Cushing’s appears to begin its cardiovascular effects during childhood

– Cushing’s disease may begin to exert its harmful cardiovascular effects quite early, a small pediatric study has found.

Children as young as 6 years old with the disorder already may show signs of cardiovascular remodeling, with stiffer aortas and higher aortic pulse-wave velocity than do age-matched controls, Hailey Blain and Maya Lodish, MD, said at the annual meeting of the Endocrine Society.

“The study, which included 10 patients, is small, but we continue to add new patients,” said Dr. Lodish, director of the pediatric endocrinology fellowship program at the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Ten more children are being added to the cohort now, and she and Ms. Blain, a former research fellow at NIH, intend to grow the group and follow patients longitudinally.

Cushing’s disease has long been linked with increased cardiovascular risk in adults, but the study by Dr. Lodish and Ms. Blain is one of the first to examine the link in children. Their findings suggest that early cardiovascular risk factor management should be a routine part of these patients’ care, Dr. Lodish said in an interview.

“It’s very important to make sure that there is recognition of the cardiovascular risk factors that go along with this disease. Elevated levels of cholesterol, hypertension, and other risk factors that are in these individuals should be ameliorated as soon as possible from an early age and, most importantly, physicians should be diagnosing and treating children early, once they are identified as having Cushing’s disease. And, given that we are not sure whether these changes are reversible, we need to make sure these children are followed very closely.”

Indeed, Dr. Lodish has reason to believe that the changes may be long lasting or even permanent.

“We are looking at these children longitudinally and have 3-year data on some patients already. We want to see if they return to normal pulse wave velocity after surgical cure, or whether this is permanent remodeling. There is an implication already that it may be in a subset of individuals,” she said, citing her own 2009 study on hypertension in pediatric Cushing’s patients. “We looked at blood pressure at presentation, after surgical cure, and 1 year later. A significant portion of the kids still had hypertension at 1 year. This leads us to wonder if they will continue to be at risk for cardiovascular morbidity as adults.”

Ms. Blaine, an undergraduate at Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Maine, worked on the study during a summer internship with Dr. Lodish and presented its results in a poster forum during meeting. She examined two indicators of cardiovascular remodeling – aortic pulse wave velocity and aortic distensibility – in 10 patients who were a mean of 13 years old. All of the children came to NIH for diagnosis and treatment of Cushing’s; as part of that, all underwent a cardiac MRI.

The patients had a mean 2.5-year history of Cushing’s disease Their mean midnight cortisol level was 18.8 mcg/dL and mean plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone level, 77.3 pg/mL. Five patients were taking antihypertensive medications. Low- and high-density lipoprotein levels were acceptable in all patients.

The cardiovascular measures were compared to an age-matched historical control group. In this comparison, patients had significantly higher pulse wave velocity compared with controls (mean 4 vs. 3.4 m/s). Pulse wave velocity positively correlated with both midnight plasma cortisol and 24-hour urinary free cortisol collections. In the three patients with long-term follow-up after surgical cure of Cushing’s, the pulse wave velocity did not improve, either at 6 months or 1 year after surgery. This finding echoes those of Dr. Lodish’s 2009 paper, suggesting that once cardiovascular remodeling sets in, the changes may be long lasting.

“The link between Cushing’s and cardiovascular remodeling is related to the other things that go along with the disease,” Dr. Lodish said. “The hypertension, the adiposity, and the high cholesterol all may contribute to arterial rigidity. It’s also thought to be due to an increase in connective tissue. The bioelastic function of the aorta may be affected by having Cushing’s.”

That connection also suggests that certain antihypertensives may be more beneficial to patients with Cushing’s disease, she added. “It might have an implication in what blood pressure drug you use. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors increase vascular distensibility and inhibit collagen formation and fibrosis. It is a pilot study and needs longitudinal follow up and additional patient accrual, however, finding signs of cardiovascular remodeling in young children with Cushing’s is intriguing and deserves further study.”

Neither Ms. Blain nor Dr. Lodish had any financial disclosures.

A Faster Way to Diagnose Cushing’s Syndrome

Diagnosing Cushing’s syndrome can take 24 hours of complicated and repeated analysis of blood and urine, brain imaging, and tissue samples from sinuses. But that may soon be in the past: National Institutes of Health (NIH) researchers have found that measuring cortisol levels in hair samples can do the same job faster.

Patients with Cushing’s syndrome have a high level of cortisol, perhaps from a tumor of the pituitary or adrenal glands, or as a side effect from medications. In the study, 36 participants—30 with Cushing’s syndrome, six without—provided hair samples divided into three equal segments. The researchers found that the segments closest to the scalp had the most cortisol (96.6 ± 267.7 pg/mg for Cushing’s syndrome patients versus 14.1 ± 9.2 pg/mg in control patients). Those segments’ cortisol content correlated most closely with the majority of the initial biochemical tests, including in blood taken at night (when cortisol levels normally drop).

The study was small; Cushing’s syndrome is rare, and it’s hard to recruit large numbers of patients. Still, the researchers believe it is the largest of its kind to compare hair cortisol levels to diagnostic tests in Cushing’s patients. “Our results are encouraging,” said Mihail Zilbermint, MD, the study’s senior author and an endocrinologist at NIH’s Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. “We are hopeful that hair analysis may ultimately prove useful as a less-invasive screening test for Cushing’s syndrome or in helping to confirm the diagnosis.” The authors suggest the test is also a convenient alternative with the “unique ability” for retrospective evaluation of hypercortisolemia over months.

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From https://www.ptcommunity.com/journal/article/full/2017/4/271/research-briefs-april-2017

Postoperative ACTH, cortisol levels may predict Cushing’s disease remission rate

Early and midterm nonremission after transsphenoidal surgery in people with Cushing’s disease may be predicted by normalized early postoperative values for adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol, study data show.

Prashant Chittiboina, MD, MPH, assistant clinical investigator in the neurosurgery unit for pituitary and inheritable diseases at the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke at the NIH, and colleagues evaluated 250 patients with Cushing’s disease who received 291 transsphenoidal surgery procedures during the study period to determine remission after the procedure. Patients were treated between December 2003 and July 2016. Early remission was assessed at 10 days and medium-term remission was assessed at 11 months.

Early nonremission was predicted by normalized early postoperative values for cortisol (P = .016) and by normalized early postoperative values for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; P = .048). Early nonremission was further predicted with 100% sensitivity, 39% specificity, 100% negative predictive value and 18% positive predictive value for a cutoff of –12 µg/mL in normalized early postoperative values for cortisol and with 88% sensitivity, 41% specificity, 96% negative predictive value and 16% positive predictive value for a cutoff of –40 pg/mL in normalized early postoperative values for ACTH.

Medium-term nonremission was also predicted by normalized early postoperative values for cortisol (P = .023) and ACTH (P = .025).

“We evaluated the utility of early postoperative cortisol and ACTH levels for predicting nonremission after transsphenoidal adenomectomy for Cushing’s disease,” the researchers wrote. “Postoperative operative day 1 values at 6 a.m. performed best at predicting early nonremission, albeit with a lower [area under the receiver operating characteristic curve]. Normalizing early cortisol and ACTH values to post-[corticotropin-releasing hormone] values improved their prognostic value. Further prospective studies will explore the utility of normalized very early postoperative day 0 cortisol and ACTH levels in identifying patients at risk for nonremission following [transsphenoidal surgery] in patients with [Cushing’s disease].” – by Amber Cox

Disclosure: The researchers report no relevant financial disclosures.

From http://www.healio.com/endocrinology/adrenal/news/in-the-journals/%7B7de200ed-c667-4b48-ab19-256d90a7bbc5%7D/postoperative-acth-cortisol-levels-may-predict-cushings-disease-remission-rate

Midnight Salivary Cortisol Versus Urinary Free and Midnight Serum Cortisol as Screening Tests for Cushing’s Syndrome

From PubMed

Gafni RI, Papanicolaou DA, Nieman LK.
Developmental Endocrinology Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Warren Grant Magnuson Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-1862, USA.

OBJECTIVE: There is currently no optimal test to screen for endogenous Cushing’s syndrome (CS) in children. Traditional 24-hour urine or midnight serum cortisol values may be difficult to obtain or elevated by venipuncture stress. We hypothesized that salivary cortisol measurement is a reliable way to screen for CS in children.

STUDY DESIGN: Sixty-seven children (5-17 years) were studied: 24 obese volunteers, 29 non-obese volunteers, and 14 children with CS. Saliva was obtained at 7:30 AM, bedtime, and midnight for measurement of free cortisol by radioimmunoassay.

RESULTS: Salivary cortisol was detectable in all morning and evening samples from patients with CS but was frequently undetectable in healthy children at bedtime (66%) and at midnight (90%). With cut points that excluded healthy children, a midnight salivary cortisol value of 7.5 nmol/L (0.27 microg/dL) identified 13 of 14 patients with CS, whereas a bedtime value >27.6 nmol/L (1 microg/dL) detected CS in 5 of 6 patients. The diagnostic accuracies of midnight salivary cortisol and urinary free cortisol per square meter were the same (93%).

CONCLUSION: Salivary cortisol measurement at bedtime or midnight rules out CS in nearly all cases. Nighttime salivary cortisol sampling is thus a simple, accurate way to screen for hypercortisolism in children. PMID: 10891818 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]


THE PRINCIPLE RESEARCHER FOR SALIVARY CORTISOLS IS HERSHEL RAFF AT THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN. HE IS A RESEARCH SCIENTIST, NOT A DOCTOR. YOU CAN CONTACT HIM DIRECTLY FOR ORDERING INFO.

Salivary Cortisol: A Screening Technique

By: Dr. Hershel Raff

Cushing’s syndrome – endogenous hypercortisolism – is characterized by a loss of circadian rhythmicity. In normal patients, cortisol levels peak in the early morning hours and decrease to substantially lower levels at night. Rather than the normal decrease in late evening cortisol, patients with Cushing’s syndrome of any cause fail to decrease cortisol secretion in the late evening. Therefore, the measurement of elevated late evening cortisol is helpful in the diagnosis of Cushing’s syndrome. Obtaining a late night, unstressed plasma cortisol is virtually impossible in most clinical practices. Salivary cortisol is in equilibrium with the free, biologically active portion of cortisol in the plasma. Therefore, if one obtains a saliva sample in patients at bedtime in their homes under unstressed conditions, one can make the diagnosis of endogenous hypercortisolism.

A simple way to sample saliva is by using a Salivette made by the Sarstedt Company (Newton, NC). This device consists of a cotton tube and plastic tubes. The patient only has to chew the cotton tube for 2-3 minutes and place it in the plastic tube. The tube is then transported to our lab for analysis.

Late-evening salivary cortisol is not intended to replace the current standard screening test – measurement of a 24 hr urine free cortisol. However, the salivary cortisol test can be extremely useful for patients suspected of having intermittent Cushing’s syndrome. Due to the convenience of sample collection, the patient can sample saliva several evenings in a row. In fact, our clinical endocrinologists routinely order 2-3 consecutive late-evening salivary cortisol samples.


Our research (Raff H, Raff JL, Findling JW. 1998 LATE-NIGHT SALIVARY CORTISOL AS A SCREENING TEST FOR CUSHING’S SYNDROME. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 83:2681-2686) has shown that the combination of late-evening salivary cortisol and urine free cortisol is very accurate in diagnosing Cushing’s syndrome in most patients. Doctors can obtain a kit by contacting ACL Client Services at 1-800-877-7016.

Editor’s Note: DR. HERSHEL RAFF, PH.D. IS A PROFESSOR OF MEDICINE AND PHYSIOLOGY AT THE MEDICAL COLLEGE OF WISCONSIN’S ENDOCRINE RESEARCH LABORATORY AT ST. LUKE’S MEDICAL CENTER IN MILWAUKEE, WISCONSIN.

Patients with ARMC5 mutations: The NIH clinical experience

Screenshot 2016-05-27 13.12.55

 

Adrenal Disorders

R Correa, M Zilbermint, A Demidowich, F Faucz, A Berthon, J Bertherat, M Lodish, C Stratakis

Summary: Researchers conducted this study to describe the different phenotypical characteristics of patients with armadillo repeat containing 5 (ARMC5) mutations, located in 16p11.2 and a likely tumor-suppressor gene. They determined that patients with bilateral adrenal enlargement, found on imaging tests, should be screened for ARMC5 mutations, which are associated with subclinical Cushing’s syndrome (CS) and primary hyperaldosteronism (PA).

Methods:

  • Researchers identified 20 patients with ARMC5 mutations (germline and/or somatic) who were enrolled in a National Institutes of Health (NIH) protocol.
  • They obtained sociodemographic, clinical, laboratory, and radiological data for all participants.

Results:

  • Three families (with a total of 8 patients) were identified with ARMC5 germline mutations; the rest of the patients (13/20) had sporadic mutations.
  • The male to female ratio was 1.2:1; mean age was 48 years and 60% of patients were African American.
  • Forty percent of patients were diagnosed with CS, 20% with subclinical CS, 30% with hyperaldosteronism, and 10% had no diagnosis.
  • The mean serum cortisol (8 am) and Urinary Free Cortisol were 13.1 mcg/dl and 77 mcg/24 hours, respectively.
  • Nearly all patients (95%) had bilateral adrenal enlargement found on CT or MRI.
  • Patients underwent the following treatments: Bilateral adrenalectomy (45%), unilateral adrenalectomy (25%), medical treatment (20%), and no treatment (10%).
  • ARMC5 mutations are associated with primary macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (PMAH) and are also seen in patients with PA, especially among African Americans.

From http://www.mdlinx.com/endocrinology/conference-abstract.cfm/ZZ37C4C5D3BF1A4FAE9C479A696660535B/57884/?utm_source=confcoveragenl&utm_medium=newsletter&utm_content=abstract-list&utm_campaign=abstract-AACE2016&nonus=0

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