Osilodrostat maintained cortisol control in Cushing’s syndrome

Osilodrostat, a drug that normalized cortisol in 89% of patients with Cushing’s syndrome who took it during a phase II study, continued to exert a sustained benefit during a 31-month extension phase.

In an intent-to-treat analysis, all of the 16 patients who entered the LINC-2 extension study responded well to the medication, with no lapse in cortisol control, Rosario Pivonello, MD, said at the annual meeting of the Endocrine Society.

“We also saw significant improvements in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and decreases in fasting plasma glucose,” said Dr. Pivonello of the University of Naples Federico II, Italy. “Surprisingly, after 31 months, we also observed declines in body mass index and weight.”

Osilodrostat, made by Novartis, is an oral inhibitor of 11 beta–hydroxylase. The enzyme catalyzes the last step of cortisol synthesis in the adrenal cortex. The drug was granted orphan status in 2014 by the European Medicines Agency.

In the LINC-2 study, 19 patients took osilodrostat at an initial dose of either 4 mg/day or 10 mg/day, if baseline urinary-free cortisol exceeded three times the upper normal limit. The dose was escalated every 2 weeks to up to 60 mg/day, until cortisol levels were at or below the upper limit of normal. In this study, the main efficacy endpoint was normalization of cortisol, or at least a 50% decrease from baseline at weeks 10 and 22.

Overall response was 89%. Osilodrostat treatment reduced urinary-free cortisol in all patients, and 79% had normal cortisol levels at week 22. The most common adverse events were asthenia, adrenal insufficiency, diarrhea, fatigue, headache, nausea, and acne. New or worsening hirsutism and/or acne were reported among four female patients, all of whom had increased testosterone levels.

The LINC-2 extension study enrolled 16 patients from the phase II cohort, all of whom had responded to the medication. They were allowed to continue on their existing effective dose through the 31-month period.

Dr. Pivonello presented response curves that tracked cortisol levels from treatment initiation in the LINC-2 study. The median baseline cortisol level was about 1,500 nmol per 24 hours. By the fourth week of treatment, this had normalized in all of the patients who entered the extension phase. The response curve showed continued, stable cortisol suppression throughout the entire 31-month period.

Four patients dropped out during the course of the study. Dr. Pivonello didn’t discuss the reasons for these dropouts. He did break down the results by response, imputing the missing data from these four patients. In this analysis, the majority (87.5%) were fully controlled, with urinary-free cortisol in the normal range. The remainder were partially controlled, experiencing at least a 50% decrease in cortisol from their baseline levels. These responses were stable, with no patient experiencing loss of control over the follow-up period.

The 12 remaining patients are still taking the medication, and they experienced other clinical improvements as well. Systolic blood pressure decreased by a mean of 2.2% (from 130 mm Hg to 127 mm Hg). Diastolic blood pressure also improved, by 6% (from 85 mm Hg to 80 mm Hg).

Fasting plasma glucose dropped from a mean of 89 mg/dL to 82 mg/dL. Weight decreased from a mean of 84 kg to 74 kg, with a corresponding decrease in body mass index, from 29.6 kg/m2 to 26.2 kg/m2.

Serum aldosterone decreased along with cortisol, dropping from a mean of 168 pmol/L to just 19 pmol/L. Adrenocorticotropic hormone increased, as did 11-deoxycortisol, 11-deoxycorticosterone, and testosterone.

Pituitary tumor size was measured in six patients. It increased in three and decreased in three. Dr. Pivonello didn’t discuss why this might have occurred.

The most common adverse events were asthenia, adrenal insufficiency, diarrhea, fatigue, headache, nausea, and acne. These moderated over time in both number and severity.

However, there were eight serious adverse events among three patients, including prolonged Q-T interval on electrocardiogram, food poisoning, gastroenteritis, headache, noncardiac chest pain, symptoms related to pituitary tumor (two patients), and uncontrolled Cushing’s syndrome.

Two patients experienced hypokalemia. Six experienced mild events related to hypocortisolism.

Novartis is pursuing the drug with two placebo-controlled phase III studies (LINC-3 and LINC-4), Dr. Pivonello said. An additional phase II study is being conducted in Japan.

Dr. Pivonello has received consulting fees and honoraria from Novartis, which sponsored the study.

Cushing’s Disease Treatment Market to Witness an Outstanding Growth by 2017 – 2025

Cushing disease is caused by tumour in the pituitary gland which leads to excessive secretion of a hormone called adrenocorticotrophic (ACTH), which in turn leads to increasing levels of cortisol in the body. Cortisol is a steroid hormone released by the adrenal glands and helps the body to deal with injury or infection. Increasing levels of cortisol increases the blood sugar and can even cause diabetes mellitus. However the disease is also caused due to excess production of hypothalamus corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) which stimulates the synthesis of cortisol by the adrenal glands.

The condition is named after Harvey Cushing, the doctor who first identified the disease in 1912. Cushing disease results in Cushing syndrome. Cushing syndrome is a group of signs and symptoms developed due to prolonged exposure to cortisol.

Signs and symptoms of Cushing syndrome includes hypertension, abdominal obesity, muscle weakness, headache, fragile skin, acne, thin arms and legs, red stretch marks on stomach, fluid retention or swelling, excess body and facial hair, weight gain, acne, buffalo hump, tiredness, fatigue, brittle bones, low back pain, moon shaped face etc.

Symptoms vary from individual to individual depending upon the disease duration, age and gender of the patient.  Disease diagnosis is done by measuring levels of cortisol in patient’s urine, saliva or blood. For confirming the diagnosis, a blood test for ACTH is performed. The first-line treatment of the disease is through surgical resection of ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma, however disease management is also done through medications, Cushing disease treatment market comprises of the drugs designed for lowering the level of cortisol in the body. Thus patients suffering from Cushing disease are prescribed medications such as ketoconazole, mitotane, aminoglutethimide metyrapone, mifepristone, etomidate and pasireotide.

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Cushing’s disease treatment market revenue is growing with a stable growth rate, this is attributed to increasing number of pipeline drugs. Also increasing interest of pharmaceutical companies to develop Cushing disease drugs is a major factor contributing to the revenue growth of Cushing disease treatment market over the forecast period. Current and emerging players’ focuses on physician education and awareness regarding availability of different drugs for curing Cushing disease, thus increasing the referral speeds, time to diagnosis and volume of diagnosed Cushing disease individuals. Growing healthcare expenditure and increasing awareness regarding Cushing syndrome aids in the revenue growth of Cushing’s disease treatment market. Increasing number of new product launches also drives the market for Cushing’s disease Treatment devices. However availability of alternative therapies for curing Cushing syndrome is expected to hamper the growth of the Cushing’s disease treatment market over the forecast period.

The Cushing’s disease Treatment market is segment based on the product type, technology type and end user

Cushing’s disease Treatment market is segmented into following types:

By Drug Type

  • Ketoconazole
  • Mitotane
  • Aminoglutethimide
  • Metyrapone
  • Mifepristone
  • Etomidate
  • Pasireotide

By End User

  • Hospital Pharmacies
  • Retail Pharmacies
  • Drug Stores
  • Clinics
  • e-Commerce/Online Pharmacies

Cushing’s disease treatment market revenue is expected to grow at a good growth rate, over the forecast period. The market is anticipated to perform well in the near future due to increasing awareness regarding the condition. Also the market is anticipated to grow with a fastest CAGR over the forecast period, attributed to increasing investment in R&D and increasing number of new product launches which is estimated to drive the revenue growth of Cushing’s disease treatment market over the forecast period.

Depending on geographic region, the Cushing’s disease treatment market is segmented into five key regions: North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific (APAC) and Middle East & Africa (MEA).

North America is occupying the largest regional market share in the global Cushing’s disease treatment market owing to the presence of more number of market players, high awareness levels regarding Cushing syndrome. Healthcare expenditure and relatively larger number of R&D exercises pertaining to drug manufacturing and marketing activities in the region. Also Europe is expected to perform well in the near future due to increasing prevalence of the condition in the region.

Asia Pacific is expected to grow at the fastest CAGR because of increase in the number of people showing the symptoms of Cushing syndrome, thus boosting the market growth of Cushing’s disease treatment market throughout the forecast period.

Some players of Cushing’s disease Treatment market includes CORCEPT THERAPEUTICS, HRA Pharma, Strongbridge Biopharma plc, Novartis AG, etc. However there are numerous companies producing branded generics for Cushing disease. The companies in Cushing’s disease treatment market are increasingly engaged in strategic partnerships, collaborations and promotional activities to capture a greater pie of market share.

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Resolution of the physical features of Cushing’s syndrome in a patient with a cortisol secreting adrenocortical adenoma after unilateral adrenalectomy

A 37-year-old woman developed clinical manifestations of Cushing’s syndrome over a span of 2 years. Physical examination revealed features that best describe Cushing’s syndrome, such as wide purple striae (>1 cm) over the abdomen, facial plethora and easy bruisability.1  Other features observed were hypertension, moon facies, acne, a dorsocervical fat pad, central obesity and dyslipidaemia.

The diagnosis of hypercortisolism was confirmed using a 1 mg overnight dexamethasone suppression test (19.7 ng/dL, N: <1.8) and 24 h urine free cortisol (185.9 μg/24 h, N: 3.5–45). A suppressed adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) level (4 pg/mL, N: 5–20) and a lack of hyperpigmentation suggested ACTH-independent Cushing’s syndrome. Further work up using CT with contrast of the adrenals showed a 2.4×2.3×2.4 cm right adrenal mass. The patient then underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy of the right adrenal gland. Steroids was started postoperatively and tapered over time. Histopathology results were consistent with an adrenocortical adenoma (2.5 cm widest dimension). Six months after surgery, there was resolution of the physical features, weight loss and improvement in blood pressure.

Figure 1 is a serial photograph of the physical features seen in Cushing’s syndrome, such as moon facies, a dorsocervical fat pad and wide purple striae, taken preoperatively, and at 3 and 6 months after surgery. With treatment, physical and biochemical changes of Cushing’s syndrome both resolve through time.2 The time course of the resolution of these changes, however, is varied.2 ,3 We observed that the physical features were ameliorated at 3 months and resolved at 6 months.

Learning points

  • Physicians as well as patients should be aware that improvement of the features of Cushing’s syndrome after treatment does not occur immediately.

  • Dramatic resolution of the physical features of Cushing’s syndrome, however, can be observed as early as 6 months after surgery.

Figure 1

Physical features of Cushing’s syndrome (top to bottom: moon facies, a dorsocervical fat pad and wide purple striae (>1 cm) over the abdomen) documented before surgery, and at 3 and 6 months after surgery.

Footnotes

  • Twitter Follow John Paul Quisumbing at @jpquisumbingmd

  • Contributors JPMQ worked up the case and wrote the case report. MASS reviewed the case report and critically appraised it. JPMQ incorporated his suggestions.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent Obtained.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

References

From http://casereports.bmj.com/content/2016/bcr-2016-215693.short?rss=1

After massive weight gain, Cushing’s disease diagnosis saves man’s life – Health – TODAY.com

Donelle Trotman was only in his 30s when his health suddenly took a strange and frightening turn.

He was rapidly gaining weight — more than 100 pounds in one year. His upper torso was getting bigger, but not his legs. And he felt overwhelmingly tired.

“My body just started changing,” the Staten Island, New York, native told TODAY as part of a three-day series, “Medical Mysteries,” looking at people who have recovered from rare diseases.

It was especially puzzling because Trotman had never had weight issues before.

In school, Trotman was never a skinny kid, but he wasn’t overweight. He loved sports, playing both basketball and baseball.

So as he entered adulthood, he was active and in good shape. Then, three years ago, he suddenly began to gain weight.

“It was just specific places: My stomach, under my arms, my back of my neck, my face, the bottom of my back,” Trotman said. “My legs stayed the same for a long time.”

To lose the extra pounds, Trotman began running, working out and lifting weights. Nothing worked.

In the span of one year, Trotman gained more than 120 pounds, topping the scale at 366 pounds, twice the amount he weighed at 18.

“I doubled, like, I got a whole person on me,” he said.

There were other alarming changes. Trotman became so easily tired that he’d get out of breath just by chewing food. When he woke up seeing double three months ago, he knew it was time to go to the hospital.

Doctors ran a flurry of tests, but the results offered few clues, leaving everyone puzzled. Then one day, an intern noticed stretch marks all over Trotman’s body, a telltale sign that solved the mystery. Trotman had Cushing’s disease, a rare condition that affects fewer than 50,000 people in the U.S. every year.

Trotman’s weight gain was being caused by a tiny tumor at the base of his brain, prompting his body to produce too much of the hormone cortisol. He had some of the classic symptoms: major weight gain in his upper body, skin problems and acne, plus fatigue.

Dr. John Boockvar and Dr. Peter Costantino at New York’s Lenox Hill Hospital discovered Trotman had steroid levels ten times higher than normal.

“In Cushing’s disease, the pituitary gland has a small growth that releases a single hormone that causes the body to live with very high levels of steroids. The skin becomes very thin. You get increased acne. You can grow hair. You start sweating. You gain a lot of fat,” Boockvar said.

There was no time to lose: Untreated, Cushing’s is a fatal disease. Trotman was getting close to the point where doctors would not be able to reverse the changes, Costantino noted. He underwent surgery two weeks ago and had the growth successfully removed.

“The tumor was no bigger than the size of the tip of my pen,” Boockvar said. “And that something so small can cause a man to grow to 350 pounds and absolutely destroy his life is rather remarkable.”

These days, Trotman is feeling much better. His main focus now is to lose the weight he gained and regain an active lifestyle. He hopes to play basketball with his son soon.

“It’s wonderful. Every day it’s just like I feel a little stronger,” he said.

Doctors say Trotman will continue to lose weight and can shoot hoops with his son in about three months. There is an 8-10 percent chance the disease could come back, but Trotman said he knows what to look for now.

One of the reasons Trotman wanted to share his story is so others might recognize the symptoms of Cushing’s, although doctors stress it is a very rare illness.

 

Watch the video here: After massive weight gain, Cushing’s disease diagnosis saves man’s life – Health – TODAY.com.

Through The Art Of Makeup, People With Rare Pituitary Disorders Now Have Unique Resources To Help Address Common Physical And Emotional Changes

Did you know that applying contour powder on certain areas of your face, like the outer rim of the jaw, along the hairline or along the hollows of the cheek, can help make enlarged features less noticeable? Seems like a basic makeup tip, right? Well, to a person with a pituitary disorder that dramatically changes one’s facial features, this type of information may make a major difference – not only physically, but also psychologically.

This is why Novartis has teamed up with Kevyn Aucoin Beauty (KAB) to bring The Highlights Project to those living with acromegaly and Cushing’s disease. The program offers a variety of virtual tools such as makeup suggestions from professional artists and video demonstrations. These resources address common concerns expressed by patients while also educating about these rare, but serious pituitary disorders.

Kevyn Aucoin, founder of KAB and famed Hollywood makeup legend, was diagnosed with acromegaly in 2001 at the age of 40 and passed away less than 12 months later. Aucoin believed in the transformative nature of makeup and saw it as a reflection of both inner and outer beauty. In this spirit, The Highlights Project features a series of makeup tutorials, tips and inspirations designed to help enhance the self-image of pituitary patients. The program also includes the perspective of a psychotherapist who specializes in helping patients with acromegaly and Cushing’s disease.

Like so many other people with acromegaly and Cushing’s disease, Kevyn went undiagnosed for years and faced both emotional and physical challenges as a result of his condition. “Through Kevyn Aucoin Beauty’s partnership with Novartis on The Highlights Project, we hope that we can inspire others living with these pituitary disorders to see their own beauty and view makeup as Kevyn did, not as a mask, but as a tool for discovery,” said Desiree Tordecilla, Executive Vice President, Kevyn Aucoin Beauty.

Acromegaly and Cushing’s disease are pituitary disorders caused by the presence of a noncancerous tumor on the pituitary gland. The symptoms often include highly visual physical changes in the body. For people with acromegaly, enlarged facial features, jaw and brow protrusions, thickening of the skin and skin tags are common. People with Cushing’s disease frequently experience uncontrollable weight gain, facial fullness and redness, a buffalo hump, acne and oily skin. Beyond the external physical changes, these conditions often also cause serious health complications such as cardiovascular issues, fatigue, muscle weakness and cognitive changes. Those living with uncontrolled acromegaly and Cushing’s disease are also at an increased risk of death. Due to the rare nature of these diseases, receiving an accurate diagnosis can be difficult and may take several years – therefore, education and awareness is critical.

The Highlights Project aims to provide support and help those with acromegaly and Cushing’s disease manage the physical manifestations and psychosocial challenges often associated with these conditions.

“As someone who was self-conscious about how unfeminine my facial features appeared, I was amazed by the impact the simple makeup tricks I picked up from The Highlights Project had on my self-esteem,” said Shannon Goodson, who was diagnosed with acromegaly in 2008. “Staying positive, educating yourself about the condition and monitoring hormone levels to ensure the disease is under control are the first steps to empowering yourself and understanding that you are so much more than your diagnosis.”

The mission of The Highlights Project is to help put a face to the challenges those with acromegaly and Cushing’s disease may encounter and serve as a vessel for learning. Novartis is committed to helping to transform the care of rare pituitary conditions and bringing meaningful solutions to patients. To help support acromegaly and Cushing’s disease patients, and learn more about The Highlights Project, visit TheHighlightsProject.com. For more information about these diseases, visit AcromegalyInfo.com and CushingsDisease.com.
Read more from Journal Sentinel: http://www.jsonline.com/sponsoredarticles/health-wellness/through-the-art-of-makeup-people-with-rare-pituitary-disorders-now-have-unique-resources-to-help-address-common-physical-and-emotional-changes8087390808-251841151.html#ixzz2wtDUV9iF

 

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