Adrenal Diseases During Pregnancy: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis And Management Strategies

Am J Med Sci. 2014 Jan;347(1):64-73. doi: 10.1097/MAJ.0b013e31828aaeee.

Author information

Abstract

: Adrenal diseases-including disorders such as Cushing’s syndrome, Addison’s disease, pheochromocytoma, primary hyperaldosteronism and congenital adrenal hyperplasia-are relatively rare in pregnancy, but a timely diagnosis and proper treatment are critical because these disorders can cause maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality.

Making the diagnosis of adrenal disorders in pregnancy is challenging as symptoms associated with pregnancy are also seen in adrenal diseases. In addition, pregnancy is marked by several endocrine changes, including activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

The aim of this article was to review the pathophysiology, clinical manifestation, diagnosis and management of various adrenal disorders during pregnancy.

PMID:
23514671
[PubMed – in process]

From http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23514671

Doctor’s Notes: Part 2, Adrenal

The adrenal glands sit atop the kidneys.

The adrenal glands sit atop the kidneys. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Acronyms or abbreviations for “Adrenal”

AD: adrenal vein
AG: adrenal gland
AdNA: adrenal gland
AC: adrenal cortex
adc: adrenal cortex
ADM: adrenal medulla
AA: adrenal adenoma
AF: adrenal failure
AM: adrenal medulla
AA: adrenal androgen
PA: pituitary-adrenal
AA: adrenal androgens
AAs: adrenal androgens
AM: adrenal medullary
LAV: left adrenal vein
AH: adrenal hypoplasia
AH: adrenal hemorrhage
AE: adrenal enucleation
AG: adrenal glomerulosa
AH: adrenal hyperplasia
HFA: human fetal adrenal
BAC: bovine adrenal cells
ADM: adrenal demedullation
AI: adrenal incidentaloma
AI: adrenal insufficiency
AVS: adrenal vein sampling
AI: adrenal incidentalomas
BAM: Bovine Adrenal Medulla
PAA: pituitary-adrenal axis
AMQD: Adrenal Move Quick Draw
AVS: Adrenal venous sampling
ach: adrenal cortical hormone
ACCs: adrenal chromaffin cells
AZF: adrenal zona fasciculata
BAM: Bovine adrenal medullary
PAL: Primary adrenal lymphoma
Ad4BP: Adrenal 4-binding protein
BAC: bovine adrenal chromaffin
ACC: adrenal cortical carcinoma
acca: adrenal cortical carcinoma
BAG: bovine adrenal glomerulosa
SAM: sympatho-adrenal-medullary
NAH: neonatal adrenal hemorrhage
PAH: primary adrenal hyperplasia
AHC: adrenal hypoplasia congenita
ACA: adrenal cortex autoantibodies
ACTH: adrenal corticotropic hormone
BAH: bilateral adrenal hyperplasia
CAH: congenital adrenal hypoplasia
HPA: hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal
PAI: primary adrenal insufficiency
SAM: sympathetic-adrenal medullary
cah: congenital adrenal hyperplasia
HPA: hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal
IAH: idiopathic adrenal hyperplasia
ACTH: adrenal corticotrophic hormone
ahc: adrenal hypoplasia, congenital
BAMC: bovine adrenal medullary cells
H-P-A: hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal
HPA: hypothalamic-adrenal-pituitary
HPA: hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal
HPAA: hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal
IHA: idiopathic adrenal hyperplasia
LOAH: late-onset adrenal hyperplasia
NCAH: nonclassic adrenal hyperplasia
UAH: unilateral adrenal hyperplasia
BACC: bovine adrenal chromaffin cells
BACCs: bovine adrenal chromaffin cells
BCC: Bovine adrenal chromaffin cells
CAH: congenital adrenal hyperplasias
HHA: hypothalamo-hypophyseal-adrenal
BAC: bovine adrenal fasciculata cells
ARH: adrenal regeneration hypertension
HPAA: hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis
ASNA: adrenal sympathetic nerve activity
HPA: hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis
BAMC: bovine adrenal medullary chromaffin
FAH: Functional adrenal hyperandrogenism
HPA: hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis
HPA-axis: hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis
HPAA: hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis
HPAA: hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis
AASH: adrenal androgen stimulating hormone
BAME: bovine adrenal medullary endothelial
HPA: hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal gland
NADF: National Adrenal Diseases Foundation
PAMC: porcine adrenal medullary chromaffin
CLAH: congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia
APA: aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma
HPA: hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system
HPAT: hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-thymus
LHPA: limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal
PCAI: primary chronic adrenal insufficiency
HHAS: hypothalamo-hypophyseal-adrenal system
HPA: hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal cortical
HPA: hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal cortical
RAMEC: rat adrenal medullary endothelial cells
CVAH: congenital virilizing adrenal hyperplasia
CAH: congenital virilizing adrenal hyperplasia
LOCAH: late-onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia
LHPA: limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis
NC-CAH: non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia
AIMAH: ACTH-independent bilateral macronodular adrenal
pre-ASNA: preganglionic adrenal sympathetic nerve activity
AIMAH: ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia
CAHSA: Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Support Association
AIMAH: ACTH-independent bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia

Diagnostic performance of salivary cortisol in the diagnosis of Cushing’s syndrome, adrenal incidentaloma and adrenal insufficiency

Source

F Ceccato, Department of Medicine – DIMED, University of Padova, Endocrinology Unit, Padova, Italy.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Salivary cortisol has been recently suggested for studies on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis: lack of circadian rhythm is a marker of Cushing’s syndrome (CS), and some authors report that low salivary cortisol levels may be a marker of adrenal insufficiency. The aim of our study was to define the role of salivary cortisol in specific diagnostic setting of HPA axis disease.

SUBJECTS AND METHODS:

We analyzed morning salivary cortisol (MSC) and late night salivary cortisol (LNSC) in 406 subjects: 52 Cushing’s disease (CD), 13 ectopic-CS, 17 adrenal-CS, 27 CD in remission (mean follow-up of 66 ± 39 months), 45 adrenal incidentalomas, 73 patients assessed of CS and then ruled out for endogenous hypercortisolism, 75 patients with adrenal insufficiency and 104 healthy subjects.

RESULTS:

A LNSC value above 5.24 ng/mL differentiated CS from controls with high sensitivity (96.3%) and specificity (97.1%), we found higher LNSC in ectopic-CS than in CD. We found no difference in MSC and LNSC levels between CD in remission and healthy subjects. Both MSC and LNSC were higher in adrenal incidentaloma than in healthy controls. MSC below 2.65 ng/mL distinguished patients with adrenal insufficiency from controls with high sensitivity (97.1%) and specificity (93.3%).

CONCLUSIONS:

salivary cortisol is a useful tool to assess endogenous cortisol excess or adrenal insufficiency and to evaluate stable CD in remission.

PMID:

 

23610124

 

[PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
From PubMed
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