Pituicytoma and Cushing’s Disease in a 7-Year-Old Girl: A Mere Coincidence?

Paola Cambiaso, Donato Amodio, Emidio Procaccini, Daniela Longo, Stefania Galassi, Francesca Diomedi Camassei, Marco Cappa

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Pituicytoma is a tumor extremely rare in childhood, with only 4 cases reported in literature. It is thought to arise from the specialized glial elements called “pituicytes.” The association of pituicytoma and Cushing’s disease (CD) has been described only once so far, in an adult patient.

A 7-year-old girl was referred for clinical signs of hypercortisolism, and a diagnosis of CD was made. MRI revealed 2 pathologic areas in the pituitary gland. The patient underwent surgery, with microscopic transsphenoidal approach, and a well-circumscribed area of pathologic tissue was identified and removed. Surprisingly, histologic and immunohistochemical study provided unequivocal evidence of pituicytoma. No pituitary adenoma could be identified.

For persistent hypercortisolism, the patient necessitated transsphenoidal endoscopic reintervention and 2 other lesions were removed. By immunohistological examination, these lesions were confirmed to be corticotropin-secreting adenoma. Unfortunately, there was no postoperative decrease in corticotropin and cortisol levels, and the patient underwent bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy.

Considering that we report a second case of association of pituicytoma and corticotropin-secreting adenoma, that CD is infrequent, and pituicytoma is extremely rare in childhood, the coexistence of these 2 tumors should not be considered a mere coincidence. To date, there is no conclusive evidence about the origin of these different subtypes of pituitary tumors. This case supports the hypothesis that these tumors share a common progenitor cell, which could be the folliculostellate cell.

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