injury or infection. Increasing levels of cortisol increases the blood sugar and can even cause diabetes mellitus. However the disease is also caused due to excess production of hypothalamus corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) which stimulates the synthesis of cortisol by the adrenal glands.

The condition is named after Harvey Cushing, the doctor who first identified the disease in 1912. Cushing disease results in Cushing syndrome. Cushing syndrome is a group of signs and symptoms developed due to prolonged exposure to cortisol.

Signs and symptoms of Cushing syndrome includes hypertension, abdominal obesity, muscle weakness, headache, fragile skin, acne, thin arms and legs, red stretch marks on stomach, fluid retention or swelling, excess body and facial hair, weight gain, acne, buffalo hump, tiredness, fatigue, brittle bones, low back pain, moon shaped face etc.

Symptoms vary from individual to individual depending upon the disease duration, age and gender of the patient.  Disease diagnosis is done by measuring levels of cortisol in patient’s urine, saliva or blood. For confirming the diagnosis, a blood test for ACTH is performed. The first-line treatment of the disease is through surgical resection of ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma, however disease management is also done through medications, Cushing disease treatment market comprises of the drugs designed for lowering the level of cortisol in the body. Thus patients suffering from Cushing disease are prescribed medications such as ketoconazole, mitotane, aminoglutethimide metyrapone, mifepristone, etomidate and pasireotide.

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Cushing’s disease treatment market revenue is growing with a stable growth rate, this is attributed to increasing number of pipeline drugs. Also increasing interest of pharmaceutical companies to develop Cushing disease drugs is a major factor contributing to the revenue growth of Cushing disease treatment market over the forecast period. Current and emerging players’ focuses on physician education and awareness regarding availability of different drugs for curing Cushing disease, thus increasing the referral speeds, time to diagnosis and volume of diagnosed Cushing disease individuals. Growing healthcare expenditure and increasing awareness regarding Cushing syndrome aids in the revenue growth of Cushing’s disease treatment market. Increasing number of new product launches also drives the market for Cushing’s disease Treatment devices. However availability of alternative therapies for curing Cushing syndrome is expected to hamper the growth of the Cushing’s disease treatment market over the forecast period.

The Cushing’s disease Treatment market is segment based on the product type, technology type and end user

Cushing’s disease Treatment market is segmented into following types:

By Drug Type

  • Ketoconazole
  • Mitotane
  • Aminoglutethimide
  • Metyrapone
  • Mifepristone
  • Etomidate
  • Pasireotide

By End User

  • Hospital Pharmacies
  • Retail Pharmacies
  • Drug Stores
  • Clinics
  • e-Commerce/Online Pharmacies

Cushing’s disease treatment market revenue is expected to grow at a good growth rate, over the forecast period. The market is anticipated to perform well in the near future due to increasing awareness regarding the condition. Also the market is anticipated to grow with a fastest CAGR over the forecast period, attributed to increasing investment in R&D and increasing number of new product launches which is estimated to drive the revenue growth of Cushing’s disease treatment market over the forecast period.

Depending on geographic region, the Cushing’s disease treatment market is segmented into five key regions: North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific (APAC) and Middle East & Africa (MEA).

North America is occupying the largest regional market share in the global Cushing’s disease treatment market owing to the presence of more number of market players, high awareness levels regarding Cushing syndrome. Healthcare expenditure and relatively larger number of R&D exercises pertaining to drug manufacturing and marketing activities in the region. Also Europe is expected to perform well in the near future due to increasing prevalence of the condition in the region.

Asia Pacific is expected to grow at the fastest CAGR because of increase in the number of people showing the symptoms of Cushing syndrome, thus boosting the market growth of Cushing’s disease treatment market throughout the forecast period.

Some players of Cushing’s disease Treatment market includes CORCEPT THERAPEUTICS, HRA Pharma, Strongbridge Biopharma plc, Novartis AG, etc. However there are numerous companies producing branded generics for Cushing disease. The companies in Cushing’s disease treatment market are increasingly engaged in strategic partnerships, collaborations and promotional activities to capture a greater pie of market share.

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8 Things You Should Know About Addison’s Disease

adrenal-insufficiency

 

Cortisol gets a bad rap these days. (Guilty!) Yes, this hormone surges when you’re stressed. And yes, chronic stress is bad news for your health. But while too much cortisol can lead to all sorts of stress-related side effects, too little cortisol is equally debilitating.

Just ask someone with Addison’s disease. If you suffer from this condition, your adrenal glands fail to make adequate amounts of cortisol, says Betul Hatipoglu, MD, an endocrinologist at Cleveland Clinic.

Cortisol plays a role in regulating your blood pressure, heart function, digestion, and a lot else, Hatipoglu explains. So if your adrenal glands poop out and your cortisol levels plummet, a lot can go wrong. (In as little as 30 days, you can be a whole lot slimmer, way more energetic, and so much healthier just by following the simple, groundbreaking plan in The Thyroid Cure!)

Here’s what you need to know about this condition—starting with its craziest symptom.

It can make your teeth appear whiter.

Hatipoglu once met with a patient who was suffering from fatigue, belly pain, and mild weight loss. “Her doctors thought she was depressed,” Hatipoglu recalls. Toward the end of their appointment, Hatipoglu noticed the woman’s teeth looked very white. She realized they looked white because the woman’s skin was tan. “I asked her if she’d been on vacation, and she said she hadn’t been in the sun, and that’s when I knew,” Hatipoglu says. Some Addison’s-related hormone shifts can make the skin appear darker, almost like a tan. “Addison’s is the only disease I know of that can cause darkening of the skin,” she says.

Its (other) symptoms are popular ones.

 Along with darker skin, other symptoms of Addison’s include nausea, mild-to-severe abdominal or bone pain, weight loss, a lack of energy, forgetfulness, and low blood pressure, Hatipoglu says. Of course, those same symptoms are linked to many other health issues, from thyroid disease to cancer. “It’s very easy to confuse with other disorders, so many people see a lot of doctors before finally receiving a proper diagnosis,” she says. (One exception: For young women who develop Addison’s disease, loss of body hair is a warning sign, Hatipoglu adds.)
It’s rare.
Doctors also miss or misinterpret the symptoms of Addison’s disease because it’s very uncommon. “I’m not sure if it’s quite one in a million, but it’s very rare,” Hatipoglu says. “It makes sense that many doctors don’t think of it when examining a patient with these symptoms.”
It’s often confused with adrenal insufficiency.

A lot of online resources mention Addison’s disease and adrenal insufficiency as though they were two names for the same condition. They’re not the same, Hatipoglu says. While a thyroid issue or some other hormone-related imbalance could mess with your adrenal function, Addison’s disease refers to an autoimmune disorder in which your body attacks and destroys your adrenal glands.

That destruction can happen quickly.

While it takes months or even years for some Addison’s sufferers to lose all hormone production in their adrenal glands, for others the disease can knock out those organs very rapidly—in a matter of days, Hatipoglu says. “That’s very uncommon,” she adds. But compared to other less-severe adrenal issues, the symptoms of Addison’s tend to present more dramatically, she explains. That means a sufferer is likely to experience several of the symptoms mentioned above, and those symptoms will continue to grow worse as time passes.

Anybody can get it.

Addison’s is not picky. It can strike at any age, regardless of your sex or ethnicity, Hatipoglu says. While there’s some evidence that genetics may play a role—if other people in your family have the disease or some other endocrine disorder, that may increase your risk—there’s really no way to predict who will develop the disease, she adds.

Screening for Addison’s is pretty simple.

If your doctor suspects Addison’s, he or she will conduct a blood test to check for your levels of cortisol and another hormone called ACTH. “Usually the results of that screening are very clear,” Hatipoglu says. If they’re not, some follow-up tests can determine for sure if you have the condition.

There are effective treatments.

Those treatments involve taking oral hormone supplements.  In extreme cases, if the patient’s body does not properly absorb those supplements, injections may be necessary, Hatipoglu explains. “But patients live a normal life,” she adds. “It’s a treatable disease, and the treatments are effective.”

From http://www.prevention.com/health/addisons-disease-symptoms

Cushing’s Syndrome and Skin Problems

By Afsaneh Khetrapal, BSc (Hons)

Cushing’s Syndrome (sometimes called hypercortisolism) is a hormonal disease caused by an abnormally high level of the hormone cortisol in the body. This may arise because of an endogenous or exogenous source of cortisol. Endogenous causes include the elevated production of cortisol by the adrenal glands, while exogenous causes include the excessive use of cortisol or other similar steroid (glucocorticoid) hormones over a prolonged period of time.

The adrenal glands are situated just above each kidney, and form part of the endocrine system. They have numerous functions such as the production of hormones called catecholamines, which includes epinephrine and norepinephrine. Interestingly, the outer layer (cortex) of the adrenal glands has the distinct responsibility of producing cortisol. This hormone is best known for its crucial role in the bodily response to stress.

At physiologically appropriate levels, cortisol is vital in maintaining normal sleep-wake cycles, and acts to increase blood sugar levels. It suppresses the immune system, regulates the effect of insulin on the metabolism of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates, and help with the homeostasis of water in the body.

Exogenous corticosteroids can also lead to Cushing’s syndrome, when they are used as a form of long-term treatment for various medical conditions. In fact, the long-term use of steroid medication is the most common reason for the development of Cushing’s syndrome.

Prednisolone is the most commonly prescribed steroid medicine. It belongs to a class of medicine that is sometimes used to treat conditions such as certain forms of arthritis and cancer. Other uses include the rapid and effective reduction of inflammation in conditions such as asthma and multiple sclerosis (MS), as well as the treatment of autoimmune conditions such as lupus erythematosus, and rheumatoid arthritis.

Overall, Cushing’s syndrome is quite uncommon and affects approximately 1 in 50,000 people. Most of them are adults between the ages of 20 and 50.  Women are 3 times more commonly affected than men. Additionally, patients who are obese, or those who have type 2 diabetes with poorly controlled blood sugar and blood pressure show a greater predisposition to the disorder.

Symptoms of Cushing’s syndrome

There are numerous symptoms associated with Cushing’s syndrome, which range from muscle weakness, hypertension, curvature of the spine (kyphosis), osteoporosis, and depression, to fatigue Specific symptoms which pertain to the skin are as follows:

  • Thinning of the skin and other mucous membranes: the skin becomes dry and bruises easily. Cortisol causes the breakdown of some dermal proteins along with the weakening of small blood vessels. In fact, the skin may become so weak as to develop a shiny, paper-thin quality which allows it to be torn easily.
  • Increased susceptibility of skin to infections
  • Poor wound healing  of bruises, cuts, and scratches
  • Spots appear on the upper body, that is, on the face, chest or shoulders
  • Darkened skin which is seen on the neck
  • Wide, red-purple streaks (at least half an inch wide) called striae which are most common on the sides of the torso, the lower abdomen, thighs, buttocks, arms, and breasts, or in areas of weight gain. The accumulation of fat caused by Cushing’s syndrome stretches the skin which is already thin and weakened due to cortisol action, causing it to hemorrhage and stretch permanently, healing by fibrosis.
  • Acne: this can develop in patients of all ages.
  • Swollen ankles: this is caused by the accumulation of fluid, called edema.
  • Hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating)

Reviewed by Dr Liji Thomas, MD

From http://www.news-medical.net/health/Cushings-Syndrome-and-Skin-Problems.aspx

Experimental Drug Improves Cushing’s Disease

International phase 3 trial is largest study ever of rare endocrine disorder

A new investigational drug significantly reduced urinary cortisol levels and improved symptoms of Cushing’s disease in the largest clinical study of this endocrine disorder ever conducted.

Results of the clinical trial conducted at centers on four continents appear in the March 8 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine and show that treatment with pasireotide cut cortisol secretion an average of 50 percent and returned some patients’ levels to normal.

“Cushing’s disease is a rare disorder, with three to five cases per million people. It can affect all ages and both genders but is most common in otherwise healthy young women,” says Harvard Medical School Professor of Medicine Beverly M.K. Biller of the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Neuroendocrine Unit, senior author of the study.

“Often misdiagnosed, Cushing’s is associated with a broad range of health problems – causing physical changes, metabolic abnormalities, and emotional difficulties – and if not controlled, significantly increases patients’ risk of dying much younger than expected,” Biller says.

Cushing’s disease, one of several conditions that lead to Cushing’s syndrome, is characterized by chronically elevated secretion of the hormone cortisol. The disease is caused by a benign pituitary tumor that oversecretes the hormone ACTH, which in turn induces increased cortisol secretion by the adrenal glands.

Symptoms of Cushing’s syndrome include weight gain, hypertension, mood swings, irregular or absent periods, abnormalities of glucose processing (insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and type 2 diabetes), and cardiovascular disease. Because those symptoms are associated with many health problems, physicians may not consider the rare possibility of Cushing’s. The diagnosis can be difficult to make and usually requires the expertise of an endocrinologist. Because cortisol levels normally fluctuate during the day, a single blood test is unlikely to identify chronic elevation, and thus the most common diagnostic test measures a patient’s 24-hour urinary output.

First-line treatment for Cushing’s disease is surgical removal of the ACTH-secreting tumor, which leads to remission in 65 to 90 percent of patients. But symptoms return in 10 to 30 percent of those patients, requiring repeat surgery, radiation therapy, or treatment with drugs that interfere with part of the cortisol control system. Until last month, there was no specific FDA-approved medical treatment for Cushing’s syndrome; the newly approved drug mifepristone should benefit some patients, but it does not affect the pituitary source of the condition or reduce cortisol levels.

The current phase 3 trial of pasireotide — the first drug that blocks ACTH secretion by binding to somatostatin receptors on the pituitary tumor — was sponsored by Novartis Pharma. The trial enrolled 162 patients at 62 sites in 18 countries. Nearly 85 percent of participants had either persistent disease that had not responded to surgery or had recurrent disease; the other 15 percent were recently diagnosed but not appropriate candidates for surgery.

Participants were randomly assigned to two groups, one starting at two daily 600-microgram injections of pasireotide and the other receiving 900-microgram doses. Three months into the 12-month trial, participants whose urinary cortisol levels remained more than twice the normal range had their dosage levels increased. During the rest of the trial, dosage could be further increased, if necessary, or reduced if side effects occurred.

At the end of the study period, many patients had a significant decrease in their urinary cortisol levels, with 33 achieving levels within normal range at their original dosage by month six of the trial. Participants whose baseline levels were less than five times the upper limit of normal were more likely to achieve normal levels than those with higher baseline levels, and the average urinary cortisol decrease across all participants was approximately 50 percent. Many Cushing’s disease symptoms decreased, and it became apparent within the first two months whether or not an individual was going to respond to pasireotide.

Transient gastrointestinal discomfort, known to be associated with medications in the same family as pasireotide, was an expected side effect. Another side effect was elevated glucose levels in 73 percent of participants, something not seen to the same extent with other medications in this family. These elevated levels will require close attention, because many Cushing’s patients already have trouble metabolizing glucose. Biller explains, “Those patients who already were diabetic had the greatest increases in blood sugar, and those who were pre-diabetic were more likely to become diabetic than those who began with normal blood sugar. However, elevations were even seen in those who started at normal glucose levels, so this is real and needs to be monitored carefully.”

Additional trials of pasireotide are in the works, and a phase 3 study of a long-acting version of the drug was recently announced. Biller notes that the potential addition of pasireotide to available medical treatments for Cushing’s disease would have a number of advantages. “It’s very important to have medications that work at different parts of the cortisol control system – which is the case for the currently used medications that work at the adrenal gland level; pasireotide, which works at the pituitary gland; and mifepristone, which blocks the action of cortisol at receptors in the body. Having more options that work in different ways is valuable because not all patients respond to one medicine and some may be unable to tolerate a specific drug’s side effects.

“As we have more drugs available to treat Cushing’s,” Biller adds, “I think in the long run we may start using combinations of drugs, which is the approach we use in some patients with acromegaly, another disorder in which a pituitary tumor causes excess hormone secretion. Ultimately, we hope to be able to give lower doses leading to fewer overall side effects, but that remains to be determined by future studies.”

Annamaria Colao, University of Naples, Italy, is the lead author of the report. Additional co-authors are Stephan Petersenn, University of Duisberg-Essen, Germany; John Newell-Price, University of Sheffield, U.K.; James Findling, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee; Feng Gu, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing; Mario Maldonado, Ulrike Schoenherr, and David Mills, Novartis Pharma; and Luiz Roberto Salgado, University of São Paulo Medical School, Brazil.

From http://dailyrecords.us/experimental-drug-improves-cushings-disease/

Video: Adrenalectomy for Cushing’s Syndrome Surgical Management

Adrenalectomy for Cushing Syndrome Surgical Management by Dr Anup Gulati

History of Patient
A 35 yrs old female with complaint of…
Weight Gain over last 2 years (weighing 115 kg at present)
Pulse 70, BP 124/76. No history of episodes of hypertension.
CECT whole abdomen suggestive of left adrenal 5×5 cm cystic mass
Dexamethasone suppression test positive for Cushing’s disease.
Rest all hormone profile normal.

Adrenal glands are attached with kidneys sometimes release excess hormones which cause cushing’s disease. Urologists do Adrenalectomy procedure which can cure Cushing’s disease.

 

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