Cushing’s Syndrome and Skin Problems

By Afsaneh Khetrapal, BSc (Hons)

Cushing’s Syndrome (sometimes called hypercortisolism) is a hormonal disease caused by an abnormally high level of the hormone cortisol in the body. This may arise because of an endogenous or exogenous source of cortisol. Endogenous causes include the elevated production of cortisol by the adrenal glands, while exogenous causes include the excessive use of cortisol or other similar steroid (glucocorticoid) hormones over a prolonged period of time.

The adrenal glands are situated just above each kidney, and form part of the endocrine system. They have numerous functions such as the production of hormones called catecholamines, which includes epinephrine and norepinephrine. Interestingly, the outer layer (cortex) of the adrenal glands has the distinct responsibility of producing cortisol. This hormone is best known for its crucial role in the bodily response to stress.

At physiologically appropriate levels, cortisol is vital in maintaining normal sleep-wake cycles, and acts to increase blood sugar levels. It suppresses the immune system, regulates the effect of insulin on the metabolism of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates, and help with the homeostasis of water in the body.

Exogenous corticosteroids can also lead to Cushing’s syndrome, when they are used as a form of long-term treatment for various medical conditions. In fact, the long-term use of steroid medication is the most common reason for the development of Cushing’s syndrome.

Prednisolone is the most commonly prescribed steroid medicine. It belongs to a class of medicine that is sometimes used to treat conditions such as certain forms of arthritis and cancer. Other uses include the rapid and effective reduction of inflammation in conditions such as asthma and multiple sclerosis (MS), as well as the treatment of autoimmune conditions such as lupus erythematosus, and rheumatoid arthritis.

Overall, Cushing’s syndrome is quite uncommon and affects approximately 1 in 50,000 people. Most of them are adults between the ages of 20 and 50.  Women are 3 times more commonly affected than men. Additionally, patients who are obese, or those who have type 2 diabetes with poorly controlled blood sugar and blood pressure show a greater predisposition to the disorder.

Symptoms of Cushing’s syndrome

There are numerous symptoms associated with Cushing’s syndrome, which range from muscle weakness, hypertension, curvature of the spine (kyphosis), osteoporosis, and depression, to fatigue Specific symptoms which pertain to the skin are as follows:

  • Thinning of the skin and other mucous membranes: the skin becomes dry and bruises easily. Cortisol causes the breakdown of some dermal proteins along with the weakening of small blood vessels. In fact, the skin may become so weak as to develop a shiny, paper-thin quality which allows it to be torn easily.
  • Increased susceptibility of skin to infections
  • Poor wound healing  of bruises, cuts, and scratches
  • Spots appear on the upper body, that is, on the face, chest or shoulders
  • Darkened skin which is seen on the neck
  • Wide, red-purple streaks (at least half an inch wide) called striae which are most common on the sides of the torso, the lower abdomen, thighs, buttocks, arms, and breasts, or in areas of weight gain. The accumulation of fat caused by Cushing’s syndrome stretches the skin which is already thin and weakened due to cortisol action, causing it to hemorrhage and stretch permanently, healing by fibrosis.
  • Acne: this can develop in patients of all ages.
  • Swollen ankles: this is caused by the accumulation of fluid, called edema.
  • Hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating)

Reviewed by Dr Liji Thomas, MD

From http://www.news-medical.net/health/Cushings-Syndrome-and-Skin-Problems.aspx

Day 1: Cushing’s Awareness Challenge 2016

April is always Cushing’s Awareness Challenge month because Dr. Harvey Cushing was born on April 8th, 1869.

30-posts

Thanks to Robin for this wonderful past logo!  I’ve participated in these 30 days for Cushing’s Awareness several times so I’m not quite sure what is left to say this year but I always want to get the word out when I can.

As I see it, there have been some strides the diagnosis or treatment of Cushing’s since last year.  More drug companies are getting involved, more doctors seem to be willing to test, a bit more awareness, maybe.


April Fool's Day

How fitting that this challenge should begin on April Fool’s Day.  So much of Cushing’s  Syndrome/Disease makes us Cushies seem like we’re the April Fool.  Maybe, just maybe, it’s the doctors who are the April Fools…

Doctors tell us Cushing’s is too rare – you couldn’t possibly have it.  April Fools!

All you have to do is exercise and diet.  You’ll feel better.  April Fools!

Those bruises on your legs?  You’re just clumsy. April Fools!

Sorry you’re growing all that hair on your chin.  That happens as you age, you know.  April Fools!

Did you say you sleep all day?  You’re just lazy.  If you exercised more, you’d have more energy. April Fools!

You don’t have stretch marks.  April Fools!

You have stretch marks but they are the wrong [color/length/direction] April Fools!

The hump on the back of your neck is from your poor posture. April Fools!

Your MRI didn’t show a tumor.  You couldn’t have Cushing’s. April Fools!

This is all in your mind.  Take this prescription for antidepressants and go home.  April Fools!

If you have this one surgery, your life will get back to normal within a few months. April Fools!

What?  You had transsphenoidal surgery for Cushing’s?  You wasted your time and money. April Fools!

I am the doctor.  I know everything.  Do not try to find out any information online. You could not have Cushing’s.  It’s too rare…  April FOOL!

All this reminds me of a wonderful video a message board member posted a while ago:

So now – who is the April Fool?  It wasn’t me.  Don’t let it be you, either!

Cushing’s Syndrome

The Seven Dwarves of Cushing's

 

Posted Oct. 1st, 2015 by

Q: Would you please explain Cushing’s disease. How is it diagnosed? What are the symptoms?

A: Cushing syndrome results from excess levels of the hormone cortisol. It is produced in various glands, usually the adrenal that is situated above the kidneys on both sides, and the pituitary gland, which is in the centre of the brain.

Cortisol also regulates the way fats, carbohydrates and proteins are turned into usable forms of energy. These glands produce other hormones that affect things such as blood pressure and the body’s response to stress.

Cortisol may be added from outside the body by taking medications such as prednisone, often used for the control of chronic inflammatory or autoimmune diseases like lupus or rheumatoid arthritis.

Prednisone is also used for the treatment of acute illnesses such as severe allergies. Poison ivy is often treated this way.

Women in the last three months of pregnancy also have increased blood levels of cortisol and may temporarily display some of symptoms of Cushing’s syndrome.

Any problem with the pituitary gland, the nearby hypothalamus in the brain or adrenals can lead to Cushing’s syndrome. The most common is a benign tumour of the pituitary gland known as a pituitary adenoma.

This type of tumour may produce an excessive amount of a stimulating hormone known as ACTH, which in turn activates the hormones in the adrenal glands. On rare occasions, some types of lung or thyroid cancer can also behave in a similar way.

The most obvious sign of Cushing’s disease is marked weight gain, mostly in the abdomen, face and neck, while the arms and legs remain relatively thin.

As the skin in these areas becomes thinner, there may be purple coloured stripes or stretch marks. Women may also lose their periods and grow facial or body hair.

Blood pressure is usually high and sufferers feel weak and tired.

Cushing’s disease is diagnosed by measuring the amount of cortisol in a person’s urine during a 24 hour period.

If there is a tumour it will require surgical removal. If Cushing’s syndrome is a result of prescribed medication, the dosage can be reduced gradually or another type of medication can be tried. Prednisone must never be suddenly discontinued or the person’s blood pressure could drop dramatically, which could be serious and potentially fatal.

Clare Rowson is a retired medical doctor in Belleville, Ont. Contact: health@producer.com

From http://www.producer.com/2015/10/cushings-syndrome/

Day 1: Cushing’s Awareness Challenge 2015

April is always Cushing’s Awareness Challenge month because Dr. Harvey Cushing was born on the 8th.

30-posts

 

Thanks to Robin for this wonderful past logo!  I’ve participated in these 30 days for Cushing’s Awareness several times so I’m not quite sure what is left to say this year but I always want to get the word out when I can.

As I see it, there have been some strides the diagnosis or treatment of Cushing’s since last year.  More drug companies are getting involved, more doctors seem to be willing to test, a bit more awareness, maybe.

This year’s logo, also thanks to Robin:

cushie-blogger-2015-large


 

April Fool's Day

How fitting that this challenge should begin on April Fool’s Day.  So much of Cushing’s  Syndrome/Disease makes us Cushies seem like we’re the April Fool.  Maybe, just maybe, it’s the doctors who are the April Fools…

Doctors tell us Cushing’s is too rare – you couldn’t possibly have it.  April Fools!

All you have to do is exercise and diet.  You’ll feel better.  April Fools!

Those bruises on your legs?  You’re just clumsy. April Fools!

Sorry you’re growing all that hair on your chin.  That happens as you age, you know.  April Fools!

Did you say you sleep all day?  You’re just lazy.  If you exercised more, you’d have more energy. April Fools!

You don’t have stretch marks.  April Fools!

You have stretch marks but they are the wrong [color/length/direction] April Fools!

The hump on the back of your neck is from your poor posture. April Fools!

Your MRI didn’t show a tumor.  You couldn’t have Cushing’s. April Fools!

This is all in your mind.  Take this prescription for antidepressants and go home.  April Fools!

If you have this one surgery, your life will get back to normal within a few months. April Fools!

What?  You had transsphenoidal surgery for Cushing’s?  You wasted your time and money. April Fools!

I am the doctor.  I know everything.  Do not try to find out any information online. You could not have Cushing’s.  It’s too rare…  April FOOL!

All this reminds me of a wonderful video a message board member posted a while ago:

It’s Literally Impossible to Have Cushing’s

 

So now – who is the April Fool?  It wasn’t me.  Don’t let it be you, either!

 

 

 

 

Could you Shed Some Light on Cushing’s Disease?

Dear Dr. Roach: Could you shed some light on Cushing’s disease? Four people in the same family have it. The doctors say it has something to do with the thyroid gland.

— Anon.

A: Cushing’s syndrome, which is different from Cushing’s disease, is an excess of cortisone or similar corticosteroids. It can be caused by taking too much steroid for too long, usually as treatment for a serious medical condition. Cushing’s disease is a special case of Cushing’s syndrome, when the excess cortisone is caused by a tumor in the pituitary gland, which spurs the adrenal gland to make excess amounts of hormone. Weight gain, almost exclusively in the abdomen, a striking round “moon” face, a fat pad on the back of the neck and upper back (“buffalo hump”), diabetes, pigmented stretch marks and high blood pressure are common findings in any form of Cushing’s syndrome.

It is very unusual for Cushing’s disease to run in families. Also, it does not affect the thyroid, although thyroid conditions can sometimes mimic Cushing’s (and vice versa). I suspect that what this might be is a rare condition called multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN-1). This does run in families, and combines risk for pituitary, parathyroid and pancreatic islet cell tumors. (The parathyroid glands sit on top of the thyroid gland and secrete parathyroid hormone, responsible for calcium metabolism. The pancreatic islet cells are where insulin is made.) Not everybody with MEN-1 will have tumors in all of these glands. Parathyroid tumors are the most common.

An endocrinologist is the expert in Cushing’s and the MEN syndromes.

​Dr. Keith Roach writes for North America Syndicate. Send letters to Box 536475, Orlando, FL 32853-6475 or email ToYourGoodHealth@med.cornell.edu.

From http://herald-review.com/news/opinion/editorial/columnists/roach/dr-keith-roach-teeth-grinding-is-common-in-the-elderly/article_bef63ba4-9b5e-5bff-b66a-3530be158857.html

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