Cushing Disease: A Multidisciplinary Treatment Update

Share this info with your endo in case he/she missed it!

This activity is intended for endocrinologists, primary care physicians, nurses, nurse practitioners, and pharmacists.

The goal of this activity is to review the diagnosis and treatment of Cushing disease from a multidisciplinary perspective.

Upon completion of this activity, participants will be able to:

  1. Outline the rationale for a multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis and treatment of patients with Cushing disease
  2. Review the safety and efficacy of current management strategies for patients with Cushing disease
  3. Describe the diagnostic workup for Cushing disease and the reasons why timely diagnosis and treatment are important

Faculty and Disclosures

As an organization accredited by the ACCME, Medscape, LLC, requires everyone who is in a position to control the content of an education activity to disclose all relevant financial relationships with any commercial interest. The ACCME defines “relevant financial relationships” as financial relationships in any amount, occurring within the past 12 months, including financial relationships of a spouse or life partner, that could create a conflict of interest.

Medscape, LLC, encourages Authors to identify investigational products or off-label uses of products regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration, at first mention and where appropriate in the content.

Laurence Katznelson, MD

Professor of Medicine and Neurosurgery, Stanford University; Medical Director, Pituitary Center, Stanford Hospital and Clinics, Stanford, California

Disclosure: Laurence Katznelson, MD, has disclosed the following relevant financial relationships:
Received grants for clinical research from: Corcept Therapeutics Inc.; Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation

Dr Katznelson does not intend to discuss off-label uses of drugs, mechanical devices, biologics, or diagnostics approved by the FDA for use in the United States.

Dr Katznelson does not intend to discuss investigational drugs, mechanical devices, biologics, or diagnostics not approved by the FDA for use in the United States.

Brooke Swearingen, MD

Associate Professor of Neurosurgery, Harvard Medical School; Associate Visiting Neurosurgeon, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts

Disclosure: Brooke Swearingen, MD, has disclosed the following relevant financial relationships: Served as an advisor or consultant for: Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation
Owns stock, stock options or bonds from: Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation; Pfizer Inc; Amgen Inc; Roche

Dr Swearingen does not intend to discuss off-label uses of drugs, mechanical devices, biologics, or diagnostics approved by the FDA for use in the United States.

Dr Swearingen does not intend to discuss investigational drugs, mechanical devices, biologics, or diagnostics not approved by the FDA for use in the United States.

Nicholas Tritos, MD

Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Staff, Neuroendocrine Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts

Disclosure: Nicholas Tritos, MD, has disclosed the following relevant financial relationships:
Served as an advisor or consultant for: Corcept Therapeutics Inc; Pfizer Inc
Received grants for clinical research from: Pfizer Inc; Ipsen

Dr Tritos does intend to discuss off-label uses of drugs, mechanical devices, biologics, or diagnostics approved by the FDA for use in the United States.

Dr Tritos does not intend to discuss investigational drugs, mechanical devices, biologics, or diagnostics not approved by the FDA for use in the United States.

Susan Cornell, PharmD, CDE

Associate Professor, Pharmacy Practice, Midwestern University-Chicago, Downers Grove, Illinois; Clinical Pharmacist/Certified Diabetes Educator, DuPage Community Clinic, Wheaton, Illinois

Disclosure: Susan Cornell, PharmD, CDE, has disclosed the following relevant relationships:
Served as a speaker or member of a speakers bureau for: Johnson & Johnson Diabetes Institute

Dr Cornell does intend to discuss off-label uses of drugs, mechanical devices, biologics, or diagnostics approved by the FDA for use in the United States.

Dr Cornell does not intend to discuss investigational drugs, mechanical devices, biologics, or diagnostics not approved by the FDA for use in the United States.

Rita Pach, RN, MSN

Nurse, Johns Hopkins Pituitary Center, Baltimore, Maryland

Participation by Mrs Pach in the development of this product does not constitute or imply endorsement by the Johns Hopkins University or the Johns Hopkins Hospital and Health System.
Disclosure: Rita Pach, RN, has disclosed no relevant financial relationships.

Mrs Pach does not intend to discuss off-label uses of drugs, mechanical devices, biologics, or diagnostics approved by the FDA for use in the United States.

Mrs Pach does not intend to discuss investigational drugs, mechanical devices, biologics, or diagnostics not approved by the FDA for use in the United States.

Kristin M. Richardson

Group Scientific Director, Medscape, LLC

Disclosure: Kristin M. Richardson has disclosed no relevant financial relationships.

David Modrak, PhD

Freelance editor, Montville, New Jersey

Disclosure: David Modrak, PhD, has disclosed no relevant financial relationships.

Nafeez Zawahir, MD

CME Clinical Director, Medscape, LLC

Disclosure: Nafeez Zawahir, MD, has disclosed no relevant financial relationships.

Laurie E. Scudder, DNP, NP

Nurse Planner, Continuing Professional Education Department, Medscape, LLC; Clinical Assistant Professor, School of Nursing and Allied Health, George Washington University, Washington, DC

Disclosure: Laurie E. Scudder, DNP, NP, has disclosed no relevant financial relationships.

Instructions for Participation and Credit

There are no fees for participating in or receiving credit for this online educational activity. For information on applicability and acceptance of continuing education credit for this activity, please consult your professional licensing board.

This activity is designed to be completed within the time designated on the title page; physicians should claim only those credits that reflect the time actually spent in the activity. To successfully earn credit, participants must complete the activity online during the valid credit period that is noted on the title page. To receive AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™, you must receive a minimum score of 70% on the post-test.

Follow these steps to earn CME/CE credit*:

  1. Read the target audience, learning objectives, and author disclosures.
  2. Study the educational content online or printed out.
  3. Online, choose the best answer to each test question. To receive a certificate, you must receive a passing score as designated at the top of the test. We encourage you to complete the Activity Evaluation to provide feedback for future programming.

You may now view or print the certificate from your CME/CE Tracker. You may print the certificate but you cannot alter it. Credits will be tallied in your CME/CE Tracker and archived for 6 years; at any point within this time period you can print out the tally as well as the certificates from the CME/CE Tracker.

*The credit that you receive is based on your user profile.

Continue to activity: http://www.medscape.org/viewarticle/806559

Pregnancy and pituitary disorders

Pituitary and pineal glands

Pituitary and pineal glands (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Z Karaca, F Tanriverdi, K Unluhizarci and F Kelestimur
+ Author Affiliations

Department of Endocrinology,
Erciyes University Medical School, 38039 Kayseri, Turkey
(Correspondence should be addressed to F Kelestimur; Email: fktimur@erciyes.edu.tr)

Abstract

Major hormonal changes emerge during pregnancy. The pituitary gland is one of the most affected organs with altered anatomy and physiology. The pituitary gland is enlarged as a result of lactotroph hyperplasia. Due to physiological changes in the pituitary and target hormone levels, binding globulins, and placental hormones, hormonal evaluation becomes more complex in pregnant women. As a consequence of physiological hormonal changes, the evaluation of pituitary functions in pregnant women is quite different from that done in the prepregnant state. Pituitary adenomas may cause problems by their hormone secretion that affects the mother and the fetus besides causing an increased risk of tumor growth.

Furthermore, diagnosis, course, and treatment of pituitary diseases point out differences. The changes in anatomy and physiology of the pituitary gland during pregnancy are reviewed.

Pituitary disorders namely Cushing’s disease; acromegaly; prolactinoma; TSH-secreting, gonadotropin-producing, and clinically nonfunctioning adenomas; craniopharyngioma; and Sheehan’s syndrome, which is one of the most common causes of hypopituitarism, lymphocytic hypophysitis, and hypopituitarism, in relation to pregnancy are discussed. Being aware of all this information will prevent any serious problems which mother and child will be exposed to.

Read the entire article here: http://www.eje-online.org/content/162/3/453.full

From Bangladesh ~ Pituitary Adenoma: When headache is a headache

Location of the pituitary gland in the human brain

Location of the pituitary gland in the human brain (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

“Got headache? Take a paracetamol and get relieved in a short while.”

This is common practice in our country. Almost everyone has had a headache, but rarely headache becomes a headache in our lives. Not all headaches require doctor’s attention but sometimes it represent the tip of a huge iceberg.

Mr Shafiul Islam, 38 years of age, an active male developed a gradual onset of headache, which worsened at the morning, followed by vomiting. He visited a general practitioner and took prescribed medicines, but that failed to cure the symptoms. Rather he was gradually experiencing loss of outer side vision of both eyes.

When he revisited a doctor and was advised for MRI of brain he was diagnosed with a core of “Pituitary Macrodenoma,” a tumor of a hormone producing gland of brain. Then Shafiul was referred to Neurosurgeon of Comfort Nursing home Assistant Professor Dr Moshiur Rahman, who decided to perform operation for removal of the tumor after the initial evaluation.

The pituitary gland is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing 5 grams (0.18 oz) in humans. It is a protrusion off the bottom of the hypothalamus at the base of the brain, and rests in a small, bony cavity (sella turcica). The pituitary gland secretes nine hormones. A pituitary adenoma is a slow growing and less harmful tumor arising from cells in the pituitary gland. Because they originate from cells in the pituitary gland, which is the master hormone gland, they often cause problems related to hormonal dysfunction.

Some pituitary tumors result in excessive production and over-secretion of hormones, which can result in a variety of syndromes. A large proportion of these tumors, however, do not produce any functional hormones, but instead grow to a size where they cause symptoms because they compress surrounding structures. For these reasons, larger pituitary tumors (called macroadenomas) often present with headache, visual loss and pituitary gland dysfunction.

The specific cause of pituitary adenoma development is unknown, although they are likely to be caused in part by random mutations in cells of the pituitary gland. Surgery is the first line of treatment for many symptomatic pituitary tumors in patients that are good surgical candidates, especially in patients with nonfunctioning macroadenomas.

Dr Moshiur approached the tumor by entering through nasal opening with the help of ENT specialist Associate Professor Dr Sajol Ashfaq, under general aenesthesia (fully unconscious) done by Aenesthesiologist Associate Professor Dr Shamsul Alam. After elevation of a thin membrane over the nasal partition and breaking a bone in the base of the skull they got a vision of the tumor through endoscope. After that, the tumor was removed through the nose. After three days of post-operative care, the patient was discharged. All his symptoms, headache, vomiting and poor vision improved dramatically and he got back to his normal life.

Dr Moshiur Rahman said: “The surgical approach for removing pituitary tumours is usually an endonasal (through the nostril) transsphenoidal (through the sphenoid sinus) approach. This procedure is Endoscopic Transnasal Transphenoidal Pituitary Adenomectomy, which is a safe, minimally invasive but effective, modern treatment option for Pituitary Adenoma, with few side effects and short post-operative hospital stay. This latest technology is being practiced in some centres of the capital for last few years.”

He also said, he performed three operations before successfully with no long term adverse effect. He also paid gratefulness to Associate Professor Dr Sajol Ashfaq and Associate Professor Dr Shamsul Alam for their sincere and great effort.

Once, people had to go outside of the country for this operation. Nowadays, this operation is often performed by many neurosurgeons of the capital. A few centres have also developed to provide these facilities of operation. People can take this oppurtunity confidently by choosing a competent surgical team.

Do You Use Groupon?

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Matching Donations at Groupon Help Keep Cushings Help Going!

From my email –

The world’s most popular (and largest) daily deals site is now at iGive.  Groupon’s great deals will mean donations for Cushings Help.

Even better — this holiday week (and a bit more), we’re going to match the donations raised by your supporters who shop at Groupon.  That’s right, DOUBLE DONATIONS at the hottest deal site in town between 6/28/13 and 7/14/13.

Let your supporters know, so they can save money and help Cushings Help at the same time.

Share now by forwarding this e-mail, posting on your group’s Facebook page, and even tweeting.
Just have them visit iGive.com/Groupon.

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The optional iGive Button makes it automatic at over 1,300 great stores
A portion of purchases at over 1,300 stores means a free donation to Cushings Help.  The Button makes sure every purchase counts, even if you forget.

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Founder, iGive.com

P.S. Watch Small Turn into Big

Thanks for your support!

Quality of Life and Other Outcomes in Children Treated for Cushing Syndrome

Abstract

Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 05/16/2013  Review Article  Clinical Article

Keil MF – Cushing syndrome (CS) in children is associated with residual impairment in measures of health–related quality of life, even after successful resolution of hypercortisolemia, highlighting the need for early identification of morbidities and improvements in long–term management of these patients.

A review of the literature identifies significant morbidities associated with CS of pediatric onset, which must not be treated in isolation. CS affects children and adolescents in many ways that are different than adults.

Post–treatment challenges for the child or adolescent treated for CS include: optimize growth and pubertal development, normalize body composition, and promote psychological health and cognitive maturation. All these factors impact health–related quality of life, which is an important outcome measure to assess the burden of disease as well as the effect of treatment.

Get this article here

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