Bilateral adrenal myelolipoma in Cushing’s disease: a relook into the role of corticotropin in adrenal tumourigenesis

BMJ Case Reports 2016; doi:10.1136/bcr-2016-214965

Partha Pratim Chakraborty, Rana Bhattacharjee, Pradip Mukhopadhyay, Subhankar Chowdhury

  1. Correspondence to Dr Partha Pratim Chakraborty, docparthapc@yahoo.co.in
  • Accepted 2 June 2016
  • Published 15 June 2016

Summary

Adrenal myelolipomas are infrequently encountered benign tumours of unknown aetiology.

In the majority of cases they are unilateral, and clinically and hormonally silent, only requiring periodic follow-up. However, bilateral adrenal myelolipomas are sometimes associated with endocrine disorders and warrant appropriate evaluation.

Though the understanding of the pathophysiology of adrenal myelolipomas has long been elusive, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) has been proposed as the main tropic factor in a number of studies. Cushing’s disease is rarely associated with bilateral and sometimes giant myelolipomas.

In this article, the association of bilateral adrenal myelolipomas with Cushing’s disease has been discussed and the role of ACTH in the tumourigenesis has been reviewed.

From http://casereports.bmj.com/content/2016/bcr-2016-214965.short?rss=1#content-block

Past News Items: My 37-year-old daughter has Addison’s disease.

old-news

 

Because, sometimes Old News is still valid!

From Tuesday, September 16, 2008

DEAR DR. DONOHUE: My 37-year-old daughter has Addison’s disease. Many doctors saw her when she was hospitalized a year ago. She had to go back to the hospital because of stomach upset, back pain and dehydration. Her skin has darkened. She was told she would be fine after she started steroids. This hasn’t happened. She is constantly sick. Do you have any good news? — L.K.

ANSWER: With Addison’s disease, the adrenal glands have stopped producing their many hormones. Those hormones include cortisone and aldosterone. Cortisone gives us energy, combats inflammation and figures into many of the body’s most important functions. Aldosterone is essential for blood pressure maintenance. Without adrenal gland hormones, the skin darkens, especially the elbow skin and the creases in the hands.

Treatment is straightforward: Replace the missing hormones. Maybe the dosage of her hormone medicines needs revision. If she’s hasn’t shortly turned the corner, she should get a second opinion from an endocrinologist, a specialist in this kind of illness.

From http://www.kilgorenewsherald.com/news/2008/0916/advice/009.html

HOME | Sitemap | Adrenal Crisis! | Abbreviations | Glossary | Forums | Donate | Bios | Add Your Bio | Add Your Doctor | MemberMap | CushieWiki

Pituitary tissue grown from human stem cells releases hormones in rats

Researchers have successfully used human stem cells to generate functional pituitary tissue that secretes hormones important for the body’s stress response as well as for its growth and reproductive functions. When transplanted into rats with hypopituitarism–a disease linked to dwarfism and premature aging in humans–the lab-grown pituitary cells promoted normal hormone release. The study, which lays the foundation for future preclinical work, appears June 14 in Stem Cell Reports, a publication of the International Society for Stem Cell Researchers.

“The current treatment options for patients suffering from hypopituitarism, a dysfunction of the pituitary gland, are far from optimal,” says first study author Bastian Zimmer of the Sloan Kettering Institute for Cancer Research. “Cell replacement could offer a more permanent therapeutic option with pluripotent stem cell-derived hormone-producing cells that functionally integrate and respond to positive and negative feedback from the body. Achieving such a long-term goal may lead to a potential cure, not only a treatment, for those patients.”

The pituitary gland is the master regulator of hormone production in the body, releasing hormones that play a key role in bone and tissue growth, metabolism, reproductive functions, and the stress response. Hypopituitarism can be caused by tumors, genetic defects, brain trauma, immune and infectious diseases, or radiation therapy. The consequences of pituitary dysfunction are wide ranging and particularly serious in children, who can suffer severe learning disabilities, growth and skeletal problems, as well as effects on puberty and sexual function.

Currently, patients with hypopituitarism must take expensive, lifelong hormone replacement therapies that poorly mimic the body’s complex patterns of hormone secretion that fluctuates with circadian rhythms and responds to feedback from other organs. By contrast, cell replacement therapies hold promise for permanently restoring natural patterns of hormone secretion while avoiding the need for costly, lifelong treatments.

Recently, scientists developed a procedure for generating pituitary cells from human pluripotent stem cells–an unlimited cell source for regenerative medicine–using organoid cultures that mimic the 3D organization of the developing pituitary gland. However, this approach is inefficient and complicated, relies on ill-defined cellular signals, lacks reproducibility, and is not scalable or suitable for clinical-grade cell manufacturing.

To address these limitations, Zimmer and senior study author Lorenz Studer of the Sloan Kettering Institute for Cancer Research developed a simple, efficient, and robust stem cell-based strategy for reliably producing a large number of diverse, functional pituitary cell types suitable for therapeutic use. Instead of mimicking the complex 3D organization of the developing pituitary gland, this approach relies on the precisely timed exposure of human pluripotent stem cells to a few specific cellular signals that are known to play an important role during embryonic development.

Exposure to these proteins triggered the stem cells to turn into different types of functional pituitary cells that released hormones important for bone and tissue growth (i.e., growth hormone), the stress response (i.e., adrenocorticotropic hormone), and reproductive functions (i.e., prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone). Moreover, these stem cell-derived cells released different amounts of hormone in response to known feedback signals generated by other organs in the body.

To test the therapeutic potential of this approach, the researchers transplanted the stem cell-derived pituitary cells under the skin of rats whose pituitary gland had been surgical removed. The cell grafts not only secreted adrenocorticotropic hormone, prolactin, and follicle-stimulating hormone, but they also triggered appropriate hormonal responses in the kidneys.

The researchers were also able to control the relative composition of different hormonal cell types simply by exposing human pluripotent stem cells to different ratios of two proteins: fibroblast growth factor 8 and bone morphogenetic protein 2. This finding suggests their approach could be tailored to generate specific cell types for patients with different types of hypopituitarism. “For the broad application of stem cell-derived pituitary cells in the future, cell replacement therapy may need to be customized to the specific needs of a given patient population,” Zimmer says.

In future studies, the researchers plan to further improve the protocol to generate pure populations of various hormone-releasing cell types, enabling the production of grafts that are tailored to the needs of individual patients. They will also test this approach on more clinically relevant animal models that have pituitary damage caused by radiation therapy and receive grafts in or near the pituitary gland rather than under the skin. This research could have important implications for cancer survivors, given that hypopituitarism is one of the main causes of poor quality of life after brain radiation therapy.

“Our findings represent a first step in treating hypopituitarism, but that does not mean the disease will be cured permanently within the near future,” Zimmer says. “However, our work illustrates the promise of human pluripotent stem cells as it presents a direct path toward realizing the promise of regenerative medicine for certain hormonal disorders.”

###

The researchers were supported by the New York State Stem Cell Science and the Starr Foundation. The work was further supported in part by the National Institutes of Health and the National Cancer Institute.

Stem Cell Reports, Zimmer et al.: “Derivation of diverse hormone-releasing pituitary cells from human pluripotent stem cells” http://www.cell.com/stem-cell-reports/fulltext/S2213-6711(16)30060-1

Stem Cell Reports, published by Cell Press for the International Society for Stem Cell Research (@ISSCR), is a monthly open-access forum communicating basic discoveries in stem cell research, in addition to translational and clinical studies. The journal focuses on shorter, single-point manuscripts that report original research with conceptual or practical advances that are of broad interest to stem cell biologists and clinicians. Visit http://www.cell.com/stem-cell-reports. To receive Cell Press media alerts, please contact press@cell.com.

Disclaimer: AAAS and EurekAlert! are not responsible for the accuracy of news releases posted to EurekAlert! by contributing institutions or for the use of any information through the EurekAlert system.

Long-term Cognitive Effects of Glucocorticoid Excess in Cushing’s Syndrome

Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2016 Mar;65:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2015.11.020. Epub 2015 Nov 30.

Forget H1, Lacroix A2, Bourdeau I2, Cohen H3.

Abstract

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE:

We previously found that patients with Cushing’s syndrome (CS) scored lower than controls in several domains of cognitive function and that correction of hypercortisolism is not necessarily correlated with short-term improvement in intellectual performance. Here, we examined the long-term outcome in patients treated for CS by assessing the extent to which the detrimental effects of glucocorticoid (GC) excess on cognition can be reversed three years after corrective surgery.

DESIGN:

A battery of neuropsychological tests, including tests of attention, visuospatial processing, learning and memory, and executive functioning were administered pre-treatment and 12, 24 and 36 months post-treatment.

PATIENTS AND CONTROL SUBJECTS:

We included 18 patients with endogenous CS recruited before surgical treatment and 18 controls matched for age, sex and education.

RESULTS:

CS patients performed worse than controls on tests of attention, executive functioning and nonverbal aspects of memory. Moreover, at 36 months following eucortisolism, executive function performance and, to a lesser extent, attention tasks showed limited change compared to pre-treatment testing.

CONCLUSION:

Chronic hypercortisolism is accompanied by a deleterious impact on aspects of cognitive function. This negative effect on attention, executive performance and nonverbal memory seen in patients with CS suggests a differential effect of excess GCs upon different brain areas and networks. This influence persists years after the return to normal cortisol secretion levels.

Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS:

Attention; Cognitive functions; Endogenous Cushing’s syndrome; Glucocorticoids; Hypercortisolism; Memory

PMID:
26708069
[PubMed – in process]

From http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26708069

What a Hoot! Healing Cushing’s Syndrome Naturally

This guy must be nuts!

Healing Cushing’s Syndrome Naturally

by Dr. Paul Haider, Spiritual Teacher and Master Herbalist

Cushing’s Syndrome is the over production of cortisol by the adrenals glands and the resulting obesity, high blood pressure, fatigue, depression, muscle weakness, glucose intolerance, and more… are all part of the syndrome.

But there is hope, here are a few great herbs and other processes that can heal Cushing’s Syndrome naturally.

Read more of how you, too, can “Heal Your Cushing’s here: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/healing-cushings-syndrome-naturally-dr-paul-haider

%d bloggers like this: