Cushing’s Syndrome Diagnostic and Treatment Market See Huge Growth for New Normal

I don’t know if there’s anything of interest here – or the cost – but possibly useful to someone.

Cushing’s Syndrome Diagnostic and Treatment Market research report is the new statistical data source added by Research Cognizance.

“Cushing’s Syndrome Diagnostic and Treatment Market is growing at a High CAGR during the forecast period 2022-2029. The increasing interest of the individuals in this industry is that the major reason for the expansion of this market”.

Cushing’s Syndrome Diagnostic and Treatment Market research is an intelligence report with meticulous efforts undertaken to study the right and valuable information. The data which has been looked upon is done considering both, the existing top players and the upcoming competitors. Business strategies of the key players and the new entering market industries are studied in detail. Well explained SWOT analysis, revenue share, and contact information are shared in this report analysis.

Get the PDF Sample Copy (Including FULL TOC, Graphs, and Tables) of this report @:

https://researchcognizance.com/sample-request/896

Top Key Players Profiled in this report are:

Novartis, Orphagen Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Corcept Therapeutics

The key questions answered in this report:

  • What will be the Market Size and Growth Rate in the forecast year?
  • What are the Key Factors driving Cushing’s Syndrome Diagnostic and Treatment Market?
  • What are the Risks and Challenges in front of the market?
  • Who are the Key Vendors in Cushing’s Syndrome Diagnostic and Treatment Market?
  • What are the Trending Factors influencing the market shares?
  • What are the Key Outcomes of Porter’s five forces model?
  • Which are the Global Opportunities for Expanding the Cushing’s Syndrome Diagnostic and Treatment Market?

Various factors are responsible for the market’s growth trajectory, which are studied at length in the report. In addition, the report lists down the restraints that are posing threat to the global Cushing’s Syndrome Diagnostic and Treatment market. It also gauges the bargaining power of suppliers and buyers, threat from new entrants and product substitute, and the degree of competition prevailing in the market. The influence of the latest government guidelines is also analyzed in detail in the report. It studies the Cushing’s Syndrome Diagnostic and Treatment market’s trajectory between forecast periods.

Get up to 30% Discount on this Premium Report @:

https://researchcognizance.com/discount/896

Regions Covered in the Global Cushing’s Syndrome Diagnostic and Treatment Market Report 2022:
• The Middle East and Africa (GCC Countries and Egypt)
• North America (the United States, Mexico, and Canada)
• South America (Brazil etc.)
• Europe (Turkey, Germany, Russia UK, Italy, France, etc.)
• Asia-Pacific (Vietnam, China, Malaysia, Japan, Philippines, Korea, Thailand, India, Indonesia, and Australia)

The cost analysis of the Global Cushing’s Syndrome Diagnostic and Treatment Market has been performed while keeping in view manufacturing expenses, labor cost, and raw materials and their market concentration rate, suppliers, and price trend. Other factors such as Supply chain, downstream buyers, and sourcing strategy have been assessed to provide a complete and in-depth view of the market. Buyers of the report will also be exposed to a study on market positioning with factors such as target client, brand strategy, and price strategy taken into consideration.

The report provides insights on the following pointers:

Market Penetration: Comprehensive information on the product portfolios of the top players in the Cushing’s Syndrome Diagnostic and Treatment market.

Product Development/Innovation: Detailed insights on the upcoming technologies, R&D activities, and product launches in the market.

Competitive Assessment: In-depth assessment of the market strategies, geographic and business segments of the leading players in the market.

Market Development: Comprehensive information about emerging markets. This report analyzes the market for various segments across geographies.

Market Diversification: Exhaustive information about new products, untapped geographies, recent developments, and investments in the Cushing’s Syndrome Diagnostic and Treatment market.

Table of Content
Global Cushing’s Syndrome Diagnostic and Treatment Market Research Report
Chapter 1: Global Cushing’s Syndrome Diagnostic and Treatment Industry Overview
Chapter 2: Global Economic Impact on Cushing’s Syndrome Diagnostic and Treatment Industry
Chapter 3: Global Market Competition by Industry Producers
Chapter 4: Global Productions, Revenue (Value), according to regions
Chapter 5: Global Supplies (Production), Consumption, Export, Import, geographically
Chapter 6: Global Productions, Revenue (Value), Price Trend, Product Type
Chapter 7: Global Market Analysis, on the basis of Application
Chapter 8: Cushing’s Syndrome Diagnostic and Treatment Market Pricing Analysis
Chapter 9: Market Chain, Sourcing Strategy, and Downstream Buyers
Chapter 10: Strategies and key policies by Distributors/Suppliers/Traders
Chapter 11: Key Marketing Strategy Analysis, by Market Vendors
Chapter 12: Market Effect Factors Analysis
Chapter 13: Global Cushing’s Syndrome Diagnostic and Treatment Market Forecast

Buy Exclusive Report @:

https://researchcognizance.com/checkout/896/single_user_license

If you have any special requirements, please let us know and we will offer you the report as you want.

About Us:

Research Cognizance is an India-based market research Company, registered in Pune. Research Cognizance aims to provide meticulously researched insights into the market. We offer high-quality consulting services to our clients and help them understand prevailing market opportunities. Our database presents ample statistics and thoroughly analyzed explanations at an affordable price.

Contact Us:

Neil Thomas

116 West 23rd Street 4th Floor New York City, New York 10011

sales@researchcognizance.com

+1 7187154714

Cushing’s Syndrome: A Tale of Frequent Misdiagnosis


What is it?

Cushing’s syndrome is a condition you probably have never heard of, but for those who have it, the symptoms can be quite scary.  Worse still, getting it diagnosed can take a while.  Cushing’s syndrome occurs when the tissues of the body are exposed to high levels of cortisol for an extended amount of time. Cortisol is the hormone the body produces to help you in times of stress. It is good to have cortisol at normal levels, but when those levels get too high it causes health problems.  Although cortisol is related to stress, there is no evidence that Cushing’s syndrome is directly or indirectly caused by stress.

Cushing’s syndrome is considered rare, but that may be because it is under-reported. As a result, we don’t have good estimates for how many people have it, which is why the estimates for the actual number of cases vary so much–from 5 to 28 million people.[1] The most common age group that Cushing’s affects are those 20 to 50 years old.  It is thought that obesity, type 2 diabetes, and high blood pressure may increase your risk of developing this syndrome.[2]

What causes Cushing’s Syndrome?

Cushing’s syndrome is caused by high cortisol levels. Cushing’s disease is a specific form of Cushing’s syndrome. People with Cushing’s disease have high levels of cortisol because they have a non-cancerous (benign) tumor in the pituitary gland.  The tumor releases adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), which causes the adrenal glands to produce excessive cortisol.

Cushing’s syndrome that is not Cushing’s disease can be also caused by high cortisol levels that result from tumors in other parts of the body.  One of the causes is “ectopic ACTH syndrome.” This means that the hormone-releasing tumor is growing in an abnormal place, such as the lungs or elsewhere.  The tumors can be benign, but most frequently they are cancerous. Other causes of Cushing’s syndrome are benign tumors on the adrenal gland (adrenal adenomas) and less commonly, cancerous adrenal tumors (adrenocortical carcinomas). Both secrete cortisol, causing cortisol levels to get too high.

In some cases, a person can develop Cushing’s syndrome from taking steroid medications, such as prednisone. These drugs, known as corticosteroids, mimic the cortisol produced by the body. People who have Cushing’s syndrome from steroid medications do not develop a tumor.[3]

What are the signs and symptoms of Cushing’s Syndrome?

The appearance of people with Cushing’s syndrome starts to change as cortisol levels build up. Regardless of what kind of tumor they have or where the tumor is located, people tend to put on weight in the upper body and abdomen, with their arms and legs remaining thin; their face grows rounder (“moon face”); they develop fat around the neck; and purple or pink stretch marks appear on the abdomen, thighs, buttocks or arms. Individuals with the syndrome usually experience one or more of the following symptoms: fatigue, muscle weakness, high glucose levels, anxiety, depression, and high blood pressure. Women are more likely than men to develop Cushing’s syndrome, and when they do they may have excess hair growth, irregular or absent periods, and decreased fertility.[4]

Why is Cushing’s Syndrome so frequently misdiagnosed?

These symptoms seem distinctive, yet it is often difficult for those with Cushing’s syndrome to get an accurate diagnosis.  Why?  While Cushing’s is relatively rare, the signs and symptoms are common to many other diseases. For instance, females with excess hair growth, irregular or absent periods, decreased fertility, and high glucose levels could have polycystic ovarian syndrome, a disease that affects many more women than Cushing’s.   Also, people with metabolism problems (metabolic syndrome), who are at higher than average risk for diabetes and heart disease, also tend to have abdominal fat, high glucose levels and high blood pressure.[5]

Problems in testing for Cushing’s

When Cushing’s syndrome is suspected, a test is given to measure cortisol in the urine. This test measures the amount of free or unbound cortisol filtered by the kidneys and then released over a 24 hour period through the urine. Since the amount of urinary free cortisol (UFC) can vary a lot from one test to another—even in people who don’t have Cushing’s—experts recommend that the test be repeated 3 times. A diagnosis of Cushing’s is given when a person’s UFC level is 4 times the upper limit of normal.  One study found this test to be highly accurate, with a sensitivity of 95% (meaning that 95% of people who have the disease will be correctly diagnosed by this test) and a specificity of 98% (meaning that 98% of  people who do not have the disease will have a test score confirming that).[6] However, a more recent study estimated the sensitivity as only between 45%-71%, but with 100% specificity.[7]  This means that the test is very accurate at telling people who don’t have Cushing’s that they don’t have it, but not so good at identifying the people who really do have Cushing’s.  The authors that have analyzed these studies advise that patients use the UFC test together with other tests to confirm the diagnosis, but not as the initial screening test.[8]  

Other common tests that may be used to diagnose Cushing’s syndrome are: 1) the midnight plasma cortisol and late-night salivary cortisol measurements, and 2) the low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (LDDST).  The first test measures the amount of cortisol levels in the blood and saliva at night.  For most people, their cortisol levels drop at night, but people with Cushing’s syndrome have cortisol levels that remain high all night. In the LDDST, dexamethasone is given to stop the production of ACTH.  Since ACTH produces cortisol, people who don’t have Cushing’s syndrome will get lower cortisol levels in the blood and urine. If after giving dexamethasone, the person’s cortisol levels remain high, then they are diagnosed with Cushing’s.[9]

Even when these tests, alone or in combination, are used to diagnose Cushing’s, they don’t explain the cause. They also don’t distinguish between Cushing’s syndrome, and something called pseudo-Cushing state.

Pseudo-Cushing state

Some people have an abnormal amount of cortisol that is caused by something unrelated to Cushing’s syndrome such as polycystic ovarian syndrome, depression, pregnancy, and obesity. This is called pseudo-Cushing state.  Their high levels of cortisol and resulting Cushing-like symptoms can be reversed by treating whatever disease is causing the abnormal cortisol levels. In their study, Dr. Giacomo Tirabassi and colleagues recommend using the desmopressin (DDAVP) test to differentiate between pseudo-Cushing state and Cushing’s.  The DDAVP test is especially helpful in people who, after being given dexamethasone to stop cortisol production, continue to have moderate levels of urinary free cortisol (UFC) and midnight serum cortisol.[10]

An additional test that is often used to determine if one has pseudo-Cushing state or Cushing’s syndrome is the dexamethasone-corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) test. Patients are injected with a hormone that causes cortisol to be produced while also being given another hormone to stop cortisol from being produced. This combination of hormones should make the patient have low cortisol levels, and this is what happens in people with pseudo-Cushing state.  People with Cushing’s syndrome, however, will still have high levels of cortisol after being given this combination of hormones.[11]

How can Cushing’s be treated?

Perhaps because Cushing’s is rare or under-diagnosed, few treatments are available. There are several medications that are typically the first line of treatment.  None of the medications can cure  Cushing’s, so they are usually taken until other treatments are given to cure Cushing’s, and only after that if the other treatment fails.

The most common treatment for Cushing’s disease is transsphenoidal surgery, which requires the surgeon to reach the pituitary gland through the nostril or upper lip and remove the tumor.  Radiation may also be used instead of surgery to shrink the tumor.  In patients whose Cushing’s is caused by ectopic ACTH syndrome, all cancerous cells need to be wiped out through surgery, chemotherapy, radiation or a variety of other methods, depending on the location of the tumor. Surgery is also recommended for adrenal tumors.  If Cushing’s syndrome is being caused by corticosteroid (steroid medications) usage, the treatment is to stop or lower your dosage.[12]

Medications to control Cushing’s (before treatment or if treatment fails)

According to a 2014 study in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, almost no new treatment options have been introduced in the last decade. Researchers and doctors have focused most of their efforts on improving existing treatments aimed at curing Cushing’s. Unfortunately, medications used to control Cushing’s prior to treatment and when treatment fails are not very effective.

Many of the medications approved by the FDA for Cushing’s syndrome and Cushing’s disease, such as pasireotide, metyrapone, and mitotane, have not been extensively studied.  The research presented to the FDA by the makers of these three drugs did not even make clear what an optimal dose was.[13] In another 2014 study, published in Clinical Epidemiology, researchers examined these three same drugs, along with ten others, and found that only pasireotide had moderate evidence to support its approval.  The other drugs, many of which are not FDA approved for Cushing’s patients, had little or no available evidence to show that they work.[14] They can be sold, however, because the FDA has approved them for other diseases.  Unfortunately, that means that neither the FDA nor anyone else has proven the drugs are safe or effective for Cushing patients.

Pasireotide, the one medication with moderate evidence supporting its approval, caused hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) in 75% of patients who participated in the main study for the medication’s approval for Cushing’s.  As a result of developing hyperglycemia, almost half (46%) of the participants had to go on blood-sugar lowering medications. The drug was approved by the FDA for Cushing’s anyway because of the lack of other effective treatments.

Other treatments used for Cushing’s have other risks.  Ketoconazole, believed to be the most commonly prescribed medications for Cushing’s syndrome, has a black box warning due to its effect on the liver that can lead to a liver transplant or death.  Other side effects include: headache, nausea, irregular periods, impotence, and decreased libido. Metyrapone can cause acne, hirsutism, and hypertension. Mitotane can cause neurological and gastrointestinal symptoms such as dizziness, nausea, and diarrhea and can cause an abortion in pregnant women.[15]

So, what should you do if you suspect you have Cushing’s Syndrome?

Cushing’s syndrome is a serious disease that needs to be treated, but there are treatment options available for you if you are diagnosed with the disease. If the symptoms in this article sound familiar, it’s time for you to go see your doctor. Make an appointment with your general practitioner, and explain your symptoms to him or her.  You will most likely be referred to an endocrinologist, who will be able to better understand your symptoms and recommend an appropriate course of action.

 

All articles are reviewed and approved by Dr. Diana Zuckerman and other senior staff.

  1. Nieman, Lynette K. Epidemiology and clinical manifestations of Cushing’s syndrome, 2014. UpToDate: Wolters Kluwer Health
  2. Cushing’s syndrome/ disease, 2013. American Association of Neurological Surgeons. http://www.aans.org/Patient%20Information/Conditions%20and%20Treatments/Cushings%20Disease.aspx
  3. Cushing’s syndrome, 2012. National Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases: National Institutes of Health. http://endocrine.niddk.nih.gov/pubs/cushings/cushings.aspx#treatment
  4. Cushing’s syndrome, 2012. National Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases: National Institutes of Health. http://endocrine.niddk.nih.gov/pubs/cushings/cushings.aspx#treatment
  5. Cushing’s syndrome, 2012. National Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases: National Institutes of Health. http://endocrine.niddk.nih.gov/pubs/cushings/cushings.aspx#treatment
  6. Newell-Price, John, Peter Trainer, Michael Besser and Ashley Grossman. The diagnosis and differential diagnosis of Cushing’s syndrome and pseudo-Cushing’s states, 1998. Endocrine Reviews: Endocrine Society
  7. Carroll, TB and JW Findling. The diagnosis of Cushing’s syndrome, 2010. Reviews in Endocrinology and Metabolic Disorders: Springer
  8. Ifedayo, AO and AF Olufemi. Urinary free cortisol in the diagnosis of Cushing’s syndrome: How useful?, 2013. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice: Medknow.
  9. Cushing’s syndrome, 2012. National Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases: National Institutes of Health. http://endocrine.niddk.nih.gov/pubs/cushings/cushings.aspx#treatment
  10. Tirabassi, Giacomo, Emanuela Faloia, Roberta Papa, Giorgio Furlani, Marco Boscaro, and Giorgio Arnaldi. Use of the Desmopressin test in the differential diagnosis of pseudo-Cushing state from Cushing’s disease, 2013. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism: Endocrine Society.
  11. Cushing’s syndrome, 2012. National Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases: National Institutes of Health. http://endocrine.niddk.nih.gov/pubs/cushings/cushings.aspx#treatment
  12. Cushing’s syndrome, 2012. National Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases: National Institutes of Health. http://endocrine.niddk.nih.gov/pubs/cushings/cushings.aspx#treatment
  13. Tirabassi, Giacomo, Emanuela Faloia, Roberta Papa, Giorgio Furlani, Marco Boscaro, and Giorgio Arnaldi. Use of the Desmopressin test in the differential diagnosis of pseudo-Cushing state from Cushing’s disease, 2013. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism: Endocrine Society.
  14. Galdelha, Monica R. and Leonardo Vieira Neto. Efficacy of medical treatment in Cushing’s disease: a systematic review, 2014. Clinical Endocrinology: John Wiley & Sons.
  15. Adler, Gail. Cushing syndrome treatment & management, 2014. MedScape: WebMD.

Adapted from https://www.center4research.org/cushings-syndrome-frequent-misdiagnosis/

Preclinical Data for ALD1613 at ENDO 2016

Alder BioPharmaceuticals, Inc. (“Alder”) (NASDAQ:ALDR), today announced that preclinical data on ALD1613, its anti-adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) antibody for the treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and Cushing’s disease, were presented today by Andrew L. Feldhaus, Ph.D., in a poster presentation at ENDO 2016, the Endocrine Society’s 98th Annual Meeting in Boston, Mass. The presentation entitled “A Novel Anti-ACTH Antibody (ALD1613) Neutralizes ACTH Activity and Reduces Glucocorticoids in Rats and Nonhuman Primates” was presented as a late-breaking abstract.

Key Points:

  • In vitro, ALD1613 inhibits ACTH-induced cortisol secretion in a mouse adrenal cell line.
  • ALD1613 administration in rats with artificially elevated ACTH and corticosterone levels resulted in a rapid and durable reduction of plasma corticosterone levels.
  • In non-human primates, ALD1613 demonstrated stable and durable reductions in plasma cortisol levels by >50%.

Quote:

Randall C. Schatzman, Ph.D., President and Chief Executive Officer of Alder, said, “Existing therapeutic options for patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia and Cushing’s disease comprise treatments that provide limited disease control and involve significant side effects. We believe these limitations indicate a clear need for new therapies such as ALD1613, which targets ACTH to diminish the overproduction of cortisol. The data presented today demonstrate the capacity of ALD1613 to reduce corticosteroid levels in preclinical settings. We intend to use these studies as part of an IND filing that we plan to submit to the FDA in the second half of 2016.”

From https://globenewswire.com/news-release/2016/04/03/825231/0/en/Alder-Presents-Preclinical-Data-for-ALD1613-at-ENDO-2016.html

Novartis Pharmaceuticals Health Policy Monthly Update : October

Presidential Candidates Release Proposals to Impact Drug Prices

Democratic candidates for President Hillary Clinton and Sen. Bernie Sanders introduced separate proposals that would impact pharmaceutical pricing and potentially inhibit innovation. The proposals include providing Medicaid-level rebates in Medicare Part D; allowing importation of drugs from other countries; reducing the exclusivity period for biologics; requiring negotiation with the federal government for Part D rebates; preventing certain patent settlements between innovator and generics companies; requiring pharmaceutical companies to invest a specific percentage of revenue in R&D; removing tax deductions for direct-to-consumer advertising; and pushing drug companies to price based on the value of treatments assessed via comparative effective analysis.
 
House Speaker Resigns, Government Shutdown Averted

John Boehner, Speaker of the House of Representatives, announced that he will resign from Congress, effective October 31. With his resignation, Speaker Boehner was able to put forth a bill to avert a partial government shutdown that would have begun October 1, 2015 if Congress had not passed legislation to provide funding to keep the government functioning. Previously, Speaker Boehner had faced threats to his leadership position if he put forward the bill, which included funding for Planned Parenthood. On September 30, legislation providing funding for the government until December 11 was passed by both the House and Senate and was signed by President Obama.
 
NCQA Releases Health Plan Ratings

The National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA) released a new health plan rating system, using a 1.0 to 5.0 scale with 5.0 indicating higher performance. This new rating system replaces their previous health plan ranking system. Evaluating more than 1,000 plans, including commercial, Medicaid, and Medicare Part D plans, the new rating system assesses three major performance categories, consumer satisfaction, prevention, and treatment and it provides a simple way for consumers to gauge the quality of care being provided by a health plan. The new plan rating system shows that Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin had the highest percentage of plans receiving a 4.5 or 5.0 rating.

 
CMS Announces Medicare Advantage Value-Based Insurance Design

On September 1, 2015, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) announced the Medicare Advantage Value-Based Insurance Design (VBID) Model, which will test the hypothesis that giving Medicare Advantage plans flexibility to offer targeted extra supplemental benefits or reduced cost sharing to enrollees who have specified chronic conditions can lead to higher quality and more cost-efficient care. The VBID Model will begin January 1, 2017 and run for five years. CMS will test the model in seven states: Arizona, Indiana, Iowa, Massachusetts, Oregon, Pennsylvania, and Tennessee. Upon approval from CMS, eligible Medicare Advantage plans in these states can offer varied plan benefit design for enrollees who fall into the following clinical categories: diabetes, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), past stroke, hypertension, coronary artery disease, and mood disorders.
 
Medicare Advantage and Part D Markets Largely Stable from 2015-2016

On September 21, 2015, CMS announced that premiums for Medicare Advantage (MA) plans will remain stable in 2016. CMS estimates that the average MA premium will decrease by $0.31 next year, from $32.91 on average in 2015 to $32.60 in 2016. Enrollment in MA is projected to increase to approximately 17.4 million enrollees, which represents about 32 percent of the Medicare population. Earlier this year, CMS announced that the average basic Medicare prescription drug plan premium in 2016 is projected to remain stable at $32.50 per month. The Annual Election Period for Medicare health and drug plans begins on October 15, 2015 and ends December 7, 2015.
 
CMS Announces the Enhanced Medication Therapy Management Model

On September 28, 2015, the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation (CMMI) announced a five-year model to test approaches to improve Medicare Part D beneficiary medication use. The Part D Enhanced Medication Therapy Management (MTM) Model will test whether changes to the Part D program can help to better align the interests of plan sponsors with those of the federal government. Eligible basic stand-alone prescription drug plans (PDPs), upon approval from CMS, can vary the intensity and types of MTM items and services based on beneficiary risk level and seek out a range of strategies to individualize beneficiary and prescriber outreach and engagement. An initial five-year performance period will begin January 1, 2017 in five Part D regions spanning 11 states: Region 7 (Virginia), Region 11 (Florida), Region 21 (Louisiana), Region 25 (Iowa, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming), and Region 28 (Arizona).

 
HHS Releases Latest Exchange Enrollment Numbers

The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) has released their latest enrollment numbers for both the federal and state exchanges. As is to be expected, actual enrollment is down slightly from the March report. Almost 9.9 million people had paid their first month’s premium as of June 30, slightly above the projected enrollment of 9.1 million people. Of those paying their premiums, 84%, or 8.3 million, received premium tax credits and 5.5 million people also received cost sharing subsidies. Premium tax credits averaged $270 a month. Approximately 423,000 people had their 2015 coverage terminated for failure to provide the necessary documentation of citizenship or legal immigrant status. More than 6.7 million people enrolled in a silver tiered plan, 2.1 million enrolled in bronze or catastrophic, almost 700,000 selected a gold tier and 332,000 picked platinum. In early September, CMS reported that Medicaid and CHIP enrollment had reached 72 million. The increase in both public and private insurance programs has dropped the national uninsured rate to below 10%.

 
HHS Issues Proposed Rule Regarding ACA’s Non-discrimination Provisions

HHS issued a draft rule providing clarity to the Affordable Care Act’s prohibition on discrimination in insurance coverage on the basis of race, color, age, national origin, sex, and disability. The proposed rule covers consumers’ rights under the ACA, obligations of covered entities, the inclusion of gender identify discrimination as a form of sex discrimination, requirements for effective communication to those with disabilities, and language assistance for those with limited English proficiency. Discriminatory practices in benefit plan design, marketing and cost sharing are prohibited. The proposed regulations apply to health insurers participating in the federal and state-based exchanges, Medicare Advantage and Medicaid programs. These protections are extended to all individual and group products sold by a participating insurer. As drafted, the proposed regulations are a step forward in eliminating discriminatory practices that prevent patients with chronic conditions from accessing necessary medication but opportunities for more specific language in the final regulations remain.

FDA Puts Strict Limits on Oral Ketoconazole Use

By John Gever, Deputy Managing Editor, MedPage Today

SILVER SPRING, Md. — Oral ketoconazole (Nizoral) should never be used as first-line therapy for any type of fungal infection because of the risk of liver toxicity and interactions with other drugs, the FDA said Friday.

The agency ordered a series of label changes and a new medication guide for patients that emphasize the risks, which also include adrenal insufficiency. It noted that the restrictions apply only to the oral formulation, not topical versions.

Late Thursday, the chief advisory body for the FDA’s European counterpart went further. The EU’s Committee on Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) recommended that member nations pull oral ketoconazole from their markets entirely.

Both the FDA and the CHMP cited studies indicating high risks of severe, acute liver injury in patients taking the drug. Studies using the FDA’s adverse event reporting system and a similar database in the U.K. indicated that liver toxicity was more common with oral ketoconazole than with other anti-fungals in the azole class.

The FDA also said that oral ketoconazole “is one of the most potent inhibitors” of the CYP3A4 enzyme. This effect can lead to sometimes life-threatening interactions with other drugs metabolized by CYP3A4, and also to adrenal insufficiency, since the enzyme also catalyzes release of adrenal steroid hormones.

“This accounts for clinically important endocrinologic abnormalities observed in some patients (particularly when the drug is administered at high dosages), including gynecomastia in men and menstrual irregularities in women,” the FDA said.

The only indication for oral ketoconazole still supported by the FDA is for use in life-threatening mycoses in patients who cannot tolerate other anti-fungal medications or when such medications are unavailable.

In such instances, the FDA said, physicians should assess liver function before starting the drug. It is contraindicated in patients with pre-existing liver disease, and patients should be instructed not to drink alcohol or use other potentially hepatotoxic drugs.

Adrenal function should also be monitored in patients using the drug.

The CHMP also indicated the topical formulations of ketoconazole should stay on the market, but it found no basis for keeping the oral form available for any purpose.

“Taking into account the increased rate of liver injury and the availability of alternative anti-fungal treatments, the CHMP concluded that the benefits did not outweigh the risks,” the panel indicated in a statement.

It recommended that physicians stop prescribing oral ketoconazole and that they should review alternatives in patients currently receiving the drug. The committee also said that patients now taking oral ketoconazole “make a non-urgent appointment” with their physicians to discuss their treatment.

From MedPage Today

%d bloggers like this: