Have You Gone to the ER With an Adrenal Crisis?

This Survey is to gather information for the Adrenal Insufficiency Awareness Organization’s grant project to create educational materials for ER personnel.

The survey is for those of you who have been to the ER during an impending or full blown Adrenal Crisis. (you may fill it out for a child or yourself)

Your help is appreciated!

At the end of the survey you will have the chance to enter for a chance to win an Adrenal Insufficiency Awareness Pin.

https://www.surveymonkey.com/s/ERcare

Adrenal Glands

adrenal-glandsAnatomy of the adrenal glands:

Adrenal glands, which are also called suprarenal glands, are small, triangular glands located on top of both kidneys. An adrenal gland is made of two parts: the outer region is called the adrenal cortex and the inner region is called the adrenal medulla.

Function of the adrenal glands:

The adrenal glands work interactively with the hypothalamus and pituitary gland in the following process:

  • the hypothalamus produces corticotropin-releasing hormones, which stimulate the pituitary gland.
  • the pituitary gland, in turn, produces corticotropin hormones, which stimulate the adrenal glands to produce corticosteroid hormones.

Both parts of the adrenal glands — the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla — perform very separate functions.

What is the adrenal cortex?

The adrenal cortex, the outer portion of the adrenal gland, secretes hormones that have an effect on the body’s metabolism, on chemicals in the blood, and on certain body characteristics. The adrenal cortex secretes corticosteroids and other hormones directly into the bloodstream. The hormones produced by the adrenal cortex include:

  • corticosteroid hormones
    • hydrocortisone hormone – this hormone, also known as cortisol, controls the body’s use of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates.
    • corticosterone – this hormone, together with hydrocortisone hormones, suppresses inflammatory reactions in the body and also affects the immune system.
  • aldosterone hormone – this hormone inhibits the level of sodium excreted into the urine, maintaining blood volume and blood pressure.
  • androgenic steroids (androgen hormones) – these hormones have minimal effect on the development of male characteristics.

What is the adrenal medulla?

The adrenal medulla, the inner part of the adrenal gland, is not essential to life, but helps a person in coping with physical and emotional stress. The adrenal medulla secretes the following hormones:

  • epinephrine (also called adrenaline) – this hormone increases the heart rate and force of heart contractions, facilitates blood flow to the muscles and brain, causes relaxation of smooth muscles, helps with conversion of glycogen to glucose in the liver, and other activities.
  • norepinephrine (also called noradrenaline) – this hormone has little effect on smooth muscle, metabolic processes, and cardiac output, but has strong vasoconstrictive effects, thus increasing blood pressure.

From: University of Maryland Center for Diabetes and Endocrinology

Pasireotide for the treatment of Cushing’s disease

Posted online on June 17, 2013. (doi:10.1517/21678707.2013.807731)

Annamaria Colao Chiara Simeoli Monica De Leo Alessia Cozzolino Rosario Pivonello

Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Section of Endocrinology, Federico II University, Via Sergio Pansini 5,

80131 Naples

, Italy +39 0817462132; +39 0815465443; colao@unina.it

Author for correspondence

Introduction: Pasireotide, a novel multireceptor targeted somatostatin analog is the first drug approved for treatment of adult patients with Cushing’s disease (CD) for whom pituitary surgery is not an option or has not been curative.

Areas covered: The review describes published data on efficacy and safety of pasireotide in CD patients. In particular, the review focuses on a Phase III study (CSOM230B2305) evaluating the outcomes of treatment with pasireotide at the doses of 600 and 900 µg twice daily for 12 months in 162 CD patients. This clinical trial reported a decrease in urinary free cortisol levels in the majority of patients, with a substantial reduction in nearly half and a normalization in > 25% of patients included in the study, accompanied by an improvement in clinical picture as well as a significant reduction in pituitary tumor size. Hyperglycemia appears as the most important side effect, requiring a careful monitoring and a prompt administration of glucose-lowering medications.

Expert opinion: Pasireotide seems to have a promising role as medical option for CD patients who experienced a failure or not candidate for neurosurgery; its employment will probably induce in the near future significant changes in the therapeutic approach to CD.

Read More: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1517/21678707.2013.807731

%d bloggers like this: