Cushing’s Disease Treatment Market to Witness an Outstanding Growth by 2017 – 2025

Cushing disease is caused by tumour in the pituitary gland which leads to excessive secretion of a hormone called adrenocorticotrophic (ACTH), which in turn leads to increasing levels of cortisol in the body. Cortisol is a steroid hormone released by the adrenal glands and helps the body to deal with injury or infection. Increasing levels of cortisol increases the blood sugar and can even cause diabetes mellitus. However the disease is also caused due to excess production of hypothalamus corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) which stimulates the synthesis of cortisol by the adrenal glands.

The condition is named after Harvey Cushing, the doctor who first identified the disease in 1912. Cushing disease results in Cushing syndrome. Cushing syndrome is a group of signs and symptoms developed due to prolonged exposure to cortisol.

Signs and symptoms of Cushing syndrome includes hypertension, abdominal obesity, muscle weakness, headache, fragile skin, acne, thin arms and legs, red stretch marks on stomach, fluid retention or swelling, excess body and facial hair, weight gain, acne, buffalo hump, tiredness, fatigue, brittle bones, low back pain, moon shaped face etc.

Symptoms vary from individual to individual depending upon the disease duration, age and gender of the patient.  Disease diagnosis is done by measuring levels of cortisol in patient’s urine, saliva or blood. For confirming the diagnosis, a blood test for ACTH is performed. The first-line treatment of the disease is through surgical resection of ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma, however disease management is also done through medications, Cushing disease treatment market comprises of the drugs designed for lowering the level of cortisol in the body. Thus patients suffering from Cushing disease are prescribed medications such as ketoconazole, mitotane, aminoglutethimide metyrapone, mifepristone, etomidate and pasireotide.

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Cushing’s disease treatment market revenue is growing with a stable growth rate, this is attributed to increasing number of pipeline drugs. Also increasing interest of pharmaceutical companies to develop Cushing disease drugs is a major factor contributing to the revenue growth of Cushing disease treatment market over the forecast period. Current and emerging players’ focuses on physician education and awareness regarding availability of different drugs for curing Cushing disease, thus increasing the referral speeds, time to diagnosis and volume of diagnosed Cushing disease individuals. Growing healthcare expenditure and increasing awareness regarding Cushing syndrome aids in the revenue growth of Cushing’s disease treatment market. Increasing number of new product launches also drives the market for Cushing’s disease Treatment devices. However availability of alternative therapies for curing Cushing syndrome is expected to hamper the growth of the Cushing’s disease treatment market over the forecast period.

The Cushing’s disease Treatment market is segment based on the product type, technology type and end user

Cushing’s disease Treatment market is segmented into following types:

By Drug Type

  • Ketoconazole
  • Mitotane
  • Aminoglutethimide
  • Metyrapone
  • Mifepristone
  • Etomidate
  • Pasireotide

By End User

  • Hospital Pharmacies
  • Retail Pharmacies
  • Drug Stores
  • Clinics
  • e-Commerce/Online Pharmacies

Cushing’s disease treatment market revenue is expected to grow at a good growth rate, over the forecast period. The market is anticipated to perform well in the near future due to increasing awareness regarding the condition. Also the market is anticipated to grow with a fastest CAGR over the forecast period, attributed to increasing investment in R&D and increasing number of new product launches which is estimated to drive the revenue growth of Cushing’s disease treatment market over the forecast period.

Depending on geographic region, the Cushing’s disease treatment market is segmented into five key regions: North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific (APAC) and Middle East & Africa (MEA).

North America is occupying the largest regional market share in the global Cushing’s disease treatment market owing to the presence of more number of market players, high awareness levels regarding Cushing syndrome. Healthcare expenditure and relatively larger number of R&D exercises pertaining to drug manufacturing and marketing activities in the region. Also Europe is expected to perform well in the near future due to increasing prevalence of the condition in the region.

Asia Pacific is expected to grow at the fastest CAGR because of increase in the number of people showing the symptoms of Cushing syndrome, thus boosting the market growth of Cushing’s disease treatment market throughout the forecast period.

Some players of Cushing’s disease Treatment market includes CORCEPT THERAPEUTICS, HRA Pharma, Strongbridge Biopharma plc, Novartis AG, etc. However there are numerous companies producing branded generics for Cushing disease. The companies in Cushing’s disease treatment market are increasingly engaged in strategic partnerships, collaborations and promotional activities to capture a greater pie of market share.

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Pituitary Issues: Irregular Periods

Q: I am 28 years old and I have not yet started my periods naturally. I have to take medicine for periods — Novelon. The doctors say that there is some problem with my hormones in the pituitary gland. Please advise me how to get normal and natural periods, because after taking the medicine I get my period, but without medicines I don’t.

A by Dr Sharmaine Mitchell: The problem you have with your menstrual period being irregular is most likely due to overproduction of the hormone prolactin by the pituitary gland in the brain. The pituitary gland can sometimes enlarge and cause an overproduction of prolactin and this can result in inappropriate milk production in the breasts (white nipple discharge), irregular menstruation or absent menstrual periods, headaches and blurred vision. The blurred vision occurs as a result of compression of the optic nerve which supplies the eyes, by the enlarged brain tumour in the pituitary gland.

You should get a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or CT scan of the brain and pituitary gland done. You should also test your prolactin levels to determine the extent of overproduction of the hormone.

Other investigations should include a thyroid function test (TSH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and leutinizing hormone (LH), and baseline testosterone level tests.

Abnormalities in the production of thyroid hormones can also cause menstrual irregularities and this should be ruled out.

Polycystic ovarian disease can also cause irregular menstrual periods and checking the level of FSH, LH and testosterone will help to rule out this diagnosis. This condition is usually associated with excessive weight gain, abnormal male pattern distribution on the face, chest and abdomen and an increased risk for diabetes mellitus. A pelvic ultrasound to look at the structure of the ovaries and to rule out polycystic ovaries is essential.

If the pituitary gland is enlarged, then medication can be prescribed to shrink it. Bromocriptine or Norprolac are commonly used drugs which work well in reducing the prolactin levels and establishing regular menstrual cycles. The use of these drugs will also help to establish ovulation and improve your fertility.

In some cases it may become necessary to have surgery done if the tumour in the pituitary gland is large and does not respond to the usual medications prescribed to shrink the pituitary gland. The MRI of the brain and pituitary gland will give an idea as to the size of the gland and help to determine if there is a need for you to see the neurosurgeon.

In most cases medical management with drugs will work well and there is no need for surgical intervention. This is a problem that can recur, so it may be necessary to take treatment intermittently for a long period of time, especially if fertility is desired.

Consult your doctor who will advise you further. Best wishes.

Dr Sharmaine Mitchell is an obstetrician and gynaecologist. Send questions via e-mail to allwoman@jamaicaobserver.com; write to All Woman, 40-42 1/2 Beechwood Ave, Kingston 5; or fax to 968-2025. All responses are published. Dr Mitchell cannot provide personal responses.

DISCLAIMER:

The contents of this article are for informational purposes only and must not be relied upon as an alternative to medical advice or treatment from your own doctor.

From http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/magazines/allwoman/Still-no-normal-period-at-28_87596

Cushing’s Syndrome Epidemiology

By Yolanda Smith, BPharm

Cushing’s syndrome is considered to be a rare disorder that results from prolonged exposure to glucocorticoids. However, there are few epidemiological studies to provide adequate data to describe the incidence and prevalence of the condition accurately. Most cases are diagnosed between the ages of 20 and 50, although any individual may be affected at any age.

The presentation of the symptoms of Cushing’s syndrome can vary greatly. In addition, many of the symptoms overlap with those caused by other health conditions, such as metabolic syndrome and polycystic ovary syndrome. This can make the diagnosis of the condition difficult. It is also difficult to establish epidemiological trends in Cushing’s syndrome, because not all cases of the disease are diagnosed. However, it is important that diagnosis is made as soon as possible, because early diagnosis and treatment of the condition are associated with improved morbidity and mortality rates.

Population-based Studies

There are several population-based studies that have reported the incidence and mortality rates of Cushing’s syndrome in certain populations over a discrete period of time.

A study in Denmark followed 166 patients with Cushing’s syndrome for 11 years, finding an incidence of 2 cases per million population per year. Of the 166 patients, 139 had benign disease. There was a mortality rate of 16.5% in the follow-up period of 8 years, with most deaths occurring in the year after the initial diagnosis, often before the initiation of treatment. The causes of death of patients with Cushing’s syndrome in the study included severe infections, cardiac rupture, stroke and suicide.

A study in Spain found 49 cases of Cushing’s syndrome over a period of 18 years, with an incidence of 2.4 cases per million inhabitants per year and a prevalence of 39.1 cases per million. The standard mortality ratio in this study was 3.8, in addition to an increase in morbidity rates.

Incidence

A low incidence of endogenous Cushing’s syndrome was established by the population-based studies outlined above, corresponding to approximately 2 cases per million. Some studies have an estimated incidence as low as 0.7 people per million.

However, the incidence of subclinical Cushing’s syndrome may be underestimated in certain population groups, such as those with osteoporosis, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus or hypertension. For example, of 90 obese patients with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus in one study, three had Cushing’s syndrome. This yielded a prevalence of 3.3%, which is considerably higher than the incidence reported in the population-based studies. However, these findings should be supported by larger studies.

Females are more likely to be affected by Cushing’s syndrome than males, with a risk ratio of approximately 3:1. There does not appear to be a genetic link that involves an ethnic susceptibility to the condition.

Treatment Outcomes

Surgery is the first-line treatment option for most cases of overt disease and remission is achieved in the majority of patients, approximately 65-85%. However, for up to 1 in 5 patients the condition recurs, and the risk does not appear to level off, even after 20 years of follow-up.

The risk of mortality for individuals with Cushing’s syndrome is estimated to be 2-3 times higher than that of the general population, based on epidemiological studies.

Reviewed by Dr Liji Thomas, MD.

From http://www.news-medical.net/health/Cushings-Syndrome-Epidemiology.aspx

Psoriatic arthritis patients face more endocrine comorbidities


AT 2016 GRAPPA ANNUAL MEETING


VITALS

Key clinical point:Patients with psoriatic disease had a significantly higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus and some other endocrine comorbidities.

Major finding: In a univariate analysis, the risk for Cushing’s disease was notably higher among psoriatic arthritis patients, compared with controls (odds ratio, 5.31).

Data source: Retrospective, cross-sectional comparison of 3,161 patients with psoriatic arthritis and 31,610 matched controls.

Disclosures: Dr. Haddad, Dr. Coates, and Dr. Kavanaugh reported having no relevant financial disclosures.

The large, population-based cohort is a strength of the study. “We are now going back to see how many of these patients were seen by rheumatologists,” Dr. Haddad said. A lack of association with disease burden is a potential limitation, he added.

Thirty percent of patients were treated with biologics and about 67% with steroids. “That number treated with steroids seems high,” a meeting attendee commented. Dr. Haddad explained that it is the percentage ever treated with steroids, not necessarily currently on steroids.

In a separate session at the GRAPPA meeting addressing psoriatic disease treatment recommendations, an attendee asked about specific recommendations for comorbidities. For now, GRAPPA plans to include comorbidities within its overall recommendations, as it did in its most recent update, released in January 2016. A limited amount of data is a primary reason.

“As the evidence on comorbidities gets better, we may someday have separate recommendations for comorbidities,” said Laura Coates, MD, a clinical lecturer in rheumatology at the University of Leeds (England).

“The comorbidities are very important,” said Arthur F. Kavanaugh, MD, professor of medicine at the University of California, San Diego. “That’s trickier and deals with the international nature of GRAPPA. It’s hard to say, ‘Go see this specialist,’ because that might not be standard of care in that country.”

Dr. Haddad, Dr. Coates, and Dr. Kavanaugh reported having no relevant financial disclosures.

 From http://www.clinicalendocrinologynews.com/specialty-focus/diabetes/single-article-page/psoriatic-arthritis-patients-face-more-endocrine-comorbidities/f8700c8ffde9fc2534295458feb8eba3.html?utm_source=News_CEN_eNL_072616&utm_medium=email&utm_content=Psoriatic+arthritis+patients+face+more+endocrine+comorbidities

A Single-Center 10-Year Experience with Pasireotide in Cushing’s Disease: Patients’ Characteristics and Outcome

Pasireotide is the first pituitary-directed drug approved for treating patients with Cushing’s disease (CD). Our 10-year experience with pasireotide in CD is reported here.

Twenty patients with de novo, persistent, or recurrent CD after pituitary surgery were treated with pasireotide from December 2003 to December 2014. Twelve patients were treated with pasireotide in randomized trials and 8 patients with pasireotide sc (Signifor®; Novartis AG, Basel, Switzerland) in clinical practice. The mean treatment duration was 20.5 months (median 9 months; range, 3-72 months).

Urinary free cortisol (UFC) levels mean percentage change (± SD) at last follow-up was-40.4% (± 35.1; range, 2-92%; median reduction 33.3%) with a normalization rate of 50% (10/20). Ten patients achieved sustained normalized late night salivary cortisol (LNSC) levels during treatment. LNSC normalization was associated with UFC normalization in 7/10 patients. Serum cortisol and plasma ACTH significantly decreased from baseline to last follow-up. Body weight decrease and blood pressure improvement during pasireotide treatment were independent from UFC response. Glucose profile worsening was observed in all patients except one. The frequency of diabetes mellitus increased from 40% (8/20) at baseline to 85% (17/20) at last follow-up requiring initiation of medical treatment only in 44% of patients.

Pasireotide treatment was associated with sustained biochemical and clinical benefit in about 60% of CD patients. Glucose profile alteration is a frequent complication of pasireotide treatment; however, it seems to be easy to manage with diet and lifestyle intervention in almost half of the patients.

From http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27127913

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