Hormonal Imbalance – Indication of Pituitary Gland Tumors

Patna: Improper functioning of the Pituitary gland usually results in excess or under production of hormones that leads to a formation of mass called tumor, which can be benign or malignant. Such tumors in this gland can create numerous serious medical conditions by interfering with the normal functioning of the endocrine system and pituitary gland.

 

“Though the occurrence of tumor is more likely after the age of 30 years, it still can impact at an early age. The survival rates of tumor due to its complicated location also depend on other factors like the patient’s age, type and size of tumor. Mostly, pituitary gland tumors are non cancerous but the exact causes are unknown. Some of them are hereditary and some are caused by a rare genetic disorder called as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. This disorder can also lead to over-activity or enlargement of 3 different endocrine-related glands, which also includes the pituitary gland. “Dr Aditya Gupta, Director, Neurosurgery, Agrim institute for neuro sciences, Artemis Hospital

 

Diagnosis at an early stage can help the treatment procedure to be totally non-invasive with the use of advances technology called as Cyberknife. Cyberknife which is the most advanced radiation therapy is completely non-invasive therapy available for the treatment of benign as well as malignant tumors. This therapy works the best for some pituitary tumors that are upto 2 cm in size and is a very powerful and effective technique for treating patients suffering from early stage primary and medically inoperable tumors. The treatment is safe to administer and also offers a new option in patients with recurrent disease or a single disease in the body.

 

“Highlights of the therapy being ease of access to any complex location without the need to use the surgical knife, precision of the beam with high dose radiation to the tumor location, and the safety. It is a day care procedure without pain and risk, and the patient can get back to daily chores as soon as the session gets over which depends on the tumor typically (30 minutes) and hence eliminates the requirement of any hospital stay.” Added Dr Gupta

 

Depending upon the hormonal variations in the body, there can be a variety of symptoms. The most common symptoms include Headaches, vision problem, tiredness, mood changes, irritability, changes in menstrual cycle in women, impotence, infertility, Inappropriate breast growth or production of breast milk, Cushing’s syndrome which is a combination of weight gain, high blood pressure, diabetes, and easy bruising, the enlargement of the extremities or limbs, thickening of the skull and jaw caused by too much growth hormone.

 

Pituitary gland, which is also known as the master gland has the most important function of producing hormones that regulates the critical organs of the body including thyroid, adrenal glands, ovaries and testes. It is a small pea-size gland located behind the eyes and below the front of the brain. Some tumors produce hormones known as functional tumors, and others can cause the glands to secrete too few or too many hormones. Also if the tumor pressed on the nearby structure, for instance the optic nerve, can also limit a person’s vision.

 

Moreover the procedure makes use of the most sophisticated image guidance technique to focus high doses of radiation directly to the tumor spot which eliminates the chances to damage the healthy cells as in any other methods of treatment.

 

“Each session of treatment usually lasts for about 30 -50 min and is cost effective with a success rate of 98% in such complicated tumors. Patients with pituitary adenomas receive stereotactic radio surgery with CyberKnife and are followed up for more than 12 months. After 2-3 weeks of therapy patients are monitored for positive responses and ensure there is no recurrence of any mass. Stereotactic radio surgery with the CyberKnife is effective and safe against pituitary adenomas.” Said Dr Gupta

From https://www.apnnews.com/hormonal-imbalance-indication-of-pituitary-gland-tumors-2/

BLA Instead of Second Pituitary Surgery

One of the problems that can arise with a BLA (bilateral adrenalectomy) instead of a repeat pituitary surgery for Cushing’s recurrence is Adrenal Insufficiency.  Another is Nelson’s Syndrome.

Nelson’s syndrome is a rare disorder that occurs in some patients with Cushing’s disease patients as a result of removing both adrenal glands. In Nelson’s syndrome, the pituitary tumor continues to grow and release the hormone ACTH.

This invasive tumor enlarges, often causing visual loss, pituitary failure and headaches. One key characteristic of Nelson’s disease is dark skin pigmentation, resulting from the skin pigment cells responding to the release of ACTH.


AnchorNelson’s Syndrome: Physiology

Nelson’s syndrome can develop as a result of a specific treatment (bilateral adrenalecomy) for the pituitary disease called Cushing’s disease. The harmful effects of Cushing’s disease are due to the excessive amount of the hormone cortisol produced by the adrenal glands.

To treat Cushing’s disease, your doctor may recommend removing the adrenal glands, during a procedure called a bilateral adrenalectomy. The procedure will stop cortisol production and provide relief. However, the procedure does not treat the actual tumor. Rapid growth of the pituitary tumor can occur.

In about 15-25 percent of patients who had a bilateral adrenalectomy, Nelson’ syndrome develops within one to four years.


Darkening of Skin Color - Nelson's Syndrome SymptomAnchor

Nelson’s Syndrome: Symptoms

The most obvious symptom of Nelson’s syndrome is the darkening of the skin color (hyperpigmentation).

Macroadenomas

Macroadenomas are large pituitary tumors. Large tumors can compress surrounding structures, primarily the normal pituitary gland and optic (visual) pathways, causing symptoms. The symptoms that result from the compression are independent of the effects of excess growth hormone secretion.
This may result in vision problems:

  • Vision loss. This occurs when macroadenomas grow upward into the brain cavity, compressing the optic chiasm.
  • A loss of the outer peripheral vision, called a bitemporal hemianopsia Bitemporal Hemianopsia - Symptom of Nelson's Syndrome
    • When severe, a patient can only see what is directly in front of them.
    • Many patients do not become aware of their visual loss until it is quite severe.
  • Other visual problems can include:
    • Loss of visual acuity (blurry vision), especially if the macroadenoma grows forward and compresses an optic nerve.
    • Colors not perceived as bright as usual

Pituitary Failure or Hypopituitarism

Increased compression of the normal gland can cause hormone insufficiency, called hypopituitarism. The symptoms depend upon which hormone is involved.


AnchorNelson’s Syndrome: Diagnosis

Most patients with Nelson’s syndrome have undergone a bilateral adrenalectomy for the treatment of Cushing’s disease

Diagnostic testing includes:

  • Hormone testing. Typically, the blood ACTH levels are very elevated. Learn more about hormone testing at the UCLA Pituitary Tumor Program.
  • MRI imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the pituitary gland can detect the presence of an adenoma, a pituitary tumor.

AnchorNelson’s Syndrome: Treatment Options

Surgery for Nelson's Syndrome

Treating Nelson’s syndrome effectively requires an experienced team of experts. Specialists at the UCLA’s Pituitary Tumor Program have years of experience managing the complex coordination and care for treatment of Nelsons’ syndrome.

Treatment options include:

AnchorSurgery for Nelson’s Syndrome

Surgical removal of the pituitary adenoma is the ideal treatment; however, it is not always possible. Surgical removal requires advanced surgical approaches, including delicate procedures involving the cavernous sinus.

If surgery is required, typically the best procedure is through a nasal approach. Our neurosurgeons who specialize in pituitary tumor surgery are experts in the minimally invasive expanded endoscopic endonasal technique. This procedure removes the tumor while minimizing complications, hospital time and discomfort. This advanced technique requires specialized training and equipment.

Very large tumors that extend into the brain cavity may require opening the skull (craniotomy) to access the tumor. Our surgeons are also experts in the minimally invasive “key-hole” craniotomy, utilizing a small incision hidden in the eyebrow.

AnchorRadiation Therapy for Nelson’s Syndrome

Radiation Therapy for Nelson's SyndromeRadiation therapy can be effective in controlling the growth of the tumor. However, if you received radiation therapy in the past, additional radiation may not be safe.

Our Pituitary Tumor Program offers the latest in radiation therapy, including stereotactic radiosurgery. This approach delivers a highly focused dose of radiation to the tumor while leaving the surrounding brain structures unharmed (with the exception of the normal pituitary gland).

One consequence of radiation treatment is that it can cause delayed pituitary failure. This typically occurs several years after treatment, and continued long-term follow-up with an endocrinologist is important. You may require hormone replacement therapy.

Medical Therapy for Nelson’s Syndrome

Medication for Nelson's SyndromeMedical therapies for the treatment of Nelson’s syndrome are currently limited, but include:

  • Somatostatin-analogs (SSAs). These medications are typically used to treat acromegaly. A small number of Nelson’s syndrome patients may respond.
  • Cabergoline. This medication is typically used to treat prolactinomas; you may require a very high dose.
  • Temozolomide. This is a type of chemotherapy used to treat primary brain tumors called glioblastoma.

If you require medication to treat Nelson’s syndrome, our endocrinologists will monitor you closely.

From http://pituitary.ucla.edu/body.cfm?id=53

 

Researchers at Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes Release New Data on Cushing Syndrome

By a News Reporter-Staff News Editor at Biotech Week — Research findings on Adrenal Gland Diseases are discussed in a new report. According to news reporting originating from Melbourne, Australia, by NewsRx correspondents, research stated, “Stereotactic radiation therapy has emerged as an alternative to conventional radiotherapy for treatment of Cushing disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of this treatment.”

Our news editors obtained a quote from the research from the Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, “Records of patients with Cushing disease treated with stereotactic radiation were reviewed. Seventeen patients underwent stereotactic radiosurgery.”

According to the news editors, the research concluded: “Ten achieved remission after a mean of 23 (95% confidence interval, 15-31) months, and two developed hormone deficiencies.”

For more information on this research see: Stereotactic radiosurgery for treatment of Cushing disease: an Australian experience. Internal Medicine Journal, 2012;42(10):1153-6. (Wiley-Blackwell – www.wiley.com/; Internal Medicine Journal – onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1445-5994)

The news editors report that additional information may be obtained by contacting L. Wein, Dept. of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Additional authors for this research include M. Dally and L.A Bach (see also Adrenal Gland Diseases).

Keywords for this news article include: Melbourne, Treatment, Radiotherapy, Radiation Therapy, Cushing’s Syndrome, Adrenal Gland Diseases, Australia and New Zealand.

Our reports deliver fact-based news of research and discoveries from around the world. Copyright 2013, NewsRx LLC

From http://www.hispanicbusiness.com/2013/9/18/researchers_at_department_of_endocrinology_and.htm

Johns Hopkins Pituitary Patient Day 2013

Johns Hopkins Pituitary Patient Day

Join us on Saturday, September 28, 2013, for the 5th Annual Patient Education Day at the Johns Hopkins Pituitary Center.

When: Saturday, September 28, 2013
Time: 9:30 a.m.
Location:
Johns Hopkins Mt. Washington Conference Center
5801 Smith Avenue
Baltimore, MD 21209
map and directions

Location of the pituitary gland in the human brain

Location of the pituitary gland in the human brain (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Patient Education Day Agenda:
9:30 – 10:00 AM REGISTRATION
10:00 – 10:25 AM What is the pituitary gland, where it is located, what it does, and what can go wrong Gary Wand, MD
10:30 – 10:50 AM How pituitary tumors can affect your vision Prem Subramanian, MD, PhD
Vivek Patel, MD, PhD
10:50 – 11:10 AM Cushing disease journey: a patient’s perspective Stacey Hardy
11:15 – 11:40 AM Surgery for Pituitary tumors: from very tiny to very large Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa, MD
Gary Gallia, MD, PhD
Alessandro Olivi, MD
11:40 – 12:00 PM Radiation therapy: when, why, and how Lawrence Kleinberg, MD
Kristen Redmond, MD
12:05 – 12:25 PM The medications you may be taking (new and old ones): what you need to know Roberto Salvatori, MD
12:30 – 1:25 PM Lunch
1:30 – 3:00 PM PM Round table sessions:
1) Medical therapy (Wand/Salvatori)
2) Surgical therapy (Quinones/Gallia/Olivi)
3) Radiation therapy (Redmond/Kleinberg/Lim)
4) Vision issues (Subramanian/Patel)

*This schedule is subject to change

Please R.S.V.P. by September 13, 2013, vie email (preferred) to PituitaryDay@jhmi.edu  or to Alison Dimick at 410-955-3921.

Reservations will be taken on a first-come, first-serve basis.

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