Medications Used to Treat Cushing’s

Dr. Friedman uses several medications to treat Cushing’s syndrome that are summarized in this table. Dr. Friedman especially recommends ketoconazole. An in-depth article on ketoconazole can be found on goodhormonehealth.com.

 

 

 Drug How it works Dosing Side effects
Ketoconazole  (Generic, not FDA approved in US) blocks several steps in cortisol biosynthesis Start 200 mg at 8 and 10 PM, can up titrate to 1200 mg/day • Transient increase in LFTs
• Decreased testosterone levels
• Adrenal insufficiency
Levoketoconazole (Recorlev) L-isomer of Ketoconazole Start at 150 mg at 8 and 10 PM, can uptitrate up to 1200 mg nausea, vomiting, increased blood pressure, low potassium, fatigue, headache, abdominal pain, and unusual bleeding
Isturisa (osilodrostat) blocks 11-hydroxylase 2 mg at bedtime, then go up to 2 mg at 8 and 10 pm, can go up to 30 mg  Dr. Friedman often gives with spironolactone or ketoconazole. • high testosterone (extra facial hair, acne, hair loss, irregular periods)  • low potassium
• hypertension
Cabergoline (generic, not FDA approved) D2-receptor agonist 0.5 to 7 mg • nausea,  • headache  • dizziness
Korlym (Mifepristone) glucocorticoid receptor antagonist 300-1200 mg per day • cortisol insufficiency (fatigue, nausea, vomiting, arthralgias, and headache)
• increased mineralocorticoid effects (hypertension, hypokalemia, and edema
• antiprogesterone effects (endometrial thickening)
Pasireotide (Signafor) somatostatin receptor ligand 600 μg or 900 μg twice a day Diabetes, hyperglycemia, gallbladder issues

For more information or to schedule an appointment with Dr. Friedman, go to goodhormonehealth.com

Severe Infection Including Disseminated Herpes Zoster Triggered by Subclinical Cushing’s Disease

Abstract

Background

Subclinical Cushing’s disease (SCD) is defined by corticotroph adenoma-induced mild hypercortisolism without typical physical features of Cushing’s disease. Infection is an important complication associated with mortality in Cushing’s disease, while no reports on infection in SCD are available. To make clinicians aware of the risk of infection in SCD, we report a case of SCD with disseminated herpes zoster (DHZ) with the mortal outcome.

Case presentation

An 83-year-old Japanese woman was diagnosed with SCD, treated with cabergoline in the outpatient. She was hospitalized for acute pyelonephritis, and her fever gradually resolved with antibiotics. However, herpes zoster appeared on her chest, and the eruptions rapidly spread over the body. She suddenly went into cardiopulmonary arrest and died. Autopsy demonstrated adrenocorticotropic hormone-positive pituitary adenoma, renal abscess, and DHZ.

Conclusions

As immunosuppression caused by SCD may be one of the triggers of severe infection, the patients with SCD should be assessed not only for the metabolic but also for the immunodeficient status.

Read the rest of the article at https://bmcendocrdisord.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12902-021-00757-y

Long-Term Obesity Persists Despite Pituitary Adenoma Treatment In Childhood

Sethi A, et al. Clin Endocrinol. 2019;doi:10.1111/CEN.14146.

January 5, 2020

Obesity is common at diagnosis of pituitary adenoma in childhood and may persist despite successful treatment, according to findings published in Clinical Endocrinology.

“The importance of childhood and adolescent obesity on noncommunicable disease in adult life is well recognized, and in this new cohort of patients, we report that obesity is common at presentation of pituitary adenoma in childhood and that successful treatment is not necessarily associated with weight loss,” Aashish Sethi, MD, MBBS, a pediatric endocrinologist in the department of endocrinology at Alder Hey Children’s Hospital in Liverpool, United Kingdom, and colleagues wrote. “We have reported obesity, and obesity-related morbidity in a mixed cohort of children and young adults previously, but [to] our knowledge, this is the first time this observation has been reported in a purely pediatric cohort.”

In a retrospective study, Sethi and colleagues analyzed clinical and radiological data from 24 white children from Alder Hey Children’s Hospital followed for a median of 3.3 years between 2000 and 2019 (17 girls; mean age at diagnosis, 15 years). Researchers assessed treatment modality (medical, surgical or radiation therapy), pituitary hormone deficiencies and BMI, as well as results of any genetic testing.

Within the cohort, 13 girls had prolactinomas (mean age, 15 years), including 10 macroadenomas between 11 mm and 35 mm in size. Children presented with menstrual disorders (91%), headache (46%), galactorrhea (46%) and obesity (38%). Nine children were treated with cabergoline alone, three also required surgery, and two were treated with the dopamine agonist cabergoline, surgery and radiotherapy.

Five children had Cushing’s disease (mean age, 14 years; two girls), including one macroadenoma. Those with Cushing’s disease presented with obesity (100%), short stature (60%) and headache (40%). Transsphenoidal resection resulted in biochemical cure; however, two patients experienced relapse 3 and 6 years after surgery, respectively, requiring radiotherapy. One patient also required bilateral adrenalectomy.

Six children had a nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (mean age, 16 years; two girls), including two macroadenomas. These children presented with obesity (67%), visual field defects (50%) and headache (50%). Four required surgical resections, with two experiencing disease recurrence after surgery and requiring radiotherapy.

During the most recent follow-up exam, 13 children (54.1%) had obesity, including 11 who had obesity at diagnosis.

“The persistence of obesity following successful treatment, in patients with normal pituitary function, suggests that mechanisms other than pituitary hormone excess or deficiency may be important,” the researchers wrote. “It further signifies that obesity should be a part of active management in cases of pituitary adenoma from diagnosis.” – by Regina Schaffer

Disclosures: The authors report no relevant financial disclosures.

From https://www.healio.com/endocrinology/adrenal/news/online/%7Bde3fd83b-e8e0-4bea-a6c2-99eb896356ab%7D/long-term-obesity-persists-despite-pituitary-adenoma-treatment-in-childhood

Fluconazole Found to Be Safe Alternative for Patient with Recurrent Cushing’s

Treatment with fluconazole after cabergoline eased symptoms and normalized cortisol levels in a patient with recurrent Cushing’s disease who failed to respond to ketoconazole, a case study reports.

The case report, “Fluconazole as a Safe and Effective Alternative to Ketoconazole in Controlling Hypercortisolism of Recurrent Cushing’s Disease: A Case Report,” was published in the International Journal of Endocrinology Metabolism.

Ketoconazole, (brand name Nizoral, among others) is an anti-fungal treatment used off-label for Cushing’s disease to prevent excess cortisol production, a distinct symptom of the disease. However, severe side effects associated with its use often result in treatment discontinuation and have led to its unavailability or restriction in many countries.

Consequently, there is a need for alternative medications that help manage disease activity and clinical symptoms without causing adverse reactions, and that could be given to patients who do not respond to ketoconazole treatment.

In this case report, researchers in Malaysia reported on a 50-year-old woman who fared well with fluconazole treatment after experiencing severe side effects with ketoconazole.

The woman had been in remission for 16 years after a transsphenoidal surgery — a minimally invasive brain surgery to remove a pituitary tumor — but went to the clinic with a three-year history of high blood pressure and gradual weight gain.

She also showed classic symptoms of Cushing’s disease: moon face, fragile skin that bruised easily, and purple stretch marks on her thighs.

Blood and urine analysis confirmed high cortisol levels, consistent with a relapse of the pituitary tumor. Accordingly, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of her brain showed the presence of a small tumor on the right side of the pituitary gland, confirming the diagnosis of recurrent Cushing’s disease.

Doctors performed another transsphenoidal surgery to remove the tumor, and a brain MRI then confirmed the success of the surgery. However, her blood and urine cortisol levels remained markedly high, indicating persistent disease activity.

The patient refused radiation therapy or adrenal gland removal surgery, and was thus prescribed ketoconazole twice daily for managing the disease. But after one month on ketoconazole, she experienced low cortisol levels.

Hydrocortisone — a synthetic cortisol hormone — was administered to maintain steady cortisol levels. However, she developed severe skin itching and peeling, which are known side effects of ketoconazole. She also suffered a brain bleeding episode, for which she had to have a craniotomy to remove the blood clot.

Since she experienced adverse effects on ketoconazole, which also hadn’t decreased her disease activity, the doctors switched her to cabergoline. Cabergoline (marketed as Dostinex, among others) is a dopamine receptor agonist that has been shown to be effective in managing Cushing’s disease.

But cabergoline treatment also did not lower the disease activity, and her symptoms persisted.

The doctors then added fluconazole (marketed as Diflucan, among others), an anti-fungal medication, based on studies that showed promising results in managing Cushing’s syndrome. Three months after the addition of fluconazole to her treatment plan, the patient’s clinical symptoms and cortisol levels had responded favorably.

At her next clinical visit 15 months later, her condition remained stable with no adverse events.

“This case demonstrates the long-term efficacy of fluconazole in tandem with cabergoline for the control of recurrent Cushing’s disease,” the researchers wrote.

The favorable outcome in this case also “supports the notion that fluconazole is a viable substitute for ketoconazole in the medical management of this rare but serious condition,” they concluded.

From https://cushingsdiseasenews.com/2018/09/27/fluconazole-safe-effective-alternative-recurrent-cushings-patient-case-report/

Medical therapy ‘reasonable option’ vs. surgery in Cushing’s disease

In a large percentage of patients with Cushing’s disease, medical therapy effectively induces cortisol normalization, suggesting the choice may serve as a useful first-line treatment vs. surgery for some, according to findings from a systematic review and meta-analysis published in Pituitary.

Cushing’s syndrome is generally approached by removal of the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-producing tumor in ectopic disease and by adrenalectomy in ACTH-independent disease, Leonie H. A. Broersen, MD, of the department of medicine at Leiden University Medical Centre in Leiden, Netherlands, wrote in the study background. However, medical therapy can be used to control cortisol secretion preoperatively and as a “bridge” until control of hypercortisolism is achieved by radiotherapy, whereas use of medical therapy as a first-line treatment is increasing, they noted.

“Medical treatment is a reasonable treatment option for Cushing’s disease patients in case of a contraindication for surgery, a recurrence, or in patients choosing not to have surgery,” Broersen told Endocrine Today. “In case of side effects or no treatment effect, an alternate medical therapy or combination therapy can be considered.”

Broersen and colleagues analyzed data from 35 studies with 1,520 patients reporting on six medical therapies for Cushing’s disease, including studies assessing pasireotide (n = 2; Signifor LAR, Novartis), mitotane (n = 5; Lysodren, Bristol-Myers Squibb), cabergoline (n = 3), ketoconazole (n = 8), metyrapone (n = 5; Metopirone, HRA Pharma), mifepristone (n = 2; Korlym, Corcept Therapeutics) and multiple medical agents (n = 10), all published between 1971 and 2017. Studies included 11 single-arm trials, two randomized controlled trials with two treatment arms, and 22 cohort studies. In 28 studies, normalization of cortisol was measured by urinary free cortisol, midnight salivary cortisol or a low-dose dexamethasone test, with 25 studies reporting on clinical improvement and three studies reporting on quality of life.

Across studies, medical treatment was effective in normalizing cortisol levels in Cushing’s disease in 35.7% (cabergoline) to 81.8% (mitotane) of patients, according to the researchers. In seven studies reporting data separately for medical therapy as primary (n = 4) or secondary therapy (n = 5), researchers found medication as primary therapy normalized cortisol levels in 58.1% of patients (95% CI, 49.7-66.2), similar to the effect of medication as a secondary therapy (57.8%; 95% CI, 41.3-73.6). In studies in which at least 80% of patients with Cushing’s disease were pretreated with medication before surgery, researchers observed a preoperative normalization of cortisol levels in 32.3% of patients (95% CI, 20-45.8). Patients using medical monotherapy experienced a lower percentage of cortisol normalization vs. patients using multiple agents (49.4% vs. 65.7%), according to researchers, with normalization rates higher among patients with concurrent or previous radiotherapy.

Across studies, 39.9% of patients experienced mild adverse effects, and 15.2% experienced severe adverse effects.

“Importantly, medical agents for hypercortisolism can cause severe side effects, leading to therapy adjustment or withdrawal in 4.8% (cabergoline) to 28.4% (mitotane) of patients,” the researchers wrote. “These results suggest that medical therapy can be considered a reasonable treatment alternative to the first-choice surgical treatment when regarding treatment effectiveness and side effects.” – by Regina Schaffer

For more information: Leonie H. A. Broersen, MD, can be reached at l.h.aA.broersen@lumc.nl.

Disclosure: The authors report no relevant financial disclosures.

From https://www.healio.com/endocrinology/neuroendocrinology/news/in-the-journals/%7B294187ce-3f5e-4d3f-b02e-5023515c3b0b%7D/medical-therapy-reasonable-option-vs-surgery-in-cushings-disease

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