Synergistic Cortisol Suppression by Ketoconazole–Osilodrostat Combination Therapy

Abstract

Summary

Here, we describe a case of a patient presenting with adrenocorticotrophic hormone-independent Cushing’s syndrome in a context of primary bilateral macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia. While initial levels of cortisol were not very high, we could not manage to control hypercortisolism with ketoconazole monotherapy, and could not increase the dose due to side effects. The same result was observed with another steroidogenesis inhibitor, osilodrostat. The patient was finally successfully treated with a well-tolerated synergitic combination of ketoconazole and osilodrostat. We believe this case provides timely and original insights to physicians, who should be aware that this strategy could be considered for any patients with uncontrolled hypercortisolism and delayed or unsuccessful surgery, especially in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Learning points

  • Ketoconazole–osilodrostat combination therapy appears to be a safe, efficient and well-tolerated strategy to supress cortisol levels in Cushing syndrome.
  • Ketoconazole and osilodrostat appear to act in a synergistic manner.
  • This strategy could be considered for any patient with uncontrolled hypercortisolism and delayed or unsuccessful surgery, especially in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Considering the current cost of newly-released drugs, such a strategy could lower the financial costs for patients and/or society.
Keywords: Adult; Male; White; France; Adrenal; Adrenal; Novel treatment; December; 2021

Background

Untreated or inadequately treated Cushing’s syndrome (CS) is a morbid condition leading to numerous complications. The latter ultimately results in an increased mortality that is mainly due to cardiovascular events and infections. The goal of the treatment with steroidogenesis inhibitors is normalization of cortisol production allowing the improvement of comorbidities (1). Most studies dealing with currently available steroidogenesis inhibitors used as monotherapy reported an overall antisecretory efficacy of roughly 50% in CS. Steroidogenesis inhibitors can be combined to better control hypercortisolism. To the best of our knowledge, we report here for the first time a patient treated with a ketoconazole–osilodrostat combination therapy.

Case presentation

Here, we report the case of Mr D.M., 53-years old, diagnosed with adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-independent CS 6 months earlier. At diagnosis, he presented with resistant hypertension, hypokalemia, diabetes mellitus, easy bruising, purple abdominal striae and major oedema of the lower limbs.

Investigations

A biological assessment was performed, and the serum cortisol levels are depicted in Table 1. ACTH levels were suppressed (mean levels 1 pg/mL). Mean late-night salivary cortisol showed a four-fold increase (Table 2), and mean 24 h-urinary cortisol showed a two-fold increase. Serum cortisol was 1000 nmol/L at 08:00 h after 1 mg dexamethasone dose at 23:00 h. The rest of the adrenal hormonal workup was within normal ranges (aldosterone: 275 pmol/L and renin: 15 mIU/L). An adrenal CT was performed (Fig. 1) and exhibited a 70-mm left adrenal mass (spontaneous density: 5 HU and relative washout: 65%) and a 45-mm right adrenal mass (spontaneous density: −2 HU and relative washout: 75%). The case was discussed in a multidisciplinary team meeting, which advised to perform 18F-FDG PET-CT and 123I-Iodocholesterol scintigraphy before considering surgery. A genetic screening was performed, testing for ARMC5 and PRKAR1A pathogenic variants.

Figure 1View Full Size
Figure 1
Adrenal CT depicting the bilateral macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia.

Citation: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports 2021, 1; 10.1530/EDM-21-0071

Table 1Serum cortisol levels at diagnosis (A), using ketoconazole monotherapy (B), using osilodrostat monotherapy (C) and using osilodrostat–ketoconazole combination therapy (D).

Serum cortisol (nmol/L) 08:00 h 24:00 h 16:00 h 20:00 h 12:00 h 16:00 h
A. At diagnosis 660 615 716 566 541 561
B. Ketoconazole monotherapy 741 545 502 224 242 508
C. Osilodrostat monotherapy 658 637 588 672 486 692
D. Osilodrostat–ketoconazole combination 436 172 154 103 135 274
Table 2Salivary cortisol levels at diagnosis (A), using ketoconazole monotherapy (B), using osilodrostat monotherapy (C) and using osilodrostat-ketoconazole combination therapy (D).

Salivary cortisol (nmol/L) 23:00 h 12:00 h 13:00 h Mean
A. At diagnosis 47 62 38 49
B. Ketoconazole monotherapy 20 15 21 18
C. Osilodrostat monotherapy 85 90 56 77
D. Osilodrostat–ketoconazole combination 10 14 9 11

Treatment

As this condition occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic, it was decided to first initiate steroidogenesis inhibitors to lower the patient’s cortisol levels. Initially, ketoconazole was initiated and uptitrated up to 1000 mg per day based on close serum cortisol monitoring, with a three-fold increase of liver enzymes and poor control of cortisol levels (Table 1). In the absence of biological efficacy, ketoconazole was replaced by osilodrostat, which was gradually increased up to 30 mg per day (10 mg at 08:00 h and 20 mg at 20:00 h) without reaching normal cortisol levels (Table 1) and with slightly increased blood pressure levels. Considering the lack of efficacy of anticortisolic drugs used as monotherapy, we combined osilodrostat (30 mg per day) to ketoconazole (600 mg per day), that is, at the last maximal tolerated dose as monotherapy of each drug.

Outcome

This combination of steroidogenesis inhibitors achieved a good control in cortisol levels, mimicking a physiological circadian rhythm (Table 1D). The patient did not exhibit any side effect and the control of cortisol levels resulted in a rapid improvement of hypertension, kalemia, diabetes control and disappearance of lower limbs oedema. The patient underwent a 18F-FDG PET-CT that did not exhibit any increased uptake in both adrenal masses and a 123I-Iodocholesterol scintigraphy exhibiting a highly increased uptake in both adrenal masses, predominating in the left adrenal mass (70 mm). Unilateral adrenalectomy of the larger mass was then performed, and as the immediate post-operative serum cortisol level was 50 nmol/L, hydrocortisone was administered at a dose of 30 mg per day, with a stepwise decrease to 10 mg per day over 3 months. Pathological examination exhibited macronodular adrenal hyperplasia with a 70-mm adreno cortical adenoma (WEISS score: 1 and Ki67: 1%). The genetic screening exhibited a c.1908del p.(Phe637Leufs*6) variant of ARMC5 (pathogenic), located in exon 5. The patient has no offspring and is no longer in contact with the rest of his family.

Discussion

The goal of the treatment with steroidogenesis inhibitors is normalization of cortisol production allowing the improvement of comorbidities (1). Most studies dealing with currently available steroidogenesis inhibitors used as monotherapy reported an overall antisecretory efficacy of roughly 50% in CS. This rate of efficacy was probably underestimated in retrospective studies due to the lack of adequate uptitration of the dose; For example, the median dose reported in the French retrospective study on ketoconazole was only 800 mg/day, while 50% of the patients were uncontrolled at the last follow-up (2).

Steroidogenesis inhibitors can be combined to better control hypercortisolism. Up to now, such combinations, mainly ketoconazole and metyrapone, were mainly reported in patients with severe CS (median urinary-free Cortisol (UFC) 30- to 40-fold upper-limit norm (ULN)) and life-threatening comorbidities (3, 4). Normal UFC was reported in up to 86% of these patients treated with high doses of ketoconazole and metyrapone. Expected side effects (such as increased liver enzymes for ketoconazole or worsened hypertension and hypokalemia for metyrapone) were reported in the majority of the patients. The fear of these side effects probably explains the lack of uptitration in previous reports. Combination of steroidogenesis inhibitors has previously been described by Daniel et al. in the largest study reported on the use of metyrapone in CS; 29 patients were treated with metyrapone and ketoconazole or mitotane, including 22 in whom the second drug was added to metyrapone monotherapy because of partial efficacy or adverse effects. The final median metyrapone dose in patients controlled with combination therapy was 1500 mg per day (5).

Combination of adrenal steroidogenesis inhibitors should not be reserved to patients with severe hypercortisolism. In the case shown here, the association was highly effective in terms of secretion, using lower doses than those applied as a single treatment, but without the side effects previously observed with higher doses of each treatment used as a monotherapy. To our knowledge, the association of ketoconazole and osilodrostat had never been reported. Ketoconazole blocks several enzymes of the adrenal steroidogenesis such as CYP11A1, CYP17, CYP11B2 (aldosterone synthase) and CYP11B1 (11-hydroxylase), leading to decreased cortisol and occasionally testosterone concentrations. Though liver enzymes increase is not dose-dependent, it usually happens at doses exceeding 400–600 mg per day (2). Osilodrostat blocks CYP11B1 and CYP11B2; a combination should thus allow for a complete blockade of these enzymes that are necessary for cortisol secretion. Short-term side effects such as hypokalemia and hypertension are similar to those observed with metyrapone, due to increased levels of the precursor deoxycorticosterone, correlated with the dose of osilodrostat (6). As for our patient, the occurrence of side effects should not lead to immediately switch to another drug, but rather to decrease the dose and add another cortisol-lowering drug. Moreover, considering the current cost of newly-released drugs such a strategy could lower financial costs for patients and/or society.

Another point to take into account is the current COVID-19 pandemic, for which, as recently detailed in experts’ opinion (7), the main aim is to reach eucortisolism, whatever the way. Indeed patients presenting with CS usually also present with comorbidities such as obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and immunodeficiency (8). Surgery, which represents the gold standard strategy in the management of CS (1, 9), might be delayed to reduce the hospital-associated risk of COVID-19, with post-surgical immunodepression and thromboembolic risks (7). Because immunosuppression and thromboembolic diathesis are common CS features (9, 10), during the COVID-19 pandemic, the use of steroidogenesis inhibitors appears of great interest. In these patients, combing steroidogenesis inhibitors at intermediate doses might allow for a rapid control of hypercortisolism without risks of major side effects if a single uptitrated treatment is not sufficient. Obviously, the management of associated comorbidities would also be crucial in this situation (11).

To conclude, we report for the first time a case of CS, in the context of primary bilateral macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia successfully treated with a well-tolerated combination of ketoconazole and osilodrostat. While initial levels of cortisol were not very high, we could not manage to control hypercortisolism with ketoconazole monotherapy, and could not increase the dose due to side effects. The same result was observed with another steroidogenesis inhibitor, osilodrostat. This strategy could be considered for any patient with uncontrolled hypercortisolism and delayed or unsuccessful surgery, especially in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Declaration of interest

F C and T B received research grants from Recordati Rare Disease and HRA Pharma Rare Diseases. Frederic Castinetti is on the editorial board of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism case reports. Frederic Castinetti was not involved in the review or editorial process for this paper, on which he is listed as an author.

Funding

This work did not receive any specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sector.

Patient consent

Informed written consent has been obtained from the patient for publication of the case report.

Author contribution statement

V A was the patient’s physician involved in the clinical care and collected the data. T B and F C supervised the management of the patient. F C proposed the original idea of this case report. V A drafted the manuscript. F C critically reviewed the manuscript. T B revised the manuscript into its final version.

References

From This Month’s Reader’s Digest

From the February, 2022 issue of Reader’s Digest:

readers-digest.jpg

Read the original article at readers-digest-misdiagnosed

Post-Operative Cushing Syndrome Care

Justine Herndon, PA-C, and Irina Bancos, MD, on Post-Operative Cushing Syndrome Care

– Curative procedures led to widespread resolution or improvement of hyperglycemia

by Scott Harris , Contributing Writer, MedPage Today January 18, 2022

In a recent study, two-thirds of people with Cushing syndrome (CS) saw resolved or improved hyperglycemia after a curative procedure, with close post-operative monitoring an important component of the process.

Among 174 patients with CS included in the longitudinal cohort study (pituitary in 106, ectopic in 25, adrenal in 43), median baseline HbA1c was 6.9%. Of these, 41 patients were not on any therapy for hyperglycemia, 93 (52%) took oral medications, and 64 (37%) were on insulin.

At the end of the period following CS remission (median 10.5 months), 37 (21%) patients had resolution of hyperglycemia, 82 (47%) demonstrated improvement, and 55 (32%) had no change or worsened hyperglycemia. Also at the end of follow-up, HbA1c had fallen 0.84% (P<0.0001), with daily insulin dose decreasing by a mean of 30 units (P<0.0001).

Justine Herndon, PA-C, and Irina Bancos, MD, both endocrinology researchers with Mayo Clinic in Minnesota, served as co-authors of the report, which was published in the Journal of the Endocrine Society. Here they discuss the study and its findings with MedPage Today. The exchange has been edited for length and clarity.

What was the study’s main objective?

Herndon: As both a hospital diabetes provider and clinic pituitary/gonadal/adrenal provider, I often hear questions from colleagues about how to manage a patient’s diabetes post-operatively after cure from CS. While clinical experience has been helpful in guiding these discussions, the literature offered a paucity of data on diabetes/hyperglycemia specifically after surgery. There was also a lack of data on specific subgroups of CS, whether by sub-type or severity.

Therefore, we felt it was important to see what our past patient experiences showed in terms of changes in laboratory data, medications, and which patients were more likely to see improvement in their diabetes/hyperglycemia. The overall goal was to help clinicians provide appropriate patient education and care following a curative procedure.

In addition to its primary findings, the study also identified several factors associated with resolution or improvement of hyperglycemia. What were these factors?

Bancos: Both clinical and biochemical severity of CS, as well as Cushing subtype, were associated with improvement. We calculated severity based on symptoms and presence of comorbidities, and we calculated biochemical severity based on hormonal measurements. As clinical and biochemical scores were strongly correlated, we chose only one (biochemical) for multivariable analysis.

In the multivariable analysis of biochemical severity of Cushing, subtype of Cushing, and subtype of hyperglycemia, we found that patients with a severe biochemical severity score were 2.4 fold more likely to see improved hyperglycemia than people with a moderate or mild severity score (OR 2.4 (95% CI 1.1-4.9). We also found that patients with the nonadrenal CS subtype were 2.9 fold more likely to see improved hyperglycemia when compared to people with adrenal CS (OR of 2.9 (95% CI 1.3-6.4).

The type of hyperglycemia (diabetes versus prediabetes) was not found to be significant.

Did anything surprise you about the study results?

Herndon: I was surprised to see improvement in hyperglycemia in patients who were still on steroids, as you would expect the steroids to still have an impact. This shows how much a CS curative procedure truly leads to changes in the comorbidities that were a result of the underlying disease.

Also, I was surprised that the type of hyperglycemia was not a predictor of improvement after cure, although it was quite close. We also had a few patients whose hyperglycemia worsened, and we could not find a specific factor that predicted which patients did not improve.

What are the study’s implications for clinicians who treat people with CS?

Bancos: We think our study shows the clear need for closer follow-up — more frequently than the typical three-to-six months for diabetes. This can be accomplished through review of more than just HbA1c, such as reviewing blood glucose logbooks, asking about hypoglycemia symptoms, and so forth.

Patients with severe CS who are being treated with insulin or hypoglycemic medications are especially likely to decrease their medications to avoid hypoglycemia during postoperative period.

Read the study here.

Bancos reported advisory board participation and/or consulting with Strongbridge, Sparrow Pharmaceutics, Adrenas Therapeutics, and HRA Pharma outside the submitted work. Herndon did not disclose any relevant financial relationships with industry.

7 Things Your Hair Reveals About Your Health

Your hair can tell you and your doctor if you are stressed, have a nutritional deficiency, thyroid problem, or other health issues. Here are seven key things to look for in your hair.

You probably think about your hair every day: worrying about a bad day, enjoying a good blow-dry, or wondering if you have to try the new style you noticed in your favorite celebrity. But you may be missing the clues your hair reveals about your health. Research shows that changes in the look, texture, or thickness of your hair can be signs of underlying health issues. Here’s how to tell if your hair changes are due to a health condition, genetics, stress, or a nutritional deficiency.

1 Stress (and genes) can cause you to turn gray

Anyone who has observed the hairstyle changes of a President of the Republic from one campaign to another has noticed that stress seems to cause hair to turn white. A mouse study published in the journal Nature suggests that chronic stress may actually contribute to white hair by causing DNA damage and reducing the number of pigment-producing cells in hair follicles. Stress can also lead to hair loss.

Another type of stress, known as oxidative stress, can also play a role in white hair. Oxidative stress can affect pigment-producing cells. Turning gray is actually a completely natural part of aging because hair follicles produce less color as you age. Your genes also play a role in when your hair turns gray. Ask your parents how old they were when they first saw the signs of silvering, and you might do the same. In fact, a study published in March 2016 in the journal Nature Communications was the first to identify the gene responsible for white hair.

2 brittle hair could be a sign of Cushing’s syndrome

Brittle hair is one of the symptoms of Cushing’s syndrome, which is a rare condition caused by excess cortisol, the main hormone body stress. But, there are many other, more obvious symptoms of Cushing’s syndrome, including high blood pressure, fatigue, and back pain. Treatment for Cushing’s syndrome may involve changing the dose of medication that may be causing the condition, such as glucocorticoids, which are steroids used to treat inflammation caused by various diseases.

3 Thinning hair may be a sign of thyroid disease

People with hypothyroidism, a condition that occurs when the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormones, may notice increased hair loss and change in hair appearance. About 4.6% of the population aged 12 years and older have hypothyroidism, although most cases are mild. Hypothyroidism can lead to thinning hair and other symptoms, such as fatigue, intolerance to cold, joint pain, muscle aches, puffy face and weight gain. A thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) test can diagnose the condition, and treatment involves taking thyroid medication.

In addition to thinning hair, some thyroid disorders put you at risk for risk of autoimmune hair loss called alopecia areata. This type of hair loss causes round patches of sudden hair loss and is caused by the immune system attacking the hair follicles.

4 Hair loss can be a sign of anemia

If you suddenly notice a lot more hair in your hairbrush or on the floor of your shower, it may be a sign that your body has low iron stores, or anemia , and may warrant testing. This is another blood test we do when you complain of hair changes. Vegetarians or women with heavy periods increase their risk that hair changes are due to iron deficiency.

It is unclear why iron deficiency can lead to hair loss. hair, but iron is essential for many biological and chemical reactions, perhaps including hair growth. Hair loss can also occur (temporarily) with sudden changes in estrogen levels and is often noticed after pregnancy or stopping birth control pills.

5 The loss of hair could indicate protein deficiency

Protein is essential for hair health and growth (a lack of protein has been linked to hair thinning and hair loss ). Protein deficiency is not a problem for most people. Most adults need 0.8 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight. Good sources of protein include low-fat Greek yogurt, chickpeas, and chicken breast. People who have gastrointestinal difficulties or who have just had gastric bypass surgery may have problems digesting protein. These special situations will need to be managed with the help of your doctor. But most cases of thinning hair, even in women, are probably due to genetics.

6 White or yellow flakes can mean you have dandruff

Yellow or white flakes in your hair, on your shoulders and even in your eyebrows are a sign of dandruff, a chronic scalp condition. Dandruff is usually not a sign of a health problem and can be treated with specialized over-the-counter or prescription shampoos.

One of the most common causes of dandruff is a medical condition called seborrheic dermatitis. People with seborrheic dermatitis have red, oily skin covered in white or yellow scales. A yeast-like fungus called malassezia can also irritate the scalp. Insufficient shampoo, sensitivity to hair care products, and dry skin can also cause dandruff. (Dandruff is usually more severe in the winter, when indoor heating can make skin drier).

7 Damaged hair can mask other health issues

Although hair can reveal your condition, women more often complain about the damage caused by hair coloring and heat treatment. Excessive heat, from daily use of a flat iron or blow-drying, can certainly damage your hair, making it dry, brittle and difficult to maintain. Best not to use more than one hot tool per day (occasional double heat treatment is okay, but not daily). When applying heat to your hair, always use products with protective ingredients. Serums and shine drops tend to have hair-preserving qualities when using direct and indirect heat.

From https://www.mvdemocrat.com/appearance-texture-thickness-7-things-your-hair-reveals-about-your-health/

Lung Neuroendocrine Tumors With Cushing Syndrome Not Biologically Aggressive

Neuroendocrine pulmonary tumors in people with Cushing syndrome (CS) are associated with increased nodal metastasis, higher recurrence, and lower disease-free survival compared with quiescent bronchopulmonary tumors, according to results from an observational case series published in JAMA Network Open. Researchers said their study shows these tumors are not biologically aggressive and underlying carcinoid biology may not be as important as symptomatic hormonal physiology.

Patients (n=68) with CS who underwent curative-intent pulmonary surgery at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) between 1982 and 2020 were retrospectively reviewed for clinical outcomes on the basis of tumor etiology. Outcomes were compared among groups of patients with adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting carcinoid tumors who were treated at the National Institutes of Health in 2021 (n=68), HĂ´pital EuropĂŠen Georges-Pompidou in 2011 (n=14), the Mayo Clinic in 2005 (n=23), and Massachusetts General Hospital in 1997 (n=7).

Patients who underwent surgery at the NCI were aged median 41 years (range, 17-80 years), 42.6% were men, 81.8% were White, and mean follow-up after surgery was 16 months (range, 0.1-341 months).

Most patients had T status 1a (55.9%). The pathological stages were IA1 (37.3%), IA2 (23.7%), IA3 (1.7%), IIB (16.9%), IIIA (20.3%), or unknown (13.2%).

The patients with typical carcinoid tumors (83.8%) underwent lobectomy (70.2%), wedge (22.8%), segmentectomy (5.3%), and pneumonectomy (1.7%) surgical approaches. Patients with atypical carcinoid tumors (16.2%) underwent lobectomy (72.7%) and wedge (27.3%) approaches. Stratified by surgical approach, lobectomy recipients were younger (P =.01) and more had node-positive atypical carcinoid tumors (P =.01).

After surgery, morbidity occurred among 19.1% of patients; overall mortality was 1.5%.

Disease-free survival at 5 years following surgery was 73.4% (95% CI, 48.7%-87.6%) and 55.1% (95% CI, 26.3%-76.5%) at 10 years. Disease-free survival was 75.4% (95% CI, 49.2%-89.3%) at 5 years and 50.2% (95% CI, 18.3%-75.7%) at 10 years for typical carcinoid tumors and remained stable at 75.0% among those with atypical carcinoid tumors. Median follow-up after surgery was 16 months (range, 0.1-341 months). At the time of last follow-up, 76.4% of the patient population was alive and tumor free.

The overall incidence of persistence/recurrence was 16.2%. Recurrent disease occurred in 7 patients and persistent disease in 4 patients. Only one of this group had an atypical carcinoid tumor. Mean time to recurrence in patients with recurrent disease was 76 months with a median of 55 months.

The adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting carcinoid cohort from multiple institutions was aged median 39 years, 46.4% were men, 72.3% underwent lobectomy or pneumonectomy, 18.7% had morbidity, and 0.9% mortality. The majority of these groups had typical carcinoid tumors (83.9%) with a mean size of 1.1 cm (range, 0.1-10 cm) and 39.4% had lymph node positivity. Recurrence occurred among 12.6% of patients and persistence among 5.4% of patients. Among the recurrence cohort, 85.7% had typical carcinoid tumors. Time to recurrence was >6 years. Disease-free survival was 73% at five years and 55% at 10 years.

This study was limited by the small group sizes, however, due to the rarity of this cancer it was not possible to include more individuals.

“Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone secreting carcinoid tumors with Cushing syndrome appear to be associated with increased metastasis to lymph nodes, higher recurrence (mostly local), and lower overall disease-free survival at 5 and 10 years than quiescent bronchial carcinoid tumors, irrespective of histologic subtype,” the researchers wrote. “Nevertheless, we contend these tumors are not biologically aggressive since these patients have distinct, prolonged survival and delayed time to recurrence.”

The researchers also noted that “the current staging system applied to these tumors raises questions about prognostic accuracy. Extrapolation may suggest that the underlying carcinoid biology may not be as important as the symptomatic hormonal physiology.” They suggested future studies may test “whether a lung-sparing surgical approach coupled with routine lymphadenectomy is an optimal intervention in this scenario when normal endocrine functioning is restored and CS sequelae resolve.”

Reference

Seastedt KP, Alyateem GA, Pittala K, et al. Characterization of outcomes by surgical management of lung neuroendocrine tumors associated with Cushing syndrome. JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(9):e2124739. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.24739

From https://www.endocrinologyadvisor.com/home/topics/general-endocrinology/cushing-syndrome-and-lungs-and-neuoendocrine-tumors/

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