Elevated late-night salivary cortisol may indicate recurrent Cushing’s disease

Carroll TB, et al. Endocr Pract. 2016;doi:10.4158/EP161380.OR.

 

Elevated late-night salivary cortisol may serve as an early biochemical marker of recurrent Cushing’s disease, and prompt intervention may result in clinical benefits for people with Cushing’s disease, according to recent study findings.

According to the researchers, late-night salivary cortisol level is more sensitive for detecting Cushing’s disease recurrence compared with urinary free cortisol or a dexamethasone suppression test.

Ty B. Carroll, MD, assistant professor at the Medical College of Wisconsin Endocrinology Center and Clinics in Menomonee Falls, and colleagues evaluated 15 patients (14 women; mean age, 49.1 years) with postsurgical recurrent Cushing’s disease (mean time to recurrence, 3.3 years) after initial remission to determine the performance of urinary free cortisol and late-night salivary cortisol measurements for detecting recurrent Cushing’s disease.

Participants were identified as having Cushing’s disease between 2008 and 2013; there was no standard for follow-up, but after remission confirmation participants were followed at least every 6 months after surgery for 2 years and then annually thereafter. Late-night salivary cortisol was the primary biochemical test to screen for recurrence, and follow-up tests with a dexamethasone suppression test, urinary free cortisol or other tests were performed if late-night salivary results were abnormal or if suspicion of recurrence was high.

Of the cohort, 80% had normal urinary free cortisol (< 45 µg/24 hours) at recurrence. Primary transphenoidal adenoma resection was performed in all participants. Evidence of pituitary adenoma on MRI at the time of recurrence was present in seven of 12 participants with normal urinary free cortisol and two of three participants with abnormal urinary free cortisol. Normal renal function was present in all participants, and 14 underwent testing with late-night salivary cortisol, dexamethasone suppression test and urinary free cortisol.

Of participants with normal urinary free cortisol at recurrence, nine had an abnormal dexamethasone suppression test (cortisol 1.8 µg/dL), and all had at least one elevated late-night salivary cortisol measurement (> 4.3 nmol/L). Mean late-night salivary cortisol was 10.2 nmol/L, and mean urinary free cortisol was 19.9 µg/24 hours.

Therapy for recurrent Cushing’s disease was administered in 11 of the 12 participants with abnormal urinary free cortisol. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-staining pituitary adenoma was confirmed in three participants who underwent repeat transphenoidal adenoma resection. Pharmacotherapy was administered to seven participants with normal urinary free cortisol, and two additional participants underwent bilateral adrenalectomy.

Abnormal dexamethasone suppression test was found in two participants with elevated urinary free cortisol at the time of recurrence, and two participants had confirmed abnormal late-night salivary cortisol. All three participants with elevated urinary free cortisol at the time of recurrence underwent therapy.

“This study has shown potential clinical benefit of either surgical or medical therapy in recurrent [Cushing’s disease] patients with elevations of [late-night salivary cortisol] and normal [urinary free cortisol],” the researchers wrote. “We believe that the outcomes observed in this retrospective case series suggest that the risk/benefit ratio of early treatment needs to undergo a more rigorous prospective evaluation utilizing [late-night salivary cortisol] elevation as an early biochemical marker of recurrent [Cushing’s disease].” – by Amber Cox

Disclosure: Carroll reports being a consultant for Corcept Therapeutics. Please see the full study for a list of all other authors’ relevant financial disclosures.

From http://www.healio.com/endocrinology/adrenal/news/online/%7B9ea4e4ed-6428-49b8-9b2a-11462cb21349%7D/elevated-late-night-salivary-cortisol-may-indicate-recurrent-cushings-disease

Six controversial issues on subclinical Cushing’s syndrome

Abstract

Subclinical Cushing’s syndrome is a condition of hypercortisolism in the absence of signs specific of overt cortisol excess, and it is associated with an increased risk of diabetes, hypertension, fragility fractures, cardiovascular events and mortality.

The subclinical Cushing’s syndrome is not rare, being estimated to be between 0.2–2 % in the adult population. Despite the huge number of studies that have been published in the recent years, several issues remain controversial for the subclinical Cushing’s syndrome screening, diagnosis and treatment.

The Altogether to Beat Cushing’s syndrome Group was founded in 2012 for bringing together the leading Italian experts in the hypercortisolism-related diseases. This document represents the Altogether to Beat Cushing’s syndrome viewpoint regarding the following controversial issues on Subclinical Cushing’s syndrome (SCS):

(1) Who has to be screened for subclinical Cushing’s syndrome?
(2) How to screen the populations at risk?
(3) How to diagnose subclinical Cushing’s syndrome in patients with an adrenal incidentaloma?
(4) Which consequence of subclinical Cushing’s syndrome has to be searched for?
(5) How to address the therapy of choice in AI patients with subclinical Cushing’s syndrome?
(6) How to follow-up adrenal incidentaloma patients with subclinical Cushing’s syndrome surgically or conservatively treated?

Notwithstanding the fact that most studies that faced these points may have several biases (e.g., retrospective design, small sample size, different criteria for the subclinical Cushing’s syndrome diagnosis), we believe that the literature evidence is sufficient to affirm that the subclinical Cushing’s syndrome condition is not harmless and that the currently available diagnostic tools are reliable for identifying the majority of individuals with subclinical Cushing’s syndrome.

Keywords

Subclinical hypercortisolism, Adrenal incidentalomas, Hypertension, Diabetes, Osteoporosis

Cushing’s syndrome: Pituitary surgery alone is the preferred treatment to improve survival

Background

No agreement has been reached on the long-term survival prospects for patients with Cushing’s disease. We studied life expectancy in patients who had received curative treatment and whose hypercortisolism remained in remission for more than 10 years, and identified factors determining their survival.

Methods

We did a multicentre, multinational, retrospective cohort study using individual case records from specialist referral centres in the UK, Denmark, the Netherlands, and New Zealand. Inclusion criteria for participants, who had all been in studies reported previously in peer-reviewed publications, were diagnosis and treatment of Cushing’s disease, being cured of hypercortisolism for a minimum of 10 years at study entry, and continuing to be cured with no relapses until the database was frozen or death. We identified the number and type of treatments used to achieve cure, and used mortality as our primary endpoint. We compared mortality rates between patients with Cushing’s disease and the general population, and expressed them as standardised mortality ratios (SMRs). We analysed survival data with multivariate analysis (Cox regression) with no corrections for multiple testing.

Read more at http://www.univadis.com/viewarticle/cushing-s-syndrome-pituitary-surgery-alone-is-the-preferred-treatment-to-improve-survival-421761

Today’s Bravelet Special

TODAY! Rosa Bracelets are 25% OFF with code: ROSA25. Ends at midnight!

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$10 from every item sold on this page will be donated to help raise awareness for Cushing’s Disease through the work of the Cushings Help family of websites.

For nearly 16 years we have provided information, support, RSS feeds, news, and education for people with Cushing’s or other endocrine problems, their friends and families. Cushing’s syndrome is a hormonal disorder caused by prolonged exposure of the body’s tissues to high levels of cortisol.

 

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Nominations for RareVoice Awards close July 31

rarevoice

 

Rare Disease Legislative Advocates is accepting nominations for the 5th Annual RareVoice Awards, a celebration to honor advocates and policy leaders who give rare disease patients a “voice” on Capitol Hill and in State government.

All nominees will be honored at the awards celebration at Arena Stage in Washington, DC on November 16, 2016 and Abbey award recipients will be announced live at the event.

To nominate a rare disease champion, please click here. You can nominate someone in the category of patient advocacy, government staff, or congressional staff.

Deadline to submit nominations is July 31, 2016.

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