Study Describes 6 Common Surgical Failures in Cushing’s Disease Treatment

To help improve the effectiveness of surgical treatment of Cushing’s disease, researchers conducted a study to determine common failures. They classified these failures into six different categories.

Results were reported in the study, “Root cause analysis of diagnostic and surgical failures in the treatment of suspected Cushing’s disease,” published in the Journal of Clinical Neuroscience.

The surgical removal of lesions that secrete excess adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is the first line of treatment for patients with Cushing’s disease. But while this approach is effective in reducing cortisol levels, up to 31 percent of patients fail to achieve remission.

When initial surgery is ineffective, additional surgical procedures may help to improve patient outcomes. Medications also are used for those who do not see results from surgery.

Recognizing the factors that contribute to the failure of surgical treatment is crucial to avoiding a deterioration of patient health and to improving long-term outcomes.

Researchers at Harvard Medical School examined the clinical records of 51 patients suspected of having Cushing’s disease. These patients were followed and surgically treated at the Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston, from April 2008 to July 2017.

In more than 82 percent of the cases, tissue removed during surgery confirmed that the patients had excess ACTH caused by benign tumors in the adrenal gland. Among the remaining patients, two had additional ACTH-secreting tumors, four had no obvious tumor or abnormal tissue, one had a pituitary mass without ACTH secretion, and one had no evidence of tissue changes despite the detection of a tumor during exploratory surgery.

They were followed for an average of 18.3 months, during which 42 patients achieved remission as confirmed by blood tests. Of these, 34 patients did not require additional treatment; four patients needed additional surgeries to achieve control over cortisol levels; and four patients required additional radiosurgery.

Based on long-term patient outcomes, researchers were able to identify six categories of common diagnostic and surgical failures. They include:

  • persistently high cortisol levels despite the successful removal of lesions
  • the failure of tumor resection
  • recurrence of disease
  • a failure to identify the source of ACTH secretion
  • the absence of identifiable lesions during exploratory surgery
  • concurrent tumors.

While the first three are common among patients with a visible lesion on imaging scans, the latter three are characteristic of patients in whom physicians fail to detect a lesion.

Investigators believe that anticipating and recognizing these common failures may help to improve the effectiveness of surgery, symptom management, and overall treatment outcomes.

“The success of surgical intervention can be enhanced greatly by improving patient selection and surgical management by anticipating and subsequently deterring the six common failures described above,” the team concluded. They added that better imaging methods also might improve outcomes for Cushing’s disease patients.

From https://cushingsdiseasenews.com/2018/05/15/cushings-disease-surgery-6-common-failures-found-retrospective-study/

Topical Steroid Use in Psoriasis Patient Leads to Severe Adrenal Insufficiency

This article is written live from the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) 2017 Annual Meeting in Austin, TX. MPR will be reporting news on the latest findings from leading experts in endocrinology. Check back for more news from AACE 2017.

 

At the AACE 2017 Annual Meeting, lead study author Kaitlyn Steffensmeier, MS III, of the Dayton Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center, Dayton, OH, presented a case study describing a patient “who developed secondary adrenal insufficiency secondary to long-term topical steroid use and who with decreased topical steroid use recovered.”

The patient was a 63-year-old white male with a 23-year history of psoriasis. For 18 years, the patient had been applying Clobetasol Propionate 0.05% topically on several areas of his body every day. Upon presentation to the endocrine clinic for evaluation of his low serum cortisol, the patient complained of a 24-pound weight gain over a 2-year period, feeling fatigued, as well as facial puffiness.

Laboratory analysis found that the patient’s random serum cortisol and ACTH levels were low (0.2µg/dL and <1.1pg/mL, respectively). According to the study authors, “the labs were indicative of secondary adrenal insufficiency.” Additionally, a pituitary MRI “showed a 2mm hypoenhancing lesion within the midline of the pituitary gland consistent with Rathke’s cleft cyst versus pituitary microadenoma.”

The patient was initiated on 10mg of hydrocortisone in the morning and 5mg in the evening and was instructed to decrease the use of his topical steroid to one time per month. For the treatment of his psoriasis, the patient was started on apremilast, a phosphodiesterase-4 enzyme (PDE4) inhibitor, and phototherapy.

After 2.5 years, the patient had a subnormal response to the cosyntropin stimulation test. However, after 3 years, a normal response with an increase in serum cortisol to 18.7µg/dL at 60 minutes was obtained; the patient was then discontinued on hydrocortisone. Additionally, a stable pituitary tumor was shown via a repeat pituitary MRI.

The study authors explained that, although secondary adrenal insufficiency is not commonly reported, “one study showed 40% of patients with abnormal cortisol response to exogenous ACTH after two weeks of topical glucocorticoids usage.” Another meta-analysis of 15 studies (n=320) revealed 4.7% of patients developing adrenal insufficiency after using topical steroids. Because of this, “clinicians need to be aware of potential side effects of prolong topical steroid use,” added the study authors.

For continuous endocrine news coverage from the AACE 2017 Annual Meeting, check back to MPR’s AACE page for the latest updates.

From http://www.empr.com/aace-2017/topical-steroid-psoriasis-clobestasol-propionate/article/654335/

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