A Subtle Case of Cushing’s

English: "Dr. Harvey Cushing," oil o...

English: “Dr. Harvey Cushing,” oil on canvas, by the American artist Edmund Tarbell. Courtesy of the Dittrick Medical History Center. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Synopsis: 36 year old male who presented with weight gain, proximal muscle weakness, and excessive sweating. Among multiple 24-hour urine free cortisol and midnight salivary tests, a minority were minimally elevated.

The diagnosis of Cushing’s disease was questioned over an eight month evaluation period.

The challenges of diagnosing Cushing’s disease are discussed.

Clinical History

Pre-Operative Imaging

Operative Findings

Surgical Pathology

Post-Operative Course

Discussion, Part 1

Discussion, Part 2


References

Nieman LK, Biller BM, Findling JW, Newell-Price J, Savage MO, Stewart PM, Montori VM. The diagnosis of Cushing’s syndrome: an Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 May;93(5):1526-40.

Mantero F, Terzolo M, Arnaldi G, Osella G, Masini AM, Alì A, Giovagnetti M, Opocher G, Angeli A. A survey on adrenal incidentaloma in Italy. Study Group on Adrenal Tumors of the Italian Society of Endocrinology. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Feb;85(2):637-44.

Catargi B, Rigalleau V, Poussin A, Ronci-Chaix N, Bex V, Vergnot V, Gin H, Roger P, Tabarin A. Occult Cushing’s syndrome in type-2 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Dec;88(12):5808- 13.

Reimondo G, Pia A, Allasino B, Tassone F, Bovio S, Borretta G, Angeli A, Terzolo M. Screening of Cushing’s syndrome in adult patients with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2007 Aug;67(2):225-9.

Omura M, Saito J, Yamaguchi K, Kakuta Y, Nishikawa T. Prospective study on the prevalence of secondary hypertension among hypertensive patients visiting a general outpatient clinic in Japan. Hypertens Res. 2004 Mar;27(3):193-202.

Chiodini I, Mascia ML, Muscarella S, Battista C, Minisola S, Arosio M, Santini SA, Guglielmi G, Carnevale V, Scillitani A. Subclinical hypercortisolism among outpatients referred for osteoporosis. Ann Intern Med. 2007 Oct 16;147(8):541-8.

Cushing H, Bull Johns Hopkins Hospital, 1932; 50:137-195

Ross EJ, Linch DC. Cushing’s syndrome–killing disease: discriminatory value of signs and symptoms aiding early diagnosis. Lancet. 1982 Sep 18;2(8299):646-9.

Plotz CM, Knowlton AI, Ragan C. The natural history of Cushing’s syndrome. Am J Med. 1952 Nov;13(5):597-614.

Lindholm J, Juul S, Jørgensen JO, Astrup J, Bjerre P, Feldt-Rasmussen U, Hagen C, Jørgensen J, Kosteljanetz M, Kristensen L, Laurberg P, Schmidt K, Weeke J. Incidence and late prognosis of cushing’s syndrome: a population-based study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Jan;86(1):117-23.

Newell-Price J, Bertagna X, Grossman AB, Nieman LK. Cushing’s syndrome. Lancet. 2006 May 13;367(9522):1605-17.

Nieman LK, Biller BM, Findling JW, Newell-Price J, Savage MO, Stewart PM, Montori VM. The diagnosis of Cushing’s syndrome: an Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 May;93(5):1526-40. Epub 2008 Mar 11.

Liu H, Bravata DM, Cabaccan J, Raff H, Ryzen E. Elevated late- night salivary cortisol levels in elderly male type 2 diabetic veterans. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2005 Dec;63(6):642- 9.

Qureshi AC, Bahri A, Breen LA, Barnes SC, Powrie JK, Thomas SM, Carroll PV. The influence of the route of oestrogen administration on serum levels of cortisol-binding globulin and total cortisol. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2007 May;66(5):632-5.

Newell-Price J, Trainer P, Perry L, Wass J, Grossman A, Besser M. A single sleeping midnight cortisol has 100% sensitivity for the diagnosis of Cushing’s syndrome. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1995 Nov;43(5):545-50.

Papanicolaou DA, Yanovski JA, Cutler GB Jr, Chrousos GP, Nieman LK. A single midnight serum cortisol measurement distinguishes Cushing’s syndrome from pseudo-Cushing states. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998 Apr;83(4):1163-7.

Pecori Giraldi F, Ambrogio AG, De Martin M, Fatti LM, Scacchi M, Cavagnini F. Specificity of first-line tests for the diagnosis of Cushing’s syndrome: assessment in a large series. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Nov;92(11):4123-9. Epub 2007 Aug 14.

From UCLA Pituitary Tumor Program

Diagnostic performance of salivary cortisol in the diagnosis of Cushing’s syndrome, adrenal incidentaloma and adrenal insufficiency

Source

F Ceccato, Department of Medicine – DIMED, University of Padova, Endocrinology Unit, Padova, Italy.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Salivary cortisol has been recently suggested for studies on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis: lack of circadian rhythm is a marker of Cushing’s syndrome (CS), and some authors report that low salivary cortisol levels may be a marker of adrenal insufficiency. The aim of our study was to define the role of salivary cortisol in specific diagnostic setting of HPA axis disease.

SUBJECTS AND METHODS:

We analyzed morning salivary cortisol (MSC) and late night salivary cortisol (LNSC) in 406 subjects: 52 Cushing’s disease (CD), 13 ectopic-CS, 17 adrenal-CS, 27 CD in remission (mean follow-up of 66 ± 39 months), 45 adrenal incidentalomas, 73 patients assessed of CS and then ruled out for endogenous hypercortisolism, 75 patients with adrenal insufficiency and 104 healthy subjects.

RESULTS:

A LNSC value above 5.24 ng/mL differentiated CS from controls with high sensitivity (96.3%) and specificity (97.1%), we found higher LNSC in ectopic-CS than in CD. We found no difference in MSC and LNSC levels between CD in remission and healthy subjects. Both MSC and LNSC were higher in adrenal incidentaloma than in healthy controls. MSC below 2.65 ng/mL distinguished patients with adrenal insufficiency from controls with high sensitivity (97.1%) and specificity (93.3%).

CONCLUSIONS:

salivary cortisol is a useful tool to assess endogenous cortisol excess or adrenal insufficiency and to evaluate stable CD in remission.

PMID:

 

23610124

 

[PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
From PubMed
%d bloggers like this: