Osilodrostat normalizes urinary free cortisol in Cushing’s disease for most at 72 weeks

More than 80% of adults with Cushing’s disease receiving osilodrostat had normalized mean urinary free cortisol levels at 72 weeks of treatment, according to findings from the LINC 3 study extension.

“Cushing’s disease is a chronic condition, and many patients require prolonged pharmacological treatment. Therefore, evaluating long-term efficacy and safety of drug therapies in clinical trials is essential,” Maria Fleseriu, MD, FACE, professor of medicine and neurological surgery and director of the Pituitary Center at Oregon Health & Science University in Portland and a Healio | Endocrine Today co-editor, told Healio. “Our findings build on the positive results of the LINC 3 study core phase, and it was reassuring to see that continued treatment with osilodrostat for over 72 weeks provided long-term normalization of cortisol levels. Furthermore, continued treatment with osilodrostat also led to sustained improvements in clinical signs and physical manifestations of hypercortisolism, as well as health-related quality of life, which are all important factors in the management of these patients.”

Fleseriu and colleagues enrolled 106 adults with Cushing’s disease who were responders to osilodrostat (Isturisa, Recordati) at 48 weeks during the LINC 3 core study to enter the extension phase of the trial. Participants continued to receive open-label osilodrostat until 72 weeks or treatment discontinuation. Mean urinary free cortisol was collected every 12 weeks. Physical manifestations of hypercortisolism were rated at 48 and 72 weeks. Participants completed the Cushing’s Quality of Life questionnaire and Beck Depression Inventory II at 48 and 72 weeks. Adults were deemed to have completely responded to treatment if mean urinary free cortisol was less than the upper limit of normal and partially responded to treatment if mean urinary free cortisol was above the upper limit of normal but decreased more than 50% from baseline.

The findings were published in the European Journal of Endocrinology.

Of the 106 participants in the extension study, 98 completed 72 weeks of treatment. At 72 weeks, 81.1% of participants were complete responders to treatment, and reductions in mean urinary free cortisol from the core phase were maintained during the extension.

Improvements in most cardiovascular and metabolic-related parameters from the core study were maintained or improved in the extension phase. The cohort also had increases in quality of life score and improvements in Beck Depression Inventory II scores.

The proportion of participants with improvements in physical manifestation of hypercortisolism were maintained or improved in all areas at 72 weeks. For hirsutism in women, 86.4% had an improved or stable severe score at 72 weeks. Improved scores were observed in participants with mild, moderate and severe physical manifestations at baseline with few adults experiencing worse manifestations at the end of the extension study.

There were no new safety signals reported in the extension study. Of the extension study participants, 11.3% discontinued osilodrostat due to adverse events, a similar percentage to the 10.9% discontinuation rate during the core phase of the study.

Several hormone concentrations, including mean adrenocorticotropic hormone, 11-deoxycortisol and plasma aldosterone, stabilized during the extension phase after changes were observed in the core study compared with baseline. Mean testosterone in women decreased from 2.6 nmol/L at 48 weeks to 2.1 nmol/L at 72 weeks. There were no changes observed in mean testosterone levels for men.

“Patients should be regularly monitored and osilodrostat dose titrated as necessary, alongside adjustment of concomitant medications, to optimize outcomes,” the researchers wrote. “Taken together, these findings support osilodrostat as an effective and well-tolerated long-term treatment option for patients with Cushing’s disease.”

For more information:

Maria Fleseriu, MD, FACE, can be reached at fleseriu@ohsu.edu.

From https://www.healio.com/news/endocrinology/20220914/osilodrostat-normalizes-urinary-free-cortisol-in-cushings-disease-for-most-at-72-weeks

Results Reinforce Efficacy of Recordati’s Isturisa in Cushing’s Disease

Recordati Rare Diseases, a US biopharma that forms part of the wider Italian group, has presented multiple positive data sets on Isturisa (osilodrostat) at the annual ENDO 2022 meeting in Atlanta, Georgia.

Isturisa is a cortisol synthesis inhibitor indicated for the treatment of adult patients with Cushing’s disease for whom pituitary surgery is not an option or has not been curative.

Among the data presented, the Phase III LINC 4 study demonstrated that Isturisa maintained normal mean urinary free cortisol long-term in patients with Cushing’s disease while the Phase III LINC 3 study found adrenal hormone levels changed during early treatment with the drug while stabilizing during long-term treatment.

The ILLUSTRATE study also showed patients treated with a prolonged titration interval tended to have greater persistence with therapy.

Mohamed Ladha, president and general manager for North America, Recordati Rare Diseases, said: “The data from these studies reinforces the efficacy and safety of Isturisa as a treatment for patients with Cushing’s disease.

“We are pleased to share these data with the endocrine community and are excited to provide patients with a much-needed step forward in the management of this rare, debilitating, and potentially life-threatening condition.”

Cushing’s disease is a rare, serious illness caused by a pituitary tumor that leads to overproduction of cortisol by the adrenal glands. Excess cortisol can contribute to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Treatment for the condition seeks to lower cortisol levels to a normal range.

Isturisa, which was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in March 2020, works by inhibiting 11-beta-hydroxylase, an enzyme responsible for the final step of cortisol biosynthesis in the adrenal gland.

From https://www.thepharmaletter.com/article/results-reinforce-efficacy-of-recordati-s-isturisa-in-cushing-s-disease

Sparrow Pharmaceuticals Presents New Clinical Trial Data Analyses on HSD-1 Inhibitor SPI-62 at the 24th European Congress of Endocrinology

Clinical trial analyses focus on the human body’s homeostatic response to potent HSD-1 inhibition by SPI-62

Results highlight that urinary free cortisol is distinct from intracellular cortisol that causes symptoms in patients with Cushing’s syndrome or autonomous cortisol secretion

PORTLAND, Ore.–(BUSINESS WIRE)–Sparrow Pharmaceuticals, an emerging, clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company developing novel, targeted therapies for disorders of glucocorticoid excess, today presented new pharmacological data during a poster session and a Rapid Communications session titled, “HPA axis modulation by a potent inhibitor indicates 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (HSD-1) is a main source of cortisol that can bind intracellular receptors” at the 24th European Congress of Endocrinology (ECE 2022). Sparrow scientists examined the steroid hormone changes after administration of its lead therapeutic candidate, SPI-62, an HSD-1 inhibitor, to healthy adults.

“Normalized urinary free cortisol, or UFC, is a standard therapeutic target for patients with Cushing’s syndrome,” said David A. Katz, Ph.D., CSO at Sparrow Pharmaceuticals, “But that biomarker doesn’t measure the cortisol that can access intracellular receptors and cause symptoms. UFC normalization has been shown not to correlate with clinical endpoints in patients with Cushing’s syndrome. Many patients with autonomous cortisol secretion have normal UFC, yet substantial cortisol morbidity. As we conduct clinical trials for patients with those diseases, we’re in search of better ways to measure the cortisol that makes patients ill.”

The study analyzed historical clinical trial data to better characterize how SPI-62 impacts cortisol levels and the body’s homeostatic response to those changes.

Conclusions of the study include:

  • Half of hepatocellular cortisol with access to intracellular receptors is generated in healthy adults by HSD-1.
  • ACTH increase compensates for the effect of HSD-1 inhibition on systemic cortisol levels.
  • Secondary increases of androgen levels have not been associated to date with clinical consequences.
  • Large changes of the amount of cortisol that can bind intracellular receptors, and thus cause cortisol-related morbidity, can occur independently of urinary free cortisol levels.

HSD-1 converts cortisone to cortisol in tissues in which cortisol excess is associated with morbidity including liver, adipose, bone, and brain. SPI-62 is a potent HSD-1 inhibitor in clinical development for treatment of Cushing’s syndrome and autonomous cortisol secretion, and as adjunctive therapy to prednisolone in polymyalgia rheumatica. In Phase 1 clinical trials SPI-62 was generally well tolerated and associated with maximal liver and brain HSD-1 inhibition.

To register and view the abstracts, visit ECE’s website here.

From https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20220524005465/en/Sparrow-Pharmaceuticals-Presents-New-Clinical-Trial-Data-Analyses-on-HSD-1-Inhibitor-SPI-62-at-the-24th-European-Congress-of-Endocrinology

 

Osilodrostat Normalizes Urinary Free Cortisol in Most Adults with Cushing’s Disease

More than three-quarters of adults with Cushing’s disease assigned osilodrostat had a normalized mean urinary free cortisol level at 12 weeks and maintained a normal level at 36 weeks, according to data from the LINC 4 phase 3 trial.

In findings published in The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 77% of adults with Cushing’s disease randomly assigned to osilodrostat (Isturisa, Recordati) had mean urinary free cortisol (UFC) levels reduced to below the upper limit of normal at 12 weeks compared with 8% of adults assigned to placebo.

Osilodrostat normalizes UFC in most people with Cushing's disease at 12 weeks
Most adults with Cushing’s disease taking 2 mg twice daily osilodrostat had normalized mean UFC levels at 12 weeks compared with placebo. Data were derived from Gadelha M, et al. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2022;doi:10.1210/clinem/dgac178.

Osilodrostat is a highly effective treatment for Cushing’s disease, normalizing urinary free cortisol excretion in 77% of patients after 12 weeks’ treatment,” Mônica Gadelha, MD, professor of endocrinology at The Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, and colleagues wrote. “Cortisol reductions were maintained throughout 48 weeks of treatment and were accompanied by improvements in clinical signs of hypercortisolism and quality of life.”

Gadelha and colleagues enrolled 73 adults aged 18 to 75 years with Cushing’s disease from 40 centers in 14 countries into the LINC 4 phase 3 trial. Participants were randomly assigned to 2 mg osilodrostat twice daily (n = 48) or placebo (n = 25) for 12 weeks. Urinary samples were collected at weeks 2, 5 and 8 to measure mean UFC, and dosage was adjusted based on efficacy and tolerability. After 12 weeks, participants from both groups received osilodrostat in a 36-week open-label treatment period. All participants restarted the open-label portion of the trial at 2 mg osilodrostat unless they were on a lower dose at week 12. Dose adjustments in the open-label phase were made using the same guidelines in the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The primary endpoint was the efficacy of osilodrostat at achieving a mean UFC below the upper limit of normal of 138 nmol per 24 hours at 12 weeks vs. placebo; the key secondary endpoint was the percentage of participants achieving a normal mean UFC at 36 weeks.

At 12 weeks, the percentage of adults with a normalized mean UFC level was higher in the osilodrostat group compared with placebo (77.1% vs. 8%; P < .0001).

At 36 weeks, 80.8% of all participants had a normal mean UFC level. The overall response rate was 79.5% at 48 weeks.

Median time to first controlled mean UFC response was 35 days for those randomly assigned to osilodrostat as well as those randomly assigned to placebo who crossed over to osilodrostat for the open-label phase. At 48 weeks, 84% of participants were receiving 10 mg or less of osilodrostat per day, including 56% receiving 4 mg or less daily.

At 12 weeks, the osilodrostat group had several cardiovascular and metabolic-related improvements, including systolic and diastolic blood pressure, HbA1c, HDL cholesterol, body weight and waist circumference. No changes were observed in the placebo group.

“The improvements in cardiovascular and metabolic parameters were sustained throughout osilodrostat treatment and have the potential to alleviate the burden of comorbidities in many patients with Cushing’s disease,” the researchers wrote.

At 12 weeks, 52.5% of those receiving osilodrostat had a reduction in supraclavicular fat pad and 50% had a reduction in dorsal fat pad. At least 25% of participants also had improvements in facial redness, striae, proximal muscle atrophy and central obesity. Improvements were sustained through week 48.

During the placebo-controlled trial, grade 3 and 4 adverse events occurred for about 20% of participants in both groups. For the entire study, 38.4% of adults reported grade 3 and 4 adverse events, with the most common being hypertension. Eight participants discontinued the study due to adverse events.

From https://www.healio.com/news/endocrinology/20220408/osilodrostat-normalizes-urinary-free-cortisol-in-most-adults-with-cushings-disease

More Gradual Dose Titration Could Reduce Hypocortisolism Risk with Osilodrostat in Cushing’s Disease

Data from LINC3 and LINC4 provide insight into the impact of dosing titration schedules on risk of hypocortisolism-related adverse events associated with osilodrostat use in patients with Cushing’s disease.

Data from a pair of phase 3 studies presented at the American Academy of Clinical Endocrinology’s 30th Annual Meeting (AACE 2021) is providing insight into the effect of dose titration schedules with use of osilodrostat (Isturisa) in patients with Cushing’s disease.

Presented by Maria Fleseriu, MD, of Oregon Health and Science University, the analysis of the LINC3 and LINC4 demonstrated the more gradual titration occurring in LINC4 resulted in a lower proportion of hypocortisolism-related adverse events, suggesting up-titration every 3 weeks rather than every 2 weeks could help lower event risk without compromising mean urinary free cortisol (mUFC) control.

“For patients with Cushing’s disease, osilodrostat should be initiated at the recommended starting dose with incremental dose increases, based on individual response/tolerability aimed at normalizing cortisol levels,” concluded investigators.

With approval from the US Food and Drug Administration in March 2020 for patients not eligible for pituitary surgery or have undergone the surgery but still have the disease, osilodrostat became the first FDA-approved therapy address cortisol overproduction by blocking 11β-hydroxylase. Based on results of LINC3, data from the trial, and the subsequent LINC4 trial, provide the greatest available insight into use of the agent in this patient population.

The study presented at AACE 2021 sought to assess whether slow dose up titration might affect rates of hypocortisolism-related adverse events by comparing titration schedules from both phase 3 trials. Median osilodrostat exposure was 75 (IQR, 48-117) weeks and 70 (IQR, 49-87) weeks in LINC3 and LINC4, respectively. The median time to first mUFC equal to or less than ULN was 41 (IQR, 30-42) days in LINC3 and 35 (IQR, 34-52) days in LINC4.

Adverse events potentially related to hypocortisolism were more common among patients in LINC3 (51%, n=70) than LINC4 (27%, n=20). Upon analysis of adverse events, investigators found the most commonly reported type of adverse event was adrenal insufficiency, which included events of glucocorticoid deficiency, adrenocortical insufficiency, steroid withdrawal syndrome, and decreased urinary free cortisol.

Results incited the majority of hypocortisolism-related adverse events occurred during the dos titration periods of each trial. In LINC3, 54 of the 70 (77%) hypocortisolism-related adverse events occurred by week 26. In comparison, 58% of hypocortisolism-related adverse events occurring in LINC4 occurred prior to week 12. Investigators noted most of events that occurred were mild or moderate and managed with dose interruption or reduction of osilodrostat or concomitant medications.

This study, “Effect of Dosing and Titration of Osilodrostat on Efficacy and Safety in Patients with Cushing’s Disease (CD): Results from Two Phase III Trials (LINC3 and LINC4),” was presented at AACE 2021.

From https://www.endocrinologynetwork.com/view/fda-panels-votes-to-support-teplizumab-potential-for-delaying-type-1-diabetes

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