Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis of Cushing’s Syndrome

D. Lynn Loriaux, M.D., Ph.D.

N Engl J Med 2017; 376:1451-1459April 13, 2017DOI: 10.1056/NEJMra1505550

More than a century ago, Harvey Cushing introduced the term “pluriglandular syndrome” to describe a disorder characterized by rapid development of central obesity, arterial hypertension, proximal muscle weakness, diabetes mellitus, oligomenorrhea, hirsutism, thin skin, and ecchymoses.1 Cushing knew that this syndrome was associated with adrenal cancer,2 and he suspected that some cases might have a pituitary component.

On September 6, 1911, he performed a craniotomy on one of his patients (referred to as Case XLV) but found no pituitary tumor.3 In his description of the case, he goes on to say that “we may perchance be on the way toward the recognition of the consequences of hyperadrenalism.”2 With time, it became clear that the disorder could be caused by small basophilic adenomas of the pituitary gland,4 and the pluriglandular syndrome became known as Cushing’s syndrome.

Fuller Albright provided the next conceptual advance in an extraordinary report, published in the first volume of the Laurentian Hormone Conference, “The Effects of Hormones on Osteogenesis in Man”5:

It has been our concept that protoplasm in general, like the protoplasmic matrix of bone, is constantly being anabolized and catabolized at one and the same time; a factor which increases catabolism would lead to very much the same net result as a factor which inhibits anabolism, but there would be some differences; it is my belief that the “S” hormone [cortisol] is anti-anabolic rather than catabolic. . . . The anti-anabolism . . . is contrasted with the increased anabolism due to an excess of the “N” hormone [testosterone] in the adreno-genital syndrome. This anti-anabolism of protoplasm in Cushing’s syndrome accounts for not only the osteoporosis, but the muscular weakness, the thin skin, probably the easy bruisability, and possibly the atrophy of the lymphoid tissues and thymus.

Nonetheless, in the intervening years, the physical examination of patients suspected to have glucocorticoid excess focused on the anabolic changes, essentially to the exclusion of the antianabolic changes. With the rapid increase in the rate of obesity in the general population, Cushing’s syndrome can no longer be reliably separated from the metabolic syndrome of simple obesity on the basis of anabolic signs alone. However, the antianabolic changes in Cushing’s syndrome are very effective in making this distinction. This review focuses on the problems introduced into the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of Cushing’s syndrome by the obesity epidemic and on ways to alter the traditional approach, using the antianabolic changes of excess cortisol to separate patients with Cushing’s syndrome from obese patients with the insulin-resistant metabolic syndrome.

PHYSICAL EXAMINATION

Andreas Vesalius (1514–1564) published his transformational work on human anatomy, De Humani Corporis Fabrica Libri Septem, in 1543. It is the book that corrected many of Galen’s anatomical errors. The book was met with considerable hostility. As an example, Jacobus Sylvius (Jacques Dubois, 1478–1555), the world’s leading anatomist at the time and Vesalius’s former mentor, on being asked his opinion of the work, replied, “Galen is not wrong. It is man that has changed, and not for the better.”6 This was not true then, but it is true now.

Approximately one third of the U.S. population is obese. The worldwide prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among obese persons is conservatively estimated at 10%; that is, approximately 12 million people have the obesity-related metabolic syndrome.7,8 The clinical picture of this syndrome is almost the same as that of Cushing’s syndrome.9,10 The prevalence of undiagnosed Cushing’s syndrome is about 75 cases per 1 million population, or 24,000 affected persons. On the basis of these prevalence estimates, the chance that a person with obesity, hypertension, hirsutism, type 2 diabetes, and dyslipidemia has Cushing’s syndrome is about 1 in 500. In Harvey Cushing’s era, when obesity was rare, making the diagnosis of Cushing’s syndrome was the most certain aspect of the management of this disorder. Today, making the diagnosis is the least certain aspect in the care of patients with Cushing’s syndrome.

The metabolic syndrome caused by glucocorticoid hypersecretion can be differentiated from the obesity-associated metabolic syndrome with the use of a careful assessment of Albright’s antianabolic effects of cortisol. These effects — osteopenia, thin skin, and ecchymoses — are present in patients with Cushing’s syndrome but not in patients with simple obesity.

Patients in whom osteoporosis is diagnosed radiographically are more likely to have Cushing’s syndrome than those who do not have osteoporosis, with a positive likelihood ratio of 11.11-13 Today, a z score of −2 at the lumbar spine supports this criterion. Skinfold thickness is conveniently measured with an electrocardiographic caliper that has the points dulled with a sharpening stone and the screws tightened so that the gap is maintained when the caliper is removed from the skinfold. The skin over the proximal phalanx of the middle finger of the nondominant hand is commonly used for this measurement

 

(Figure 1 FIGURE 1Measurement of Skinfold Thickness.). A thickness of less than 2 mm is considered to be thin skin. Patients who have thin skin are more likely to have Cushing’s syndrome, with a positive likelihood ratio of 116

 

(Figure 2 FIGURE 2 Comparison of Skinfold Thickness in Patients with Cushing’s Syndrome and Those with Other Conditions Related to Insulin Resistance.).13-15 Finally, patients who have three or more ecchymoses that are larger than 1 cm in diameter and not associated with trauma such as venipuncture are more likely to have Cushing’s syndrome than are patients without such findings, with a positive likelihood ratio of 4.13,16

If we know the prevalence of undiagnosed Cushing’s syndrome in the population of persons with the obesity-related metabolic syndrome, we can begin to calculate the probability that a person has Cushing’s syndrome, using the likelihood ratios for the antianabolic features observed on physical examination. Likelihood ratios can be converted into probabilities with the use of Bayes’ theorem. This conversion is markedly facilitated by the Fagan nomogram for this purpose.17

The prevalence of undiagnosed Cushing’s syndrome is not known, but it can be estimated. Two persons per 1 million population die from adrenal cancer every year.18 The current life span for patients with adrenocortical carcinoma, after diagnosis, is between 2 and 4 years.19,20 Allowing 3 years to make the diagnosis, the prevalence of undiagnosed Cushing’s syndrome is 6 cases per million. In most case series of Cushing’s syndrome, an average of 8% of patients have adrenal carcinoma.21 If 6 per million is 8% of the group, the total Cushing’s syndrome group is 75 persons per million, or 24,000 persons. If all 24,000 patients are included in the metabolic syndrome group, comprising 12 million people, the prevalence of Cushing’s syndrome is 0.002, or 0.2%. With a probability of 0.2% and a likelihood ratio of 116 for thin skin, 18 for osteopenia, and 4 for ecchymoses, the probability that a patient with these three findings has Cushing’s syndrome is 95%.

URINARY FREE CORTISOL

The diagnosis of all endocrine diseases requires a clinical presentation that is compatible with the disease, as well as identification of the pathophysiological cause. An assessment for excess glucocorticoid effects can be made by measuring the 24-hour urinary free cortisol level.22 There are two kinds of free cortisol: plasma protein-unbound cortisol and cortisol unconjugated to sulfuric or hyaluronic acid. Protein-unbound cortisol is filtered in the glomerulus and then reabsorbed in the collecting system. About 3% of filtered cortisol ends up in the urine. This free cortisol in the urine is unconjugated. Thus, the urinary free cortisol level is a direct reflection of the free, bioactive cortisol level in plasma. The free cortisol level is quantified in a 24-hour urine sample by averaging the increased secretion of cortisol in the morning and the decreased secretion in the afternoon and at night. Urinary creatinine is also measured to determine whether the collection is complete. Creatinine levels of less than 1.5 g per day for men and less than 1 g per day for women indicate incomplete collection, and the test should be repeated in patients with these levels.

Unconjugated cortisol can be extracted directly from urine with a nonpolar lipid solvent. After extraction, the cortisol is purified by means of high-pressure liquid chromatography and then quantified with a binding assay, usually radioimmunoassay. Free cortisol also can be quantitated directly by means of mass spectroscopy. The urinary free cortisol assay of choice uses high-pressure liquid chromatographic separation followed by mass spectrometric quantitation.23 With the use of this assay, the urinary free cortisol level in healthy adults ranges from 8 to 51 μg per 24 hours (mean [±SD], 23±8). Clinical depression increases urinary free cortisol excretion, and most studies show that the level of urinary free cortisol ranges from 10 to 60 μg per day in patients with typical clinical signs and symptoms of depression. If we use 60 μg per day as the cutoff between normal values (<60 μg per day) and elevated values (≥60 μg per day), urinary free cortisol excretion of 62 μg per day or more has a positive likelihood ratio of 11.24 Thus, in a patient presenting with obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and hirsutism who has thin skin, osteopenia, ecchymoses, and an elevated urinary free cortisol level, the probability of Cushing’s syndrome is 1 (100%). For such patients, the clinician should move directly to a differential diagnostic evaluation.

DEXAMETHASONE-SUPPRESSION TEST

The dexamethasone-suppression test is commonly used in the diagnosis of Cushing’s syndrome. This test was developed by Grant Liddle in the early 1960s as a differential diagnostic test to separate corticotropin-dependent from corticotropin-independent Cushing’s syndrome. This is now done by measuring the plasma corticotropin level. Unfortunately, dexamethasone suppression has continued to be used as a screening test for Cushing’s syndrome.

The control group for this test comprises patients with obesity and depression in whom cortisol secretion is not suppressed in response to an oral dose of 1 mg of dexamethasone at midnight. Of the current U.S. population of 360 million people, approximately one third (120 million people) are obese. Of those who are obese, 10% (12 million people) have depression. In half these patients (6 million people), the plasma cortisol level will not be suppressed in response to a dexamethasone challenge. On the basis of my estimate of the current prevalence of undiagnosed Cushing’s syndrome (24,000 cases) and the estimate of the at-risk population (6 million persons), the positive predictive value of the dexamethasone-suppression test is only 0.4%. Thus, this test should not influence what the physician does next and should no longer be used for this purpose.

OUTLIERS

For patients with convincing evidence of Cushing’s syndrome on physical examination and an elevated 24-hour urinary free cortisol level, the differential diagnostic process outlined below should be initiated. However, a small group of patients will not meet these criteria.

Some patients have a strongly positive physical examination but low or zero urinary free cortisol excretion. Plasma corticotropin levels are suppressed in these patients. These patients are receiving exogenous glucocorticoids. The glucocorticoid must be identified, and a plan must be made for its discontinuation. Sometimes the glucocorticoid is being given by proxy (e.g., by a parent to a child), and no history of glucocorticoid administration can be found. Nevertheless, the glucocorticoid must be identified and discontinued.

Other patients have few or no clinical signs of Cushing’s syndrome but do have elevated urinary free cortisol excretion. Plasma corticotropin is measurable in these patients. They are usually identified during an evaluation for arterial hypertension. All such patients should undergo inferior petrosal sinus sampling to determine the source of corticotropin secretion. Ectopic sources are almost always neoplastic and are usually in the chest.25 Patients with eutopic secretion usually have the syndrome of generalized glucocorticoid resistance.26

Finally, a few patients have convincing findings on physical examination coupled with a normal urinary free cortisol level. In such cases, the clinician should make sure that urinary free cortisol is being measured with high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, that renal function is normal, and that the collections are complete. “Periodic” Cushing’s syndrome must be ruled out by measuring urinary free cortisol frequently over the course of a month.27 If these efforts fail, the patient should be followed for a year, with urinary free cortisol measurements performed frequently. No additional tests should be performed until the situation is sorted out. More tests would be likely to lead to an unnecessary surgical procedure.

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS

The differential diagnosis of Cushing’s syndrome is shown in Figure 3

FIGURE 3Differential Diagnosis of Cushing’s Syndrome.. If plasma corticotropin is measurable, the disease process is corticotropin-dependent. If corticotropin is not measurable, the process is corticotropin-independent.

Corticotropin-dependent causes of Cushing’s syndrome are divided into those in which the corticotropin comes from the pituitary (eutopic causes) and those in which the corticotropin comes from elsewhere (ectopic causes). This differentiation is made with the measurement of corticotropin in inferior petrosal sinus plasma and the simultaneous measurement of corticotropin in peripheral (antecubital) plasma immediately after corticotropin-releasing hormone stimulation of pituitary corticotropin secretion. In samples obtained 4, 6, and 15 minutes after stimulation with corticotropin-releasing hormone, eutopic corticotropin secretion is associated with a ratio of the central-plasma corticotropin level to the peripheral-plasma corticotropin level of 3 or more. Ectopic corticotropin secretion is associated with a central-to-peripheral corticotropin ratio of less than 3. The positive predictive value of this test is 1 (Figure 4

FIGURE 4Maximal Ratio of Corticotropin in Inferior Petrosal Sinus Plasma to Corticotropin in Peripheral Plasma in Patients with Cushing’s Syndrome, Ectopic Corticotropin Secretion, or Adrenal Disease.).28

Although some authorities suggest that inferior petrosal sinus sampling can safely be bypassed in patients with corticotropin-dependent Cushing’s syndrome and a well-defined pituitary adenoma, I disagree. The incidence of nonfunctioning pituitary microadenomas is between 15% and 40%.29 This means that up to 40% of patients with ectopic secretion of corticotropin have an incidental pituitary abnormality. If it is assumed that the pituitary abnormality is responsible for corticotropin secretion, 15 to 40% of patients with ectopic secretion of corticotropin will be misdiagnosed and submitted to a transsphenoidal exploration of the sella turcica and pituitary gland. The prevalence of ectopic corticotropin secretion in the population of patients with undiagnosed Cushing’s syndrome is about 10%, accounting for 2400 patients. Up to 40% of these patients, or 960, have an incidental pituitary tumor. The mortality associated with transsphenoidal microadenomectomy is 1%.30 If all 360 to 960 patients undergo this procedure, there will be up to 10 deaths from an operation that can have no benefit. For this reason alone, all patients with corticotropin-dependent Cushing’s syndrome should undergo inferior petrosal sinus sampling to confirm the source of corticotropin secretion before any surgical intervention is contemplated.

Patients with eutopic corticotropin secretion are almost certain to have a corticotropin-secreting pituitary microadenoma. An occasional patient will have alcohol-induced pseudo–Cushing’s syndrome. The slightest suggestion of alcoholism should lead to a 3-week abstinence period before any surgery is considered.31

Patients with ectopic corticotropin secretion are first evaluated with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the chest. In two thirds of these patients, a tumor will be found.25 If nothing is found in the chest, MRI of the abdominal and pelvic organs is performed. If these additional imaging studies are also negative, there are two options: bilateral adrenalectomy or blockade of cortisol synthesis. If blockade is chosen, the patient should undergo repeat scanning at 6-month intervals.32 If no source is found by the end of the second year, it is unlikely that the source will ever be found, and bilateral adrenalectomy should be performed for definitive treatment (Doppman JL: personal communication).

Corticotropin-independent Cushing’s syndrome is usually caused by an adrenal neoplasm. Benign tumors tend to be small (<5 cm in diameter) and secrete a single hormone, cortisol. The contralateral adrenal gland is suppressed by the cortisol secreted from the tumorous gland. If the value for Hounsfield units is less than 10 and the washout of contrast material is greater than 60% at 15 minutes, the tumor is almost certainly benign.33 Such tumors can be treated successfully with laparoscopic adrenalectomy.

The syndromes of micronodular and macronodular adrenal dysplasia usually affect both adrenal glands. The nodules secrete cortisol. Corticotropin is suppressed, as is the internodular tissue of the adrenal glands. Percutaneous bilateral adrenalectomy, followed by glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid treatment, is curative.

Adrenal tumors secreting more than one hormone (i.e., cortisol and androgen or estrogen) are almost always malignant. Surgical removal of all detectable disease is indicated, as is a careful search for metastases. If metastases are found, they should be removed. This usually requires an open adrenalectomy. It goes without saying that adrenal tumors, nodules, and metastases should be treated by the most experienced endocrine cancer surgeon available.

If the plasma cortisol level on the morning after a transsphenoidal microadenomectomy is 0, the operation was a success. The patient should be treated with oral hydrocortisone, at a dose of 12 mg per square meter of body-surface area once a day in the morning, and a tetracosactide (Cortrosyn) stimulation test should be performed at 3-month intervals. When the tetracosactide-stimulated plasma cortisol level is higher than 20 μg per deciliter (551 μmol per liter), cortisol administration can be stopped. The same rule applies in the case of a unilateral adrenalectomy. If the adrenalectomy is bilateral, cortisol, at a dose of 12 to 15 mg per square meter per day, and fludrocortisone (Florinef), at a dose of 100 μg per day, should be prescribed as lifelong therapy.

SUMMARY

The obesity epidemic has led to necessary changes in the evaluation and treatment of patients with Cushing’s syndrome. The most dramatic change is the emphasis on the antianabolic alterations in Cushing’s syndrome, which can provide a strong basis for separating patients with Cushing’s syndrome from the more numerous patients with obesity and the metabolic syndrome. More can be done along these lines. Likelihood ratios are known for proximal muscle weakness and can be known for brain atrophy and growth failure in children.

The dexamethasone-suppression test, although still very popular, no longer has a role in the evaluation and treatment of patients with Cushing’s syndrome. Only three biochemical tests are needed: urinary free cortisol, plasma corticotropin, and plasma cortisol measurements. Urinary free cortisol excretion is the test that confirms the clinical diagnosis of Cushing’s syndrome. To be trustworthy, it must be performed in the most stringent way, with the use of high-pressure liquid chromatography followed by mass spectrometric quantitation of cortisol. Measurement of plasma corticotropin is used to separate corticotropin-dependent from corticotropin-independent causes of Cushing’s syndrome and to separate eutopic from ectopic secretion of corticotropin. Inferior petrosal sinus sampling should be performed in all patients with corticotropin-dependent Cushing’s syndrome because of the high prevalence of nonfunctioning incidental pituitary adenomas among such patients. Measurement of plasma cortisol has only one use: determining the success or failure of transsphenoidal microadenomectomy or adrenalectomy. If the plasma cortisol level is not measurable on the morning after the operation (<5 μg per deciliter [138 μmol per liter]), the procedure was a success; if it is measurable, the operation failed. The surgeon must not administer intraoperative or postoperative synthetic glucocorticoids until the plasma cortisol level has been measured.

Successful evaluation of a patient who is suspected of having Cushing’s syndrome requires an endocrinologist who is skilled in physical diagnosis. Also required is a laboratory that measures urinary free cortisol using high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry and that can measure plasma cortisol and plasma corticotropin by means of radioimmunoassay.

Inferior petrosal sinus sampling is performed by an interventional radiologist. The treatment for all causes of Cushing’s syndrome, other than exogenous glucocorticoids, is surgical, and neurosurgeons, endocrine surgeons, and cancer surgeons are needed. This level of multidisciplinary medical expertise is usually found only at academic medical centers. Thus, most, if not all, patients with Cushing’s syndrome should be referred to such a center for treatment.

Disclosure forms provided by the author are available with the full text of this article at NEJM.org.

No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.

SOURCE INFORMATION

From the Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Clinical Nutrition, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland.

Address reprint requests to Dr. Loriaux at the Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Clinical Nutrition, Oregon Health and Science University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Rd., L607, Portland, OR 97239-3098, or at .

From http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMra1505550

Cushing’s Disease Treatment Market to Witness an Outstanding Growth by 2017 – 2025

Cushing disease is caused by tumour in the pituitary gland which leads to excessive secretion of a hormone called adrenocorticotrophic (ACTH), which in turn leads to increasing levels of cortisol in the body. Cortisol is a steroid hormone released by the adrenal glands and helps the body to deal with injury or infection. Increasing levels of cortisol increases the blood sugar and can even cause diabetes mellitus. However the disease is also caused due to excess production of hypothalamus corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) which stimulates the synthesis of cortisol by the adrenal glands.

The condition is named after Harvey Cushing, the doctor who first identified the disease in 1912. Cushing disease results in Cushing syndrome. Cushing syndrome is a group of signs and symptoms developed due to prolonged exposure to cortisol.

Signs and symptoms of Cushing syndrome includes hypertension, abdominal obesity, muscle weakness, headache, fragile skin, acne, thin arms and legs, red stretch marks on stomach, fluid retention or swelling, excess body and facial hair, weight gain, acne, buffalo hump, tiredness, fatigue, brittle bones, low back pain, moon shaped face etc.

Symptoms vary from individual to individual depending upon the disease duration, age and gender of the patient.  Disease diagnosis is done by measuring levels of cortisol in patient’s urine, saliva or blood. For confirming the diagnosis, a blood test for ACTH is performed. The first-line treatment of the disease is through surgical resection of ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma, however disease management is also done through medications, Cushing disease treatment market comprises of the drugs designed for lowering the level of cortisol in the body. Thus patients suffering from Cushing disease are prescribed medications such as ketoconazole, mitotane, aminoglutethimide metyrapone, mifepristone, etomidate and pasireotide.

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Cushing’s disease treatment market revenue is growing with a stable growth rate, this is attributed to increasing number of pipeline drugs. Also increasing interest of pharmaceutical companies to develop Cushing disease drugs is a major factor contributing to the revenue growth of Cushing disease treatment market over the forecast period. Current and emerging players’ focuses on physician education and awareness regarding availability of different drugs for curing Cushing disease, thus increasing the referral speeds, time to diagnosis and volume of diagnosed Cushing disease individuals. Growing healthcare expenditure and increasing awareness regarding Cushing syndrome aids in the revenue growth of Cushing’s disease treatment market. Increasing number of new product launches also drives the market for Cushing’s disease Treatment devices. However availability of alternative therapies for curing Cushing syndrome is expected to hamper the growth of the Cushing’s disease treatment market over the forecast period.

The Cushing’s disease Treatment market is segment based on the product type, technology type and end user

Cushing’s disease Treatment market is segmented into following types:

By Drug Type

  • Ketoconazole
  • Mitotane
  • Aminoglutethimide
  • Metyrapone
  • Mifepristone
  • Etomidate
  • Pasireotide

By End User

  • Hospital Pharmacies
  • Retail Pharmacies
  • Drug Stores
  • Clinics
  • e-Commerce/Online Pharmacies

Cushing’s disease treatment market revenue is expected to grow at a good growth rate, over the forecast period. The market is anticipated to perform well in the near future due to increasing awareness regarding the condition. Also the market is anticipated to grow with a fastest CAGR over the forecast period, attributed to increasing investment in R&D and increasing number of new product launches which is estimated to drive the revenue growth of Cushing’s disease treatment market over the forecast period.

Depending on geographic region, the Cushing’s disease treatment market is segmented into five key regions: North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific (APAC) and Middle East & Africa (MEA).

North America is occupying the largest regional market share in the global Cushing’s disease treatment market owing to the presence of more number of market players, high awareness levels regarding Cushing syndrome. Healthcare expenditure and relatively larger number of R&D exercises pertaining to drug manufacturing and marketing activities in the region. Also Europe is expected to perform well in the near future due to increasing prevalence of the condition in the region.

Asia Pacific is expected to grow at the fastest CAGR because of increase in the number of people showing the symptoms of Cushing syndrome, thus boosting the market growth of Cushing’s disease treatment market throughout the forecast period.

Some players of Cushing’s disease Treatment market includes CORCEPT THERAPEUTICS, HRA Pharma, Strongbridge Biopharma plc, Novartis AG, etc. However there are numerous companies producing branded generics for Cushing disease. The companies in Cushing’s disease treatment market are increasingly engaged in strategic partnerships, collaborations and promotional activities to capture a greater pie of market share.

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After massive weight gain, Cushing’s disease diagnosis saves man’s life – Health – TODAY.com

Donelle Trotman was only in his 30s when his health suddenly took a strange and frightening turn.

He was rapidly gaining weight — more than 100 pounds in one year. His upper torso was getting bigger, but not his legs. And he felt overwhelmingly tired.

“My body just started changing,” the Staten Island, New York, native told TODAY as part of a three-day series, “Medical Mysteries,” looking at people who have recovered from rare diseases.

It was especially puzzling because Trotman had never had weight issues before.

In school, Trotman was never a skinny kid, but he wasn’t overweight. He loved sports, playing both basketball and baseball.

So as he entered adulthood, he was active and in good shape. Then, three years ago, he suddenly began to gain weight.

“It was just specific places: My stomach, under my arms, my back of my neck, my face, the bottom of my back,” Trotman said. “My legs stayed the same for a long time.”

To lose the extra pounds, Trotman began running, working out and lifting weights. Nothing worked.

In the span of one year, Trotman gained more than 120 pounds, topping the scale at 366 pounds, twice the amount he weighed at 18.

“I doubled, like, I got a whole person on me,” he said.

There were other alarming changes. Trotman became so easily tired that he’d get out of breath just by chewing food. When he woke up seeing double three months ago, he knew it was time to go to the hospital.

Doctors ran a flurry of tests, but the results offered few clues, leaving everyone puzzled. Then one day, an intern noticed stretch marks all over Trotman’s body, a telltale sign that solved the mystery. Trotman had Cushing’s disease, a rare condition that affects fewer than 50,000 people in the U.S. every year.

Trotman’s weight gain was being caused by a tiny tumor at the base of his brain, prompting his body to produce too much of the hormone cortisol. He had some of the classic symptoms: major weight gain in his upper body, skin problems and acne, plus fatigue.

Dr. John Boockvar and Dr. Peter Costantino at New York’s Lenox Hill Hospital discovered Trotman had steroid levels ten times higher than normal.

“In Cushing’s disease, the pituitary gland has a small growth that releases a single hormone that causes the body to live with very high levels of steroids. The skin becomes very thin. You get increased acne. You can grow hair. You start sweating. You gain a lot of fat,” Boockvar said.

There was no time to lose: Untreated, Cushing’s is a fatal disease. Trotman was getting close to the point where doctors would not be able to reverse the changes, Costantino noted. He underwent surgery two weeks ago and had the growth successfully removed.

“The tumor was no bigger than the size of the tip of my pen,” Boockvar said. “And that something so small can cause a man to grow to 350 pounds and absolutely destroy his life is rather remarkable.”

These days, Trotman is feeling much better. His main focus now is to lose the weight he gained and regain an active lifestyle. He hopes to play basketball with his son soon.

“It’s wonderful. Every day it’s just like I feel a little stronger,” he said.

Doctors say Trotman will continue to lose weight and can shoot hoops with his son in about three months. There is an 8-10 percent chance the disease could come back, but Trotman said he knows what to look for now.

One of the reasons Trotman wanted to share his story is so others might recognize the symptoms of Cushing’s, although doctors stress it is a very rare illness.

 

Watch the video here: After massive weight gain, Cushing’s disease diagnosis saves man’s life – Health – TODAY.com.

What would Harvey Cushing say about Cushing’s disease today?

harvey-book

(BPT) – More than 80 years ago renowned neurosurgeon, Dr. Harvey Cushing, discovered a tumor on the pituitary gland as the cause of a serious, hormone disorder that leads to dramatic physical changes in the body in addition to life-threatening health concerns. The discovery was so profound it came to be known as Cushing’s disease. While much has been learned about Cushing’s disease since the 1930s, awareness of this rare pituitary condition is still low and people often struggle for years before finding the right diagnosis.

Read on to meet the man behind the discovery and get his perspective on the present state of Cushing’s disease.

* What would Harvey Cushing say about the time it takes for people with Cushing’s disease to receive an accurate diagnosis?

Cushing’s disease still takes too long to diagnose!

Despite advances in modern technology, the time to diagnosis for a person with Cushing’s disease is on average six years. This is partly due to the fact that symptoms, which may include facial rounding, thin skin and easy bruising, excess body and facial hair and central obesity, can be easily mistaken for other conditions. Further awareness of the disease is needed as early diagnosis has the potential to lead to a more favorable outcome for people with the condition.

* What would Harvey Cushing say about the advances made in how the disease is diagnosed?

Significant progress has been made as several options are now available for physicians to use in diagnosing Cushing’s disease.

In addition to routine blood work and urine testing, health care professionals are now also able to test for biochemical markers – molecules that are found in certain parts of the body including blood and urine and can help to identify the presence of a disease or condition.

* What would Harvey Cushing say about disease management for those with Cushing’s disease today?

Patients now have choices but more research is still needed.

There are a variety of disease management options for those living with Cushing’s disease today. The first line and most common management approach for Cushing’s disease is the surgical removal of the tumor. However, there are other management options, such as medication and radiation that may be considered for patients when surgery is not appropriate or effective.

* What would Harvey Cushing say about the importance of ongoing monitoring in patients with Cushing’s disease?

Routine check-ups and ongoing monitoring are key to successfully managing Cushing’s disease.

The same tests used in diagnosing Cushing’s disease, along with imaging tests and clinical suspicion, are used to assess patients’ hormone levels and monitor for signs and symptoms of a relapse. Unfortunately, more than a third of patients experience a relapse in the condition so even patients who have been surgically treated require careful long-term follow up.

* What would Harvey Cushing say about Cushing’s disease patient care?

Cushing’s disease is complex and the best approach for patients is a multidisciplinary team of health care professionals working together guiding patient care.

Whereas years ago patients may have only worked with a neurosurgeon, today patients are typically treated by a variety of health care professionals including endocrinologists, neurologists, radiologists, mental health professionals and nurses. We are much more aware of the psychosocial impact of Cushing’s disease and patients now have access to mental health professionals, literature, patient advocacy groups and support groups to help them manage the emotional aspects of the disease.

Learn More

Novartis is committed to helping transform the care of rare pituitary conditions and bringing meaningful solutions to people living with Cushing’s disease. Recognizing the need for increased awareness, Novartis developed the “What Would Harvey Cushing Say?” educational initiative that provides hypothetical responses from Dr. Cushing about various aspects of Cushing’s disease management based on the Endocrine Society’s Clinical Guidelines.

For more information about Cushing’s disease, visit www.CushingsDisease.com or watch educational Cushing’s disease videos on the Novartis YouTube channel at www.youtube.com/Novartis.

 

From http://www.jsonline.com/sponsoredarticles/health-wellness/what-would-harvey-cushing-say-about-cushings-disease-today8087390508-253383751.html

Think Like a Doctor: Red Herrings Solved!

By LISA SANDERS, M.D.

On Thursday we challenged Well readers to take the case of a 29-year-old woman with an injured groin, a swollen foot and other abnormalities. Many of you found it as challenging as the doctors who saw her. I asked for the right test as well as the right diagnosis. More than 200 answers were posted.

The right test was…

The dexamethasone suppression test,though I counted those of you who suggested measuring the cortisol in the urine.

The right diagnosis was…

Cushing’s disease

More than a dozen of you got the right answer or the right test, but Dr. Davin Quinn, a consultant psychiatrist at the University of New Mexico Hospital, was the first to be right on both counts. As soon as he saw that the patient’s cortisol level was increased, he thought of Cushing’s. And he had treated a young patient like this one some years ago as a second year resident.

The Diagnosis:

Cushing’s disease is caused by having too much of the stress hormone cortisol in the body. Cortisol is made in the adrenal glands, little pyramid shaped organs that sit atop the kidneys. It is normally a very tightly regulated hormone that helps the body respond to physical stress.

Sometimes the excess comes from a tumor in the adrenal gland itself that causes the little organ to go into overdrive, making too much cortisol. More often the excess occurs when a tumor in the pituitary gland in the brain results in too much ACTH, the hormone that controls the adrenal gland.

In the body, cortisol’s most fundamental job is to make sure we have enough glucose around to get the body’s work done. To that end, the hormone drives appetite, so that enough fuel is taken in through the food we eat. When needed, it can break muscle down into glucose. This essential function accounts for the most common symptoms of cortisol excess: hyperglycemia, weight gain and muscle wasting. However, cortisol has many functions in the body, and so an excess of the hormone can manifest itself in many different ways.

Cushing’s was first described by Dr. Harvey Cushing, a surgeon often considered the father of modern neurosurgery. In a case report in 1912, he described a 23-year-old woman with sudden weight gain, mostly in the abdomen; stretch marks from skin too thin and delicate to accommodate the excess girth; easy bruising; high blood pressure and diabetes.

Dr. Cushing’s case was, it turns out, a classic presentation of the illness. It wasn’t until 20 years later that he recognized that the disease had two forms. When it is a primary problem of an adrenal gland gone wild and producing too much cortisol on its own, the disease is known as Cushing’s syndrome. When the problem results from an overgrown part of the pituitary making too much ACTH and causing the completely normal adrenal glands to overproduce the hormone, the illness is called Cushing’s disease.

It was an important distinction, since the treatment often requires a surgical resection of the body part where the problem originates. Cushing’s syndrome can also be caused by steroid-containing medications, which are frequently used to treat certain pulmonary and autoimmune diseases.

How the Diagnosis Was Made:

After the young woman got her lab results from Dr. Becky Miller, the hematologist she had been referred to after seeing several other specialists, the patient started reading up on the abnormalities that had been found. And based on what she found on the Internet, she had an idea of what was going on with her body.

“I think I have Cushing’s disease,” the patient told her endocrinologist when she saw him again a few weeks later.

The patient laid out her argument. In Cushing’s, the body puts out too much cortisol, one of the fight-or-flight stress hormones. That would explain her high blood pressure. Just about everyone with Cushing’s disease has high blood pressure.

She had other symptoms of Cushing’s, too. She bruised easily. And she’d been waking up crazy early in the morning for the past year or so – around 4:30 – and couldn’t get back to sleep. She’d heard that too much cortisol could cause that as well. She was losing muscle mass – she used to have well-defined muscles in her thighs and calves. Not any more. Her belly – it wasn’t huge, but it was a lot bigger than it had been. Cushing’s seemed the obvious diagnosis.

The doctor was skeptical. He had seen Cushing’s before, and this patient didn’t match the typical pattern. She was the right age for Cushing’s and she had high blood pressure, but nothing else seemed to fit. She wasn’t obese. Indeed, she was tall (5- foot-10) and slim (150 pounds) and athletic looking. She didn’t have stretch marks; she didn’t have diabetes. She said she bruised easily, but the endocrinologist saw no bruises on exam. Her ankle was still swollen, and Cushing’s can do that, but so can lots of other diseases.

The blood tests that Dr. Miller ordered measuring the patient’s ACTH and cortisol levels were suggestive of the disease, but many common problems — depression, alcohol use, eating disorders — can cause the same result. Still, it was worth taking the next step: a dexamethasone suppression test.

Testing, Then Treatment:

The dexamethasone suppression test depends on a natural negative feedback loop whereby high levels of cortisol suppress further secretion of the hormone. Dexamethasone is an artificial form of cortisol. Given in high doses, it will cause the level of naturally-occurring cortisol to drop dramatically.

The patient was told to take the dexamethasone pills the night before having her blood tested. The doctor called her the next day.

“Are you sure you took the pills I gave you last night?” the endocrinologist asked her over the phone. The doctor’s voice sounded a little sharp to the young woman, tinged with a hint of accusation.

“Of course I took them,” she responded, trying to keep her voice clear of any irritation.

“Well, the results are crazy,” he told her and proposed she take another test: a 24-hour urine test.

Because cortisol is eliminated through the kidneys, collecting a full day’s urine would show how much cortisol her body was making. So the patient carefully collected a day’s worth of urine.

A few days later, the endocrinologist called again: her cortisol level was shockingly high. She was right, the doctor conceded, she really did have Cushing’s.

An M.R.I. scan revealed a tiny tumor on her pituitary. A couple of months later, she had surgery to remove the affected part of the gland.

After recovering from the surgery, the patient’s blood pressure returned to normal, as did her red blood cell count and her persistently swollen ankle. And she was able to once again sleep through the night.

Red Herrings Everywhere:

As many readers noted, there were lots of findings that didn’t really add up in this case. Was this woman’s groin sprain part of the Cushing’s? What about the lower extremity swelling, and the excess red blood cell count?

In the medical literature, there is a single case report of high red blood cell counts as the presenting symptom in a patient with Cushing’s. And with this patient, the problem resolved after her surgery – so maybe they were linked.

And what about the weird bone marrow biopsy? The gastritis? The enlarged spleen? It’s hard to say for certain if any of these problems was a result of the excess cortisol or if she just happened to have other medical problems.

Why the patient didn’t have the typical symptoms of Cushing’s is easier to explain. She was very early in the course of the disease when she got her diagnosis. Most patients are diagnosed once symptoms have become more prominent

By the time this patient had her surgery, a couple of months later, the round face and belly characteristic of cortisol excess were present. Now, two years after her surgery, none of the symptoms remain.

From http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/01/17/think-like-a-doctor-red-herrings-solved/?_php=true&_type=blogs&_r=0

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