Cushing’s and Hairy Nipples

Hairy nipples are a common condition in women. The amount of hair on the nipples varies, but some women find that the hair becomes long, coarse, and dark, which can be distressing.

Hairy nipples are rarely a cause for concern and are usually not a sign of any underlying health issues. However, occasionally they can signify something more serious, in which case, it is essential to consult a doctor.

Almost every part of a person’s skin is covered in hair and hair follicles. On certain parts of the body, such as the top of the head, the hair usually grows longer and thicker, while on other parts, it is thin and transparent.

Fast facts on hairy nipples:

  • It is not known how common hairy nipples are or how many women have them.
  • Many women do not report the condition and instead manage it themselves.
  • It is possible for hair that used to be fine and light to turn coarse and dark with age.

Causes of hairy nipples in women

There are several underlying reasons that might cause nipple hairs to grow. These are:

Cushing’s syndrome

Cushing’s syndrome is another condition caused by hormonal imbalance. When it occurs, there is an excess of cortisol in the body. In this case, a person may experience several symptoms, such as:

  • increased hair growth
  • abnormal menstrual periods
  • high blood pressure
  • a buildup of fat on the chest and tummy, while arms and legs remain slim
  • a buildup of fat on the back of the neck and shoulders
  • a rounded and red, puffy face
  • bruising easily
  • big purple stretch marks
  • weakness in the upper arms and thighs
  • low libido
  • problems with fertility
  • mood swings
  • depression
  • high blood glucose level

Cushing’s syndrome is fairly rare, and the cause is usually associated with taking glucocorticosteroid medicine, rather than the body overproducing the hormone on its own.

It is possible, however, that a tumor in the lung, pituitary gland, or adrenal gland is the cause.


Hormonal changes and fluctuations

Hormonal changes in women can cause many different symptoms, one of which is changes in nipple hair growth and color.

Some common hormonal changes happen during pregnancy and menopause.

However, hormonal changes can also occur when a woman is in her 20s and 30s, which may cause nipple hair to change appearance or become noticeable for the first time.

Overproduction of male hormones

It is possible for hormonal imbalances to cause hairy nipples. Overproduction of male hormones, including testosterone, can cause hair growth, while other symptoms include:

  • oily skin that can lead to breakouts and acne
  • menstrual periods stopping
  • increase in skeletal muscle mass
  • male pattern baldness, leading to a woman losing hair on her head

If overproduction of male hormones is suspected, it is a good idea to make an appointment with a doctor who can confirm this with a simple test.

Polycystic ovary syndrome

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) occurs because of a hormonal imbalance. PCOS is a condition that affects the way the ovaries work.

Common symptoms of PCOS are:

  • infertility
  • irregular menstrual periods
  • ovarian cysts
  • excessive hair growth in unusual places, such as the nipples

PCOS is believed to affect around 1 in 5 women.


The side effects of particular medicines can cause unusual hair growth.

Medicines, such as testosterone, glucocorticosteroids, and certain other immunotherapy drugs may cause hairy nipples.

What are the treatment options?

Treatment for hairy nipples is not usually necessary for health reasons.

However, many women with the condition prefer to try and reduce or get rid of the appearance of hair on their nipples for cosmetic purposes.

There are several methods by which they can try and do this:

Trimming the nipple hair

Trimming the nipple hair may be enough to reduce its appearance. Small nail scissors are ideal, and hair can be cut close to the skin. It is essential to do this carefully and avoid catching the skin.

Trimming will need to be carried out regularly when the hair grows back.

Tweezing the nipple hair

Tweezing nipple hair is an effective way to get rid of unwanted nipple hair. However, this option can be painful as the skin around the nipple area is particularly soft and sensitive.

It is also important to bear in mind that the hair will return, and tweezing the hair increases the risk of infection and ingrown hairs.

Shaving the nipple hair

Shaving is another option to reduce the appearance of nipple hair. However, it is advisable to do so with caution to avoid nicking the sensitive skin.

This option also carries an increased risk of developing ingrown hairs and infection.


Sugaring or waxing is a good hair removal option, though either one is likely to be painful. A salon is the best place to get this treatment type, as doing this at home may cause damage to the skin. Infection and ingrown hairs are again a risk.

Laser hair removal

These popular treatments can help to reduce the hair growth and slow or even prevent regrowth for a while. However, they can be painful, too.

Laser treatment is by far the most expensive option, as it will need to be performed by a plastic surgeon or cosmetic dermatologist.

Hormonal treatment

If a hormonal imbalance is the cause of hairy nipples, a doctor may prescribe or adjust a woman’s medication therapy to restore a healthy hormonal balance.

Other treatments and how to choose

The above treatments are all commonly used to remove and reduce nipple hair and usually have minimal side effects.

Bleaching or using hair removal cream to treat the condition, however, is not advised as these methods are usually too harsh for this sensitive area and may cause irritation and damage.

At what point should you see a doctor?

Hairy nipples in women are quite common, and there is usually no need to see a doctor. However, if they are accompanied by any other unusual symptoms, it is a good idea to make an appointment.

A doctor will be able to perform tests to determine whether an underlying cause, such as PCOS, is causing the growth of nipple hair. If so, they will give advice and medication therapy to help manage the condition.

A doctor will also be able to advise how to remove nipple hair safely.


For the majority of women, nipple hair may seem unsightly, but it is not a cause for any concerns about their health.

However, because some medical conditions can cause nipple hair to darken and grow, it is important to see a doctor if any other symptoms are experienced.

Nipple hair can usually be easily treated and managed, should a woman choose to try to remove the hair for cosmetic reasons.

Adapted from


Patient’s Atypical Cushing’s Symptoms Lead to Discovery of Novel Genetic Mutations

New genetic mutations were found in a patient who exhibited atypical symptoms of Cushing’s syndrome, notably an abnormal protrusion of the eye, a case report shows.

The research, “Extensive ARMC5 genetic variance in primary bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia that started with exophthalmos: a case report,” was published in the Journal of Medical Case Reports.

Primary bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (PBMAH) is a disorder characterized by multiple lumps in the adrenal glands and excessive cortisol production. It is a rare cause of Cushing’s syndrome.

According to recent research, PBMAH is caused by mutations in the ARMC5 gene, which data suggest may act as a tumor suppressor.

Researchers presented the case of a 52-year-old Chinese woman who exhibited a protrusion of both eyes (exophtalmos), which was first thought to be Graves’ ophthalmopathy. An injection of triamcinolone acetonide, a corticosteroid, into the area behind the eye globe did not improve symptoms.

The patient later was diagnosed with diabetes, which was treated with insulin, and hypertension, treated with insulin and amlodipine. She also developed muscle weakness and bruised easily. She had no other relevant chronic illness or infectious disease, and did not smoke tobacco or drink alcohol.

Physical examination showed skin atrophy, moon face, buffalo hump (between the shoulders), and purplish abdominal striae (stretch marks), which researchers defined as a typical Cushingoid appearance. The patient also experienced elevated pressure inside the eye, and had edema, conjunctival congestion, and lid retraction. No liver, spleen, respiration, cardiac, abdominal, blood counts, urinary, sensory, or motor abnormalities were noted.

Biochemical evaluation showed elevated cortisol and reduced adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) levels. Administering  dexamethasone did not lower the level of cortisol. Abnormal responses of the hormone vasopressin also were detected.

A computed tomography (CT) scan of the adrenal glands showed bilateral multiple lobular masses, and an MRI of the eye orbits indicated bilateral exophthalmos with hypertrophy of the retro-orbital fat, which lines the orbit.

After PBMAH was diagnosed, the patient’s adrenal glands were removed. Pathological findings showed multiple, homogenous, golden-yellow-colored nodules on the glands.

The surgery successfully lowered the level of cortisol and increased that of ACTH. The patient began taking hydrocortisone and metformin for diabetes. After six months, her exophtlamos, blood glucose levels, and blood pressure had improved.

Genetic analysis revealed six specific ARMC5 mutations in five of the seven adrenal nodules analyzed. “All the mutations are novel and not found in available online databases,” the researchers wrote. The mutations may lead to resistance to cell death in the tumor cells, and cause an increase in the production of cortisol, they observed.

As a result of the ARMC5 mutations, gene expression (conversion of genetic information) of the messenger RNA (mRNA, which is converted from DNA in the first step of protein synthesis) was lower in the adrenal tumor samples, in comparison with normal adrenal cortex.

Overall, the study “highlights the importance of early recognition of atypical symptoms of Cushing’s syndrome such as exophthalmos, which would save the patient from harmful effects of excessive cortisol exposure,” the researchers said. Screening for ARMC5 mutations also would help improve diagnosis and genetic counseling, they said.


[Pseudo-Cushing’s] Michigan woman nearly dies after herbal supplement found to be laced with steroids

MADISON HEIGHTS, Mich. (WXYZ) – Since 2004, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has received more than 26,000 reports of adverse events and complaints about dietary supplements.

Jody Higgins of Madison Heights, Michigan made one of those complaints to the FDA, after she says she found out the herbs she had been taking were making her seriously ill.

“I really thought I was going to die I was getting so sick,” Higgins said.

Back in 2015, Higgins says her legs started hurting.  She says she didn’t have great health insurance, and she was hoping for a more holistic approach, so a friend referred her to Far East Ginseng Herbs and Tea in nearby Sterling Heights.

“They suggested that I take something that was called Linsen Double Caulis. I had never heard of it before, and it appeared to have all herbs on the label,” Higgins said.

Higgins says for a while, she felt better, and when she stopped taking the Linsen Double Caulis, the leg pain returned. So, she says she kept taking it for nearly a year, even though she started noticing strange symptoms.

“Within four months I had gained 80 pounds,” she said.

She suddenly had facial hair growth, severe facial swelling, extremely swollen ankles, and had dark purple stretch marks all over her body.

“I wasn’t recognizable,” said Higgins.  “I couldn’t stand for longer than 2 minutes. I couldn’t cook. I couldn’t wash my clothing. I could barely get in the shower.”

After visiting several doctors, Higgins was eventually referred to University of Michigan Endocrinologist Dr. Ariel Barkan.

“The minute that I said I had been taking a Chinese herbal remedy, he said ‘you’ve been poisoned. I know it.’ Those were his exact words,” said Higgins.

“Her situation was pretty shaky,” Barkan said.

Barkan sent the Linsin Double Caulis herbal supplement to the Mayo Clinic for testing.

“They were loaded with Dexamethasone … [which] is a medication.  It’s a synthetic steroid, very potent, very long acting, and if we take it for quite some time, we develop what is called Cushing Syndrome,” said Dr. Barkan.

Higgins was diagnosed with Cushing Syndrome, and Barkan says she could have died if she hadn’t sought help.

“The mortality for untreated Cushing Syndrome is 50% within 5 years,” said Barkan.  “ … immunity is completely suppressed. And when you don’t have immunity, the first virus, the first germ may cause [a] fatal infection and you will die.”

Higgins says once she stopped taking the Linsen Double Caulis, the facial hair went away, but she’s still struggling with her weight. Barkan says her health should improve, although it will take time.

Both doctor and patient say they have contacted the FDA about this, and they each have a warning about taking herbal supplements.

“Please just be very cautious,” Higgins said.

“Don’t touch it. Don’t touch it, you’re playing Russian roulette,” said Barkan.

Jody Higgins says she met with an investigator from the FDA’s criminal division.

An FDA spokesperson would only say that they do not discuss possible or ongoing investigations.

The lawyer for the store where Higgins says she purchased the supplement told us the owners will not be commenting on, but the owner did say they no longer sell this product.


Interview with Doc Karen, Pituitary Patient and Cushing’s Advocate

Karen’s Story

Life was good! In fact, life was great! I was married to the love of my life. We had a beautiful little girl. My husband and I had both earned our graduate degrees. I earned my Doctorate in Clinical Psychology and was growing my clinical practice. I loved my work!

In October, 2006, my life was turned upside down when I gained 30 pounds in 30 days! I knew this was not normal at all. I sought answers but my doctor kept insisting that I wasn’t eating the right foods, that I wasn’t exercising hard enough, and finally that it was genetic. However, I was always a thin person, I ate pretty healthy foods, and I was pretty active. Red flags became even greater when my physician put me on prescription weight loss drugs and I STILL gained another 30 pounds. I knew my body and I knew something was wrong but I had no one to validate what was going on.

In January, 2010, to my surprise, I learned that I was miraculously pregnant with our second daughter. I was so sick during that pregnancy and,  again, my doctors couldn’t figure out why. My OBGYN was very supportive, yet so concerned. Her solution was to put me on bed rest. I became so ill that she told me that “my only job was to sit still and wait to have a baby”. I did give birth to a healthy baby girl four weeks early. Little did I know, then, how much of a miracle she was.

During the latter part of my pregnancy, while flipping through channels on television, I came across a Cushing’s episode on the health TV show, “Mystery Diagnosis”.

I knew right away that this diagnosis fit everything I had been experiencing: years of weird and unexplained symptoms, gaining 150 pounds for no reason, an onset of diabetes, high blood pressure, and an overall sense of doom.

You see, my friends and family witnessed me go from a vibrant young Clinical Psychologist in practice, to someone whose health deteriorated due to the symptoms of Cushing’s, as I tried for many years to get answers from professionals. As I continued to eat a healthy, 1000 calorie per day diet, engage in exercise with multiple personal trainers, and follow through with referrals to consult with dietitians; I continued to gain weight at a rate of 5 pounds per week and experience rapidly declining health. Finally, after watching that Cushing’s episode of Mystery Diagnosis, I found my answer! Ultimately, I sought the expertise of and treatment from a team of experts at the Seattle Pituitary Center in Seattle, WA. I had brain surgery in Seattle on November 16th, 2011. I want to tell you how I found the people who helped save my life…

On June 9, 2011, I went to my first MAGIC conference. I had never heard of them but someone on one of the online support groups told me about it.  At that time, I was working but was very, very sick. We suspected at that time that I had been sick for years! My local endocrinologist was far from a Cushing’s expert. After watching the Cushing’s episode of Mystery Diagnosis, I told the same endocrinologist who had misdiagnosed me for years that I had found my answer. He swore that there was “literally no possible way that I had Cushing’s Disease!” He stated that my “hump wasn’t big enough”, “my stretch marks were not purple enough” and that “Cushing’s patients do not have children!” I told him that I was NOT leaving his office until he started testing me. He finally caved in. To his surprise, I was getting abnormal labs back.

At that time, there was evidence of a pit tumor but it wasn’t showing up on an MRI. So, I had my IPSS scheduled. An IPSS stands for Inferior Petrosal Sinus Sampling. It is done because 60 % of Cushing’s based pituitary tumors are so small that they do not show up on an MRI. Non Cushing’s experts do not know this so they often blow patients off, even after the labs show a high level of ACTH in the brain through blood work. An overproduction of the hormone ACTH from the pituitary communicates to the adrenal glands to overproduce cortisol. Well, the IPSS procedure is where they put catheters up through your groin through your body up into your head to draw samples to basically see which side of your pituitary the extra hormone is coming from, thus indicating where the tumor is. U of C is the only place in IL that does it.

So, back to the MAGIC convention; my husband and I went to this conference looking for answers. We were so confused and scared!  Everyone, and I mean everyone, welcomed us with opened arms like we were family! There were brilliant presenters there, including an endocrinologist named Dr. William Ludlam. At that time, he was the director at the Seattle Pituitary Center in Seattle, WA. He is a true Cushing’s expert. Since then, he left in January, 2012 to have a significant impact toward the contribution of research of those impacted by Cushing’s Syndrome. His position was taken over by another brilliant endocrinologist, Dr. Frances Broyles.

I was scheduled to get an IPSS at U of C on June 28th, 2011 to locate the tumor. Two days after the IPSS, I began having spontaneous blackouts and ended up in the hospital for 6 days. The docs out here had no clue what was happening and I was having between 4-7 blackouts a day! My life was in danger and they were not helping me! We don’t know why, but the IPSS triggered something! But, no one wanted to be accountable so they told me the passing out, which I was not doing before, was all in my head being triggered by psychological issues. They did run many tests. But, they were all the wrong tests. I say all the time; it’s like going into Subway and ordering a turkey sandwich and giving them money and getting a tuna sandwich. You would be mad! What if they told you, “We gave you a sandwich!” Even if they were to give you a dozen sandwiches; if it wasn’t turkey, it wouldn’t be the right one. This is how I feel about these tests that they ran and said were all “normal”. The doctors kept telling us that they ran all of these tests so they could cover themselves. Yet, they were not looking at the right things, even though, I (the patient) kept telling them that this was an endocrine issue and had something to do with my tumor! Well, guess how good God is?!!!!

You see, Dr. Ludlam had given me his business card at the conference, which took place two weeks prior to the IPSS. I put it away for a while. But, something kept telling me to pull the card out and contact him. I am crying just thinking about it, Lord!

So, prior to my IPSS, I wrote Dr. Ludlam an e mail asking him some questions. At that time, he told me to send him ALL of my records including labs. I sent him 80 pages of records that day.  He called me back stating that he concurred with all of the evidence that I definitely have Cushing’s Disease from a pituitary source. He asked me what I planned to do and I told him that I was having the IPSS procedure done in a few days at the University of Chicago. He told me once I got my results to contact him.

Fast forward, I ended up in the hospital with these blackouts after my IPSS. The doctors, including MY local endocrinologist told me there was no medical evidence for my blackouts. In fact, he told the entire treatment team that he even doubted if I even had a tumor! However, this is the same man who referred me for the IPSS in the first place! I was literally dying and no one was helping me! We reached out to Dr. Ludlam in Seattle and told him of the situation. He told me he knew exactly what was going on. For some reason, there was a change in my brain tumor activity that happened after my IPSS. No one, to this day, has been able to answer the question as to whether the IPSS caused the change in tumor activity. The tumor, for some reason, began shutting itself on and off. When it would shut off, my cortisol would drop and would put me in a state of adrenal insufficiency, causing these blackouts!

Dr. Ludlam said as soon as we were discharged, we needed to fly out to Seattle so that he could help me! The hospital discharged me in worse condition then when I came in. I had a blackout an hour after discharge! But get this…The DAY the hospital sent me home saying that I did not have a pit tumor, my IPSS results were waiting for me! EVIDENCE OF TUMOR ON THE LEFT SIDE OF MY PITUITARY GLAND!!!

Two days later, Craig and I were on a plane to Seattle. I had never in my life been to Seattle, nor did I ever think I would go. We saw the man that God used to save my life, Dr. William Ludlam, the same man who we had met at the MAGIC conference for the first time one month prior! He put me on a combo of medications that would pull me out of crisis. Within one month, my blackouts had almost completely stopped! Unfortunately, we knew this was a temporary fix! He was treating me to carry me over to surgery. You see, his neurosurgeon, Dr. Marc Mayberg was just as amazing. He is one of the top neurosurgeons in the US! Statistically, he has one of the highest success rates!

The problem was that our insurance refused to pay for surgery with an expert outside of IL, stating that I could have surgery anywhere in IL! Most people don’t know that pituitary surgeries are very complicated and need the expertise of a “high volume center” which is where they do at least 50 of these surgeries per year. Dr. Mayberg has performed over 5,000 of these surgeries!  By this time, we had learned that we need to fight for the best care! It was what would give me the best chance at life! We thought I would have to wait until January when our insurance would change, to see if I could get the surgery I so desperately needed! I was holding on by a thread!

We began appealing our insurance. At the time the MAGIC foundation had an insurance specialist who was allowed to help us fight our insurance. Her name is Melissa Callahan and she took it upon herself to fight for us as our patient advocate. It was a long and hard battle! But…we finally WON!!!! On November 16th, 2011, Dr. Marc Mayberg found that hidden tumor on the left side of my pituitary gland! He removed the tumor along with 50% of my pituitary gland.

Recovery was a difficult process. They say that it takes about one full year to recover after pituitary surgery for Cushing’s. I was grateful to be in remission, nonetheless. However, about one year after my brain surgery, the Cushing’s symptoms returned. After seven more months of testing that confirmed a recurrence of the Cushing’s, I was cleared for a more aggressive surgery. This time, I had both of my adrenal glands removed as a last resort. By then, we had learned that I had hyperplasia, which is an explosion of tumor cells in my pituitary. It only takes one active cell to cause Cushing’s. Therefore, I could have potentially had several more brain surgeries and the disease would have kept coming back over and over.

As a last resort, my adrenal glands were removed so that no matter how much these cells try to cause my adrenals to produce excessive amounts of cortisol; the glands are not there to receive the message. As a result, I am Adrenally Insufficient for life, which means that my body cannot produce the life sustaining hormone, cortisol, at all. I had my Bilateral Adrenalectomy by world renowned BLA surgeon, Dr. Manfred Chiang, in Wisconsin on August 21st, 2013. I traded Cushing’s Disease for Addison’s Disease, one of the hardest decisions I have ever had to make in my life. However, I knew that I would die with Cushing’s. Recovery from my last surgery was difficult and involved weaning down to a maintenance dose of steroid to replace my cortisol. Now, on a maintenance dose; I still have to take extra cortisol during times of physical or emotional stress to prevent my body from going into shock.

I promised a long time ago that I would pay it forward…give back because so much has been given to me. This is why I have committed my life to supporting the Cushing’s community. I post videos on YouTube as a way of increasing awareness. My channel can be found at

Additionally, I am working on a Cushing’s documentary. Please like us on Facebook at

Thank you for taking the time to read my story!

Karen has made 2 videos about her experiences with Cushing’s:


Doc Karen will be our guest in an interview on BlogTalk Radio  Friday December 2 at 11:00 AM eastern.  The Call-In number for questions or comments is (323) 642-1665 .

The archived interview will be available through iTunes Podcasts (Cushie Chats) or BlogTalkRadio.  While you’re waiting, there are currently 90 other past interviews to listen to!

Cushing’s Syndrome and Skin Problems

By Afsaneh Khetrapal, BSc (Hons)

Cushing’s Syndrome (sometimes called hypercortisolism) is a hormonal disease caused by an abnormally high level of the hormone cortisol in the body. This may arise because of an endogenous or exogenous source of cortisol. Endogenous causes include the elevated production of cortisol by the adrenal glands, while exogenous causes include the excessive use of cortisol or other similar steroid (glucocorticoid) hormones over a prolonged period of time.

The adrenal glands are situated just above each kidney, and form part of the endocrine system. They have numerous functions such as the production of hormones called catecholamines, which includes epinephrine and norepinephrine. Interestingly, the outer layer (cortex) of the adrenal glands has the distinct responsibility of producing cortisol. This hormone is best known for its crucial role in the bodily response to stress.

At physiologically appropriate levels, cortisol is vital in maintaining normal sleep-wake cycles, and acts to increase blood sugar levels. It suppresses the immune system, regulates the effect of insulin on the metabolism of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates, and help with the homeostasis of water in the body.

Exogenous corticosteroids can also lead to Cushing’s syndrome, when they are used as a form of long-term treatment for various medical conditions. In fact, the long-term use of steroid medication is the most common reason for the development of Cushing’s syndrome.

Prednisolone is the most commonly prescribed steroid medicine. It belongs to a class of medicine that is sometimes used to treat conditions such as certain forms of arthritis and cancer. Other uses include the rapid and effective reduction of inflammation in conditions such as asthma and multiple sclerosis (MS), as well as the treatment of autoimmune conditions such as lupus erythematosus, and rheumatoid arthritis.

Overall, Cushing’s syndrome is quite uncommon and affects approximately 1 in 50,000 people. Most of them are adults between the ages of 20 and 50.  Women are 3 times more commonly affected than men. Additionally, patients who are obese, or those who have type 2 diabetes with poorly controlled blood sugar and blood pressure show a greater predisposition to the disorder.

Symptoms of Cushing’s syndrome

There are numerous symptoms associated with Cushing’s syndrome, which range from muscle weakness, hypertension, curvature of the spine (kyphosis), osteoporosis, and depression, to fatigue Specific symptoms which pertain to the skin are as follows:

  • Thinning of the skin and other mucous membranes: the skin becomes dry and bruises easily. Cortisol causes the breakdown of some dermal proteins along with the weakening of small blood vessels. In fact, the skin may become so weak as to develop a shiny, paper-thin quality which allows it to be torn easily.
  • Increased susceptibility of skin to infections
  • Poor wound healing  of bruises, cuts, and scratches
  • Spots appear on the upper body, that is, on the face, chest or shoulders
  • Darkened skin which is seen on the neck
  • Wide, red-purple streaks (at least half an inch wide) called striae which are most common on the sides of the torso, the lower abdomen, thighs, buttocks, arms, and breasts, or in areas of weight gain. The accumulation of fat caused by Cushing’s syndrome stretches the skin which is already thin and weakened due to cortisol action, causing it to hemorrhage and stretch permanently, healing by fibrosis.
  • Acne: this can develop in patients of all ages.
  • Swollen ankles: this is caused by the accumulation of fluid, called edema.
  • Hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating)

Reviewed by Dr Liji Thomas, MD


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