Bilateral Adrenalectomy Negatively Affects Quality of Life in Cushing’s Patients

Bilateral adrenalectomy, in which the adrenal glands are removed, has a bigger negative impact on the quality of life of patients with Cushing’s disease than other treatment options, a recent study suggests.

This may be due to the longer exposure to high levels of cortisol in these patients, which is known to greatly affect their quality of life, the authors hypothesize.

The study, “Bilateral adrenalectomy in Cushing’s disease: Altered long-term quality of life compared to other treatment options,” was published in the journal Annales d’Endocrinologie.

Cushing’s disease is caused by a tumor in the pituitary gland in the brain that secretes large amounts of adrenocorticotropic hormone, which, in turn, stimulates the adrenal glands to produce high levels of cortisol (a glucocorticoid hormone).

The gold standard for treating Cushing’s disease is the surgical removal of the pituitary gland tumor. However, 31% of these patients still require a second-line treatment — such as another surgery, radiotherapy, medical treatment, and/or bilateral adrenalectomy — due to persistent or recurrent disease.

Bilateral adrenalectomy is increasingly used to treat patients with Cushing’s disease, with high rates of success and low mortality rates. However, since the absence of adrenal glands leads to a sharp drop in cortisol, this treatment implies lifelong glucocorticoid replacement therapy and increases the risk of developing Nelson syndrome.

Nelson syndrome is characterized by the enlargement of the pituitary gland and the development of pituitary gland tumors, and is estimated to occur in 15-25% of Cushing’s patients who have a bilateral adrenalectomy.

Despite being cured with any of these treatment options, patients still seem to have a lower quality of life than healthy people. In addition, there is limited data on the impact of several of the treatment options on quality of life.

Researchers in France evaluated the long-term quality of life of Cushing’s disease patients who underwent bilateral adrenalectomy and compared it with other therapeutic options.

Quality of life was assessed through three questionnaires: one of general nature, the Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36); one on disease-specific symptoms, the Cushing QoL questionnaire; and the last focused on mental aspects, the Beck depression inventory (BDI).

Researchers analyzed the medical data, as well as the results of the questionnaires, of 34 patients with Cushing’s disease — 24 women and 10 men — at two French centers. The patients’ mean age was 49.3, and 17 had undergone bilateral adrenalectomy, while the remaining 17 had surgery, radiotherapy, or medical treatment.

Results showed that patients who underwent a bilateral adrenalectomy were exposed to high levels of cortisol significantly longer (6.1 years) than those on other treatment options (1.3 years). This corresponds with the fact that this surgery is conducted only in patients with severe disease that was not controlled with first-line and/or second-line treatment.

These patients also showed a lower quality of life — particularly in regards to the general health, bodily pain, vitality, and social functioning aspects of the SF-36 questionnaire, and the Cushing QoL questionnaire and BDI — compared with those who underwent other therapeutic options.

This and other studies support the hypothesis that these patients’ lower quality of life may be caused by longer exposure to high cortisol levels, and “its physical and psychological consequences, as well as the repeated treatment failures,” according to the researchers. Additionally, the presence of Nelson syndrome in these patients was associated with a significantly lower quality of life related to mental aspects.

The team also found that adrenal gland insufficiency was a major predictor of a lower quality of life in these patients, regardless of the therapeutic option, suggesting it may have a stronger negative impact than the type of treatment.

They noted, however, that additional and larger prospective studies are necessary to confirm these results.

From https://cushingsdiseasenews.com/2018/09/28/bilateral-adrenalectomy-lowers-cushing-patients-quality-life-study/

Etomidate Found Effective in Severe Cushing’s Syndrome

Etomidate — a steroid synthesis blocker — is an effective treatment for patients with severe Cushing’s syndrome who do not respond to ketoconazole, according to a new case report from Mexico.

The report, “Etomidate in the control of severe Cushing’s syndrome by neuroendocrine carcinoma,” appeared in the journal Clinical Case Reports.

The investigators reported the case of a 51-year-old woman with ectopic Cushing’s syndrome caused by a pancreatic tumor. Ectopic Cushing’s refers to cases of excess secretion of adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) outside the pituitary or adrenal glands.

The patient underwent distal pancreatectomy — the surgical removal of the bottom half of the pancreas — in 2015 due to an ACTH-secreting tumor. Although she had a good initial response, liver metastasis was evident by 2016.

Compared to measurements in 2016, morning blood cortisol, 24-hour urinary-free cortisol, and ACTH levels significantly increased in 2017. The patient also showed low levels of the luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormones, which the scientists attributed to her severe hypercortisolism (excess cortisol levels).

The woman was being treated with ketoconazole to lower her cortisol values and later received chemoembolization — a method to reduce blood supply and deliver chemotherapy directly to a tumor — for her liver metastasis.

Although ketoconazole is generally the treatment of choice for the control of hormone production in the adrenal glands, its effectiveness is often limited and is associated with side effects, clinicians noted.

In April 2017, the patient arrived at the emergency room with sepsis — a potentially life-threatening complication of an infection — that originated in the gut.

Because ketoconazole had failed to lower cortisol levels, the patient started receiving infused etomidate, an inhibitor of the enzyme 11‐beta‐hydroxylase that prevents cortisol synthesis.

This treatment was stopped one day before the bilateral removal of the adrenal glands as a definitive treatment for the elevated production of cortisol.

While the patient experienced decreased levels of potassium, calcium, and magnesium with an initial dose of 0.04 mg per kg body weight an hour of etomidate, a gradual decrease of etomidate — depending on her cortisol levels — corrected these alterations.

After surgery, the patient showed a significant improvement in her general health, including control of her sepsis. She is currently taking hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone, with treatment for liver metastasis pending.

“Etomidate is a very effective drug in severe Cushing’s syndrome that is refractory to ketoconazole,” the researchers wrote.

“Control of the serum cortisol levels in ectopic Cushing’s syndrome can be obtained with infusion rates much lower than those used in anesthesia, without respiratory side effects,” they added.

The authors recommend an initial dose of etomidate of 0.04 mg/kg per hour, daily monitoring of 24-hour urinary cortisol and cortisol levels, and a gradual decrease of the etomidate dose according to daily measurements of metabolites.

From https://cushingsdiseasenews.com/2018/05/17/severe-cushings-syndrome-case-study-finds-etomidate-effective-therapy/

ACTH-producing Lung Tumors Hard to Detect, But May Be Cured with Surgery

Ectopic Cushing’s syndrome can be challenging to diagnose, especially when it comes identifying the problem source. But appropriate hormone management protocols, used in combination with advanced imaging methods, may help physicians identify ectopic ACTH-producing tumors.

The findings in a case report of a young man with ectopic Cushing’s syndrome were published in the International Journal of Surgery Case Reports, under the title “Case report: Ectopic Cushing’s syndrome in a young male with hidden lung carcinoid tumor.”

Cushing’s syndrome is caused by high amounts of glucocoticosteroids in the blood. The most common cause is a malfunction of the glands that produce these hormones. In some cases, however, the disease may be caused by tumors elsewhere in the body that have the ability to produce adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).

In half of all Cushing’s patients, ectopic ACTH is produced by small lung cell carcinomas or lung carcinoids (a type of slow-growing lung cancer). But some tumors in the thymus and pancreas also have been found to produce ACTH.

Researchers at Damascus University Hospital in Syria presented the case of a 26-year-old man who had ectopic Cushing’s syndrome due to lung carcinoids.

The patient presented with increased appetite and rapid weight gain for more than a year. These were associated with headache, fatigue, proximal muscle weakness, and easy bruising. He had no family history of hormonal disorder.

Based on the initial physical and symptom evaluation, the clinical team suspected Cushing’s syndrome. Blood analysis revealed high levels of cortisol and ACTH hormones, which supported the diagnosis.

Administration of dexamethasone, a treatment used to inhibit the production of glucocoticosteroids by the pituitary gland, reduced cortisol levels within normal range, but not ACTH levels. This led to the diagnosis of ectopic Cushing’s syndrome.

The next step was to identify the tumor causing the syndrome. The team conducted imaging studies of the brain, chest, and abdomen, but found no tumor.

Because ectopic ACTH is commonly produced by lung cancers, the team then analyzed the patient’s lungs. Again, they failed to detect a tumor.

The patient was discharged with prescription of 200 mg of Nizoral (ketoconazole) once-daily, calcium, and vitamin D. After three months of treatment, he remained stable, with no evidence of symptom improvement.

At this point, the team decided to surgically remove both adrenal glands in an attempt to reduce the hormone levels. Treatment with prednisolone 5 mg and fludrocortisone 0.1 mg once daily was initiated, along with calcium and vitamin D.

Eighteen months later, the patient’s condition worsened and he required hospitalization.

Imaging tests targeting the neck, chest, and abdomen were conducted again. This time, physicians detected a 2 cm mass in the middle lobe of the right lung, which was removed surgically. Detailed analysis of the small tumor confirmed that it was the source of the excessive ACTH.

“ACTH secreting tumors can be very hard to detect,” the researchers stated. “Initial failed localization is common in ectopic ACTH syndrome and it is usually due to carcinoid.”

Cases where the ectopic ACTH production is caused by a carcinoid tumor can be challenging to diagnose because tumors are small and relatively slow-growing. Imaging data is often hard to analyze and the tumors can be confused with pulmonary vessels, the researchers explained.

“In such cases we should first aim to lower blood cortisol medically or through bilateral adrenalectomy to avoid Cushing’s complications,” which should then “be followed up through imaging studies (CT, MRI, scintigraphy or PET) to detect the tumor and resect it, which is the definitive treatment of these patients,” the researchers concluded.

From https://cushingsdiseasenews.com/2017/12/12/case-report-ectopic-acth-producing-lung-tumors-can-hard-detect/

Postsurgical treatment often necessary in persistent, recurrent Cushing’s disease

Nearly half of adults with Cushing’s disease that persists or recurs after surgical treatment require second and sometimes third therapeutic interventions, including pituitary surgical reintervention, radiotherapy, pharmacotherapy or bilateral adrenalectomy, study data from Mexico show.

Moisés Mercado, MD, FRCPC, of the ABC Hospital Neurological and Cancer Centers in Mexico City, and colleagues evaluated 84 adults (median age, 34 years; 77 women) with Cushing’s disease to determine the long-term efficacy of secondary interventions for persistent and recurrent Cushing’s disease. Median follow-up was 6.3 years.

Overall, 81 participants were primarily treated with transsphenoidal surgery. More than half experienced long-lasting remission (61.7%); disease remained active in 16%, who were diagnosed with persistent Cushing’s disease; and 22% experienced relapse after remission and were diagnosed with recurrent Cushing’s disease.

After the initial procedure, 18 participants required pituitary surgical reintervention, including 10 with recurrent and eight with persistent disease. Radiation therapy was administered to 14 participants, including two as primary therapy and 12 after failed pituitary surgery. Pharmacologic treatment with ketoconazole was prescribed for 15 participants at one point during the course of disease. Bilateral adrenalectomy was performed in 12 participants.

Pituitary surgical reintervention was the most commonly used secondary treatment (22.2%), followed by pharmacologic therapy with ketoconazole (16%), radiotherapy (14.8%) and bilateral adrenalectomy (14.8%). More than half of participants experienced early remissions after a second operation (66.6%) and radiotherapy (58.3%), whereas long-lasting remission was reached in only 33.3% of participants who underwent a second surgery and 41.6% of participants who underwent radiotherapy. Half of participants who underwent bilateral adrenalectomy were diagnosed with Nelson’s syndrome.

Overall, 88% of participants achieved remission, and disease was biochemically controlled with pharmacologic treatment in 9.5% of participants after their initial, secondary and third-line treatments.

“The efficacy of treatment alternatives for recurrent or persistent [Cushing’s disease] vary among patients, and often, more than one of these interventions is required in order to achieve a long-lasting remission,” the researchers wrote. – by Amber Cox

Disclosure: The researchers report no relevant financial disclosures.

From http://www.healio.com/endocrinology/adrenal/news/in-the-journals/%7B5519b312-5912-4c65-b2ed-2ece3f68e83f%7D/postsurgical-treatment-often-necessary-in-persistent-recurrent-cushings-disease

Bilateral testicular tumors resulting in recurrent Cushing’s syndrome after bilateral adrenalectomy

Corresponding author: Troy Puar, MRCP (UK), Department of Medicine, Div. of Endocrinology, Radboud University Medical Centre, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Phone: +31 243614599, Fax: +31 243618809, e-mail: Troy_puar@cgh.com.sg
Received: July 14, 2016
Accepted: November 29, 2016
First Published Online: November 30, 2016

Recurrence of hypercortisolism in patients after bilateral adrenalectomy for Cushing’s disease is extremely rare.

We present a rare case of a 27-year-old man who previously underwent bilateral adrenalectomy for Cushing’s disease with complete clinical resolution. Cushingoid features recurred 12 years later, along with bilateral testicular enlargement. Hormonal tests confirmed ACTH-dependent Cushing’s. Surgical resection of the testicular tumors led to clinical and biochemical remission.

We report bilateral testicular tumors occurring in a patient with recurrent Cushing’s disease 12 years after bilateral adrenalectomy. Using mRNA expression analysis and steroid metabolome profiling, the tumors demonstrated both adrenocortical and gonadal steroidogenic properties, similar to testicular adrenal rest tumors found in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. This suggests the presence of pluripotent cells even in patients without CAH.

– See more at: http://press.endocrine.org/doi/abs/10.1210/jc.2016-2702#sthash.F4lfWg9j.dpuf

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