8 medical conditions that could cause sudden weight gain

Weight gain can be associated with hormonal conditions, mood disorders, or other physiological factors. A sudden and unexplained weight gain could be your body’s way of signalling an underlying medical issue that needs to be addressed. For the sake of health and long-term well-being, it is important to differentiate between a few harmless extra kilos and a fluctuation that could be hiding a bigger problem. You can only be certain after consulting a healthcare practitioner.

If the weighing scale says your numbers are up but you haven’t changed your eating and exercise habits, you might consider any of the 8 medical conditions:

1.     Hypothyroidism The American Thyroid Association reveals that one in eight women will develop a thyroid disorder during her lifetime. Hypothyroidism refers to an underactive thyroid. The thyroid controls several body functions and your metabolism is one of them. If you’re not producing enough thyroid hormone your body can’t burn as much energy. Symptoms appear throughout your system. They include: weight gain, exhaustion, drier skin, thinner hair, bloating, muscle weakness, constantly feeling cold, and constipation. Once diagnosis is confirmed a doctor can prescribe an oral replacement for thyroid hormone that can relieve symptoms within weeks.

2.     Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) One in 10 women of childbearing age undergoes PCOS. It is an endocrine disorder characterised by an imbalance in the sex hormones oestrogen and testosterone.  This results in irregular periods, acne and even facial hair growth. The disorder also disrupts the way the body uses insulin — which is the hormone responsible for converting carbohydrates into energy. As a result the sugars and starches you consume are stored as fat instead of energy, thus, weight gain. PCOS has no cure but women who have it can manage their symptoms with lifestyle changes and medication. A doctor’s consultation will help you find an appropriate method.

3. Insomnia Avoid fake news! Subscribe to the Standard SMS service and receive factual, verified breaking news as it happens. Text the word ‘NEWS’ to 22840 Sleep deprivation can negatively impact both your metabolism and your hunger hormones. Sleeping too little increases ghrelin, the hormone that signals the body that it’s time to eat, while lowering leptin, the hormone that says you are full. The result: increased cravings and snacking to get more energy through the day. Insomnia increases impulsive eating. A 2018 study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition found that the right amount of sleep could mean consuming up to 10 fewer grams of sugar throughout the day.

4.     Tumours Weight gain around your belly as opposed to your lower body or other areas can be more dangerous to your health. Large pelvic area tumours like uterine or ovarian tumours can inflate the abdomen the way excess fat does. In some cases they can also be cancerous. In addition to weight gain, symptoms of ovarian or uterine tumours include vaginal bleeding, lower back pain, constipation and painful intercourse. But these signs are common for other conditions as well so it‘s worth confirming with a doctor to rule out any possible complications.

5. Peri menopause and menopause Perimenopause -the transition period to menopause can start as early as a woman’s mid-thirties, but usually starts in their forties. This period triggers hormones like oestrogen to rise and fall unevenly, which can cue weight gain in some women. Genetics are a good starting point on how your body experiences these changes, so it would be helpful to look into how it affected your mother and other older women in your family. Other signs of perimenopause are mood swings, irregular periods, hot flashes, and changes in libido. Age also contributes to loss of muscle mass and increase in body fat. An Ob-Gyn should be able to talk you through these changes and recommend management options.

6.     Mood disorders Depression and anxiety can result in fatigue, lack of focus and irritability. Some people cope with anxious or sad feelings by mindlessly munching on food they don’t really need. Additionally chronic stress throws your body into fight-or-flight mode, leading to a surge of adrenaline, as well as a heavy dose of the hormone cortisol –responsible for restoring energy reserves and storing fat.

7. Cushing syndrome Sometimes tumours on the pituitary or adrenal glands can contribute to a condition known as Cushing’s disease which is characterised by high levels of cortisol in the blood. Taking long term steroids could also result in this disease. Patients with Cushing syndrome will experience rapid weight gain in the face, abdomen and chest. They also display slender arms and legs compared to the heavy weight in the core of the body. Other symptoms include: high blood pressure, mood swings, osteoporosis, discoloured stretch marks, acne, and fragile skin. Depending on the cause, Cushing‘s disease can be treated in a different ways.

8. New medication Before starting on any new prescription medication, ask your doctor if weight gain is a possible side effect. Birth control pills may lead to weight gain depending on the brand, dosage, and the person’s hormonal levels. Psychiatric medications, especially for depression and bipolar disorder, have been known to cause weight gain, as they target the brain. Similarly, taking insulin to manage diabetes or medications that treat high blood pressure can also lead to extra kilos, so staying active and sticking to a strict meal plan can help you take insulin without unnecessarily weight gain.

Adapted from https://www.standardmedia.co.ke/lifestyle/article/2001297348/8-medical-conditions-that-could-cause-sudden-weight-gain

Pituitary Dysfunction as a Result of Traumatic Brain Injury

A victim of brain injury can experience many consequences and complications as a result of brain damage. Unfortunately, the problems caused by a traumatic brain injury can extend even beyond what most people think of as the standard symptoms of a brain injury, like mood change and cognitive impairment. One issue which can occur is pituitary dysfunction. If the pituitary gland is damaged due to injury to the brain, the consequences can be dramatic as the pituitary gland works together with the hypothalamus to control every hormonal aspect of a person’s body.

Pituitary dysfunction as a result of a brain injury can be difficult to diagnose, as you may not immediately connect your symptoms to the head injury you experienced. If you did suffer injury to the pituitary gland, you need to know about it so you can get proper treatment. If someone else caused your brain injury to occur, you also want to know about your pituitary dysfunction so you can receive compensation for costs and losses associated with this serious health problem.

The pituitary is a small area of the center of your brain that is about the size of the uvula. The pituitary is surrounded and guarded by bone, but it does hang down.  When it becomes damaged as a result of a brain injury, the damage normally occurs as a result of the fact the pituitary was affected by reduced by reduced blood flow. It can also be harmed directly from the trauma, and only a tiny amount of damage can cause profound consequences.

Many of the important hormones that your body needs are controlled by the pituitary working with the hypothalamus. If the pituitary is damaged, the result can include a deficiency of Human Growth Hormone (HGH). This deficiency can affect your heart and can impact bone development.  Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) can also be affected, which could result in hypothyroidism. Sex hormones (gonodotropin); Adrenocorticotopic hormone; and many other hormones could be impacted as well, causing fertility problems; muscle loss; sexual dysfunction; kidney problems; fatigue; or even death.

Unfortunately, problems with the pituitary gland may not always be visible on MRIs or other imaging tests because the pituitary is so small. Endocrinologists who handle hormone therapy frequently are not familiar with brain injuries, and may not make the connection that your brain injury was the cause of the problem.

If you begin to experience hormonal issues following an accident, you should be certain to get an accurate diagnosis to determine if your brain injury played a role. If it did, those responsible for causing the accident could be responsible for compensating you for the harm you have experienced to your pituitary and to the body systems which malfunction as a result of your new hormonal issues.

Nelson Blair Langer Engle, PLLC

From http://www.nblelaw.com/posts/pituitary-dysfunction-result-of-traumatic-brain-injury

Depressed? Anxious? It Could Be An Early Symptom Of These Illnesses

In the January 2015 edition of Psychotherapy and Psychsomatics, a group of Italian researchers explored whether depression, anxiety, and other psychiatric mood disorders might be early symptoms of medical disorders, as opposed to being “just” psychological symptoms.

Their research showed that depression in particular can be a strong indicator of other forms of illness, finding it “to be the most common affective prodrome [early symptom] of medical disorders and was consistently reported in Cushing’s syndrome, hypothyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, pancreatic and lung cancer, myocardial infarction, Wilson’s disease, and AIDS.”

Read the entire article here: Depressed? Anxious? It Could Be An Early Symptom Of These Illnesses.

Genetics Research Demystifies Fatal Glandular Disease (Cushing’s)

Researchers at Tokyo Institute of Technology have identified genetic mutations responsible for Cushing’s disease, a potentially fatal glandular condition.

Symptoms of Cushing’s disease include weight gain, muscular weakness, mood and reproductive problems, and if untreated patients can die from the resulting infections and cardiovascular problems. Although first described by Harvey Cushing back in 1932, as Martin Reincke and colleagues in Germany and Japan point out in their latest Nature Genetics report, the mechanism causing the disease “has remained obscure since its first description”. Now by sequencing the tissues responsible the researchers have identified clusters of mutations that cause Cushing’s disease as well as how these mutations bring the disease into effect.

The disease arises from benign tumours on glandular pituitary tissue – corticotroph adenomas – which excessively secrete the hormone adrenocorticotropin (ACTH). Previous studies sought to identify mutations that might cause the disease through sequencing candidate genes and microarray studies, but these made little progress. Instead, the researchers applied a particular type of DNA sequencing known as ‘exome sequencing’ to the pituitary corticotroph adenoma.

The collaboration included researchers from Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich, the University of Würzburg, the Max Planck Institute, the Helmholtz-Center Munich, Universität Hamburg , Universität Erlangen in Germany and Tokyo Institute of Technology in Japan. The research team exome-sequenced samples from 10 patients with Cushing’s disease and noticed a small number of protein altering mutations in the adenoma tissue. The researchers further identified the gene harbouring the mutations as ubiquitin-specific protease 8 (USP8), and were able to pinpoint the region of USP8 prone to mutation in Cushing’s disease.

Previous research observations of Cushing’s disease have highlighted strong expression of another gene, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). By examining EGFR in HeLa cells expressing USP8, the researchers behind this latest research demonstrated that this was the result of USP8 mutations inhibiting downregulation of EGFR.

The researchers conclude that their results “not only identify the first of so far enigmatic driver mutations in corticotroph adenomas but also elucidate a novel mechanism by which the EGFR pathway is constitutively activated in human tumours.” Further research will be required for a more detailed understanding of genetic onset of the disease.

Reference

Martin Reincke etal, Nature Genetics, Advance Online Publication 9 December 2014

Background

Cushing’s disease adenomas

The adenomas that cause Cushing’s disease are benign tumours of epithelial tissue that grow on the pituitary gland. The tumours comprise corticotroph cells, a hormone producing cell that secretes asdrenocorticotropin (ACTH). While the pathological role of ACTH hypersecretion was already known, previous studies had been unable to identify the molecular mechanisms behind these hormone processes that lead to Cushing’s disease.

Exome sequencing

When RNA is processed by splicing, parts of the RNA – the introns – are removed. The remaining RNA, the exons, are collectively referred to as the exome.

While DNA sequencing finds the sequence of proteins for the whole DNA, by focusing on the exons, exome sequencing provides information specifically on the protein-coding genes. Changes to these genes are more likely to have significant ramifications on the organism.

Ubiquitination and USP8

Ubiquitination is a reversible protein modification process that occurs by means of a small protein called ubitquitin, which is found in all eukaryotic cells (cells containing a nucleus and other structures enclosed within a membrane). Ubiquitination regulates the fate and function of proteins.

USP8 is a ubiquitin-specific protease enzyme that can remove ubitquitin molecules from target proteins. The discovery of a high number of mutations in the USP8 gene in Cushing’s disease prompted the researchers to make further investigations on the mutant USP8 enzymes at biochemical and cellular levels. From these studies they could identify the mechanisms behind the mutations and the effect on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a gene that mediates the synthesis of an ACTH precursor.

Figure (click to view larger)

corticotroph

Figure caption: Schematic representation showing the proposed mechanisms how USP8 mutations lead to increased ACTH secretion and tumorigenesis in corticotroph.

Further information

Yukiko Tokida, Asuka Suzuki

Center for Public Affairs and Communications, Tokyo Institute of Technology

2-12-1, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550, Japan

E-mail: media@jim.titech.ac.jp

URL: http://www.titech.ac.jp/english/

Tel: +81-3-5734-2975     Fax: +81-3-5734-3661

About Tokyo Institute of Technology

As one of Japan’s top universities, Tokyo Institute of Technology seeks to contribute to civilization, peace and prosperity in the world, and aims at developing global human capabilities par excellence through pioneering research and education in science and technology, including industrial and social management. To achieve this mission, we have an eye on educating highly moral students to acquire not only scientific expertise but also expertise in the liberal arts, and a balanced knowledge of the social sciences and humanities, all while researching deeply from basics to practice with academic mastery. Through these activities, we wish to contribute to global sustainability of the natural world and the support of human life.

 

Source: Tokyo Institute of Technology, Center for Public Affairs and Communications: http://www.healthcanal.com/genetics-birth-defects/58155-tokyo-institute-of-technology-research-genetics-research-demystifies-fatal-glandular-disease.html

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