Intermittent Blurry Vision: An Unexpected Presentation of Cushing’s Syndrome Due to Primary Bilateral Macronodular Adrenal Hyperplasia (PBMAH)

Published: May 15, 2022 (see history)

DOI: 10.7759/cureus.25017

Cite this article as: Fernandez C, Bhatia S, Rucker A, et al. (May 15, 2022) Intermittent Blurry Vision: An Unexpected Presentation of Cushing’s Syndrome Due to Primary Bilateral Macronodular Adrenal Hyperplasia (PBMAH). Cureus 14(5): e25017. doi:10.7759/cureus.25017


Abstract

Cushing’s syndrome (CS) is an uncommon endocrine disorder resulting from prolonged exposure to elevated glucocorticoids, with 10-15 million annual cases per the American Association of Neurological Surgeons. Exogenous and endogenous causes can further be divided into adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) dependent (i.e Cushing’s Disease) or ACTH independent. ACTH-independent CS can be caused by primary bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (PBMAH) representing less than 1% cases of CS. We report a case of a woman presenting with chronic resistant hypertension, episodic blurry vision, weight gain and wasting of extremities. She was diagnosed with Cushing’s syndrome due to PBMAH.

Our patient’s presentation was unusual as she presented at 40 years old, 10 years earlier than expected for PBMAH; and primarily with complaints of episodic blurry vision. Her symptoms also progressed rapidly as signs and symptoms largely presented over the course of 12 months, however responded well to surgical resection.

Introduction

Cushing’s syndrome (CS) is an uncommon endocrine disorder caused by prolonged exposure to elevated glucocorticoids [1]. There are exogenous or endogenous causes. The National Institute of Health’s (NIH) Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) estimated the prevalence of endogenous CS to be 1 in 26,000 [2]. According to a large study, the annual incidence of CS in individuals less than 65 years old was nearly 49 cases per million [3]. Cushing’s disease (CD), which is defined as Cushing’s syndrome caused by an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary tumor, accounts for approximately 80% of patients with CS; whereas ACTH-independent CS accounts for the remaining 20% [4]. Among the causes of pituitary ACTH-independent CS is bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia which is rare, comprising less than 1% of patients with CS [5]. Herein is a case of rapid onset Cushing’s syndrome due to PBMAH initially presenting as episodes of bilateral blurry vision.

Case Presentation

The patient is a 40-year-old female with a past medical history of resistant hypertension (on four agents), and recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (started on insulin regimen). Patient was recently seen by her primary care provider, with complaints of intermittent episodes of blurry vision going on for months.

As part of evaluation in December 2020, the patient underwent a renal ultrasound as part of evaluation by the primary physician for uncontrolled hypertension. The doppler incidentally showed an indeterminate hypoechoic mass on the right kidney and presumably located within the right adrenal gland, measuring 3.4 x 5.4 cm, without sonographic evidence of renal artery stenosis. The left kidney appeared normal. She was recommended to have further evaluation with contrast enhanced MR or CT with adrenal protocol.

In January 2021, the patient was sent from her PCP’s office to the ED as the patient was having blurred vision. She had a plain CT scan of the brain that was unremarkable. The patient’s systolic blood pressure was in the 160s-170s mm Hg upon arrival to ED compliance with home medications of 5mg of amlodipine daily, 25mg of metoprolol succinate daily, 100mg of losartan daily, and 25mg of hydrochlorothiazide daily. Physical exam reported obesity without evidence of abdominal striae. Blood work in the ED showed elevated blood glucose level over 600 (mg/dL) despite being on a regimen of lantus 60 units, metformin 1000mg twice a day, and semaglutide SQ weekly. Hemoglobin A1c was greater than 15.5%, and vitamin D was low (15.6 ng/mL). The morning ACTH was low (<5pg/mL) (nAM levels: 7.2 – 63.3 pg/mL), AM cortisol was high at 26.1 ug/ml (normal: 5.0 – 23.0 ug/mL), plasma aldosterone was normal at 4.2 ng/dL with a normal plasma renin at 1.96 (0.25 – 5.82 ng/mL/h). 24-hour urine free cortisol (UFC) was high at 1299.5 (4.0-50.0 mcg/24h). CT of the abdomen/pelvis with and without contrast showed low-attenuation masses (less than 5 Hounsfield units) present in both adrenal glands measuring 6.9 x 5.3 cm on the right and 4.5 x 3.9 cm on the left, and did not demonstrate significant arterial enhancement (Figure 1). MR imaging of the abdomen without and with contrast was also obtained and showed the same masses of the bilateral adrenal glands, with largest on the left measured 3.6 cm and largest on the right measured 3.7 cm, as well as mild fatty infiltration of the liver. General surgery and hematology/oncology were consulted and recommendations were made for outpatient follow-up with PCP and endocrinology.

CT-of-the-abdomen/pelvis-with-contrast-showing-low-attenuation-masses-present-in-both-adrenal-glands-measuring-6.9-x-5.3-cm-on-the-right-(dark-gray-arrow)-and-4.5-x-3.9-cm-on-the-left-(light-gray-arrow)
Figure 1: CT of the abdomen/pelvis with contrast showing low-attenuation masses present in both adrenal glands measuring 6.9 x 5.3 cm on the right (dark gray arrow) and 4.5 x 3.9 cm on the left (light gray arrow)

In early February 2021, the patient again presented to the ED complaining of recurrent episodes of bilateral blurry vision. Examination was unremarkable, including an ophthalmological exam with slit lamp exam. Blurred vision was suspected to be due to osmotic swelling in the setting of severe hyperglycemia as the patient had persistently uncontrolled blood sugars. Recommendations were for tighter control of blood glucose, and follow-up with primary care and ophthalmology.

Patient followed up with the endocrinologist in mid-February to which the patient reported first noticing a difference in her energy and changes to her weight around one year prior. She communicated a weight gain of 30 to 40 lbs over the past year. Patient had a reported history of gestational hypertension diagnosed five years ago when she gave birth to her daughter, which was steadily worsening over the past year. She reported intermittent myalgias and easy bruising. Patient had no family history or any apparent features to suggest multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndrome. Blood work revealed ACTH less than 1.5 pg/mL, AM cortisol was high at 24.5 mcg/dL, and normal aldosterone at 3.6 ng/dL, with normal renin and metanephrine levels. Physical examination revealed truncal obesity as well as a round face, cushingoid in appearance, and relatively thin extremities and abdominal striae.

She was then referred to a surgical specialist, and it was decided that she would undergo laparoscopic bilateral adrenalectomy due to severe Cushing’s syndrome. The surgical pathology report revealed macro-nodular cortical hyperplasia of both left and right adrenal gland masses with random endocrine atypia. The largest nodule on the left measured 4.5 cm and the largest nodule on the right measured 6.6 cm. Post-operatively she was started on hydrocortisone 20 mg every morning and 10 mg every evening, and fludrocortisone 0.1 mg twice a day as part of her steroid replacement regimen. Eventually she changed to hydrocortisone 10 mg three times a day and fludrocortisone 0.1 mg once a day. For her diabetes, her insulin glargine decreased from 60 units to 20 units. Amlodipine and hydrochlorothiazide were discontinued from her antihypertensive medications; she continued losartan and metoprolol. Follow up blood work showed stable electrolytes with potassium 4.2 mmol/L (3.5-5.2 mmol/L), sodium 137 mmol/L (134-144mmol/L), chloride 100 mmol/L (96-106 mmol/L), and carbon dioxide 23 mmol/L (20-29mmol/L).

Discussion

ACTH-independent Cushing’s syndrome due to bilateral cortisol-secreting nodules is rare, accounting for 2% of CS cases. The majority of causes include primary bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (PBMAH), primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD), and bilateral adrenocortical adenomas (BAA). In PBMAH, typically patients are diagnosed within the fifth or sixth decade of life [4]. The usual age of onset for PPNAD is within the first to third decade of life, with median age in the pediatric population at age 15 years [6]. BAA is such a rare entity that there exists little epidemiological data with less than 40 reported cases until 2019 [7]. A small subset of patients present with overt clinical symptoms of CS, as hypercortisolism often follows an insidious course that can delay diagnosis from years to decades, with one series reporting a diagnostic delay of approximately eight years [8]. Serum and urine hormone screening in the right clinical setting can provide clues to these endocrine disorders, however diagnosis of ACTH-independent CS often occurs incidentally wherein a radiographic study was done for reasons other than to identify adrenal disease [9]. CT or MRI alone are not able to differentiate these disease entities, requiring pathological examination for final determination [7]. Adrenal venous sampling (AVS) and I-6B-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol (I-NP-59) can aid in identifying hormone-secreting status of each adrenal lesion, however usefulness is debated among experts [10-12].

In all cases the end goal is to normalize adrenocortical hormones, and PBMAH primarily involves surgical resection with exogenous hormone replacement. Bilateral adrenalectomy is generally the treatment of choice with overt Cushing syndrome regardless of cortisol level. These patients require lifelong steroid administration [9,13]. Another approach is unilateral adrenalectomy of the larger or more metabolically active gland, which can be identified after AVS or I-NP-59 testing. This has been proposed in order to preserve some autonomous hormonal production and prevent adrenal crisis, however remission rates of Cushing syndrome as high as 84% have been reported with eventual need for bilateral adrenalectomy [7,8,14]. Steroid enzyme inhibition to control cortisol secretion has been used as an adjunct before surgery. In some patients with identified aberrant adrenal hormone receptors, targeted pharmacological inhibition remains an alternative medical approach [8]. Despite these alternatives to surgery, surgical resection remains the optimal approach [1].

Conclusions

ACTH-independent Cushing’s syndrome due to PBMAH usually presents as an indolent course, with typical diagnosis in the fifth to sixth decade. As the use of imaging for other non-endocrine related investigations becomes more utilized, PBMAH being less of a rare entity. Clinical presentation usually dictates the timing of and type of surgical intervention. Although there are some reports of unilateral resection resulting in a cure, many of these cases eventually proceed to staged bilateral resection. Our patient’s presentation as her primary complaint was recurrent episodes of blurry vision that were suspected to be due to osmotic swelling because of her uncontrolled hyperglycemia. Her case was also unusual as she presented at 40 years old, an average of 10 years earlier than is typically diagnosed for PBMAH. Her symptoms also progressed rapidly over the course of 12 months with development of resistant hypertension and insulin-dependent diabetes requiring high basal insulin. Following surgical resection, her antihypertensive regimen was de-escalated and had significant reduction in insulin requirements, and was maintained on adrenocorticoid therapy.


References

  1. Nieman LK: Recent updates on the diagnosis and management of Cushing’s syndrome. Endocrinol Metab (Seoul). 2018, 33:139-46. 10.3803/EnM.2018.33.2.139
  2. Rare Disease Database: Cushing Syndrome. (2021). Accessed: 12/17/2021: https://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/cushing-syndrome/.
  3. Broder MS, Neary MP, Chang E, Cherepanov D, Ludlam WH: Incidence of Cushing’s syndrome and Cushing’s disease in commercially-insured patients <65 years old in the United States. Pituitary. 2015, 18:283-9. 10.1007/s11102-014-0569-6
  4. Lacroix A, Feelders RA, Stratakis CA, Nieman LK: Cushing’s syndrome. Lancet. 2015, 386:913-27. 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61375-1
  5. Tokumoto M, Onoda N, Tauchi Y, et al.: A case of adrenocoricotrophic hormone -independent bilateral adrenocortical macronodular hyperplasia concomitant with primary aldosteronism. BMC Surg. 2017, 17:97. 10.1186/s12893-017-0293-z
  6. Stratakis CA: Cushing syndrome caused by adrenocortical tumors and hyperplasias (corticotropin- independent Cushing syndrome). Endocr Dev. 2008, 13:117-32. 10.1159/000134829
  7. Gu YL, Gu WJ, Dou JT, et al.: Bilateral adrenocortical adenomas causing adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent Cushing’s syndrome: a case report and review of the literature. World J Clin Cases. 2019, 7:961-71. 10.12998/wjcc.v7.i8.961
  8. Lacroix A: ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009, 23:245-59. 10.1016/j.beem.2008.10.011
  9. Sweeney AT, Srivoleti P, Blake MA: Management of the patient with incidental bilateral adrenal nodules. J Clin Transl Endocrinol Case Rep. 2021, 20:100082. 10.1016/j.jecr.2021.100082
  10. Lumachi F, Zucchetta P, Marzola MC, Bui F, Casarrubea G, Angelini F, Favia G: Usefulness of CT scan, MRI and radiocholesterol scintigraphy for adrenal imaging in Cushing’s syndrome. Nucl Med Commun. 2002, 23:469-73. 10.1097/00006231-200205000-00007
  11. Builes-Montaño CE, Villa-Franco CA, Romån-Gonzalez A, Velez-Hoyos A, Echeverri-Isaza S: Adrenal venous sampling in a patient with adrenal Cushing syndrome. Colomb Med (Cali). 2015, 46:84-7.
  12. Guo YW, Hwu CM, Won JG, Chu CH, Lin LY: A case of adrenal Cushing’s syndrome with bilateral adrenal masses. Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep. 2016, 2016:150118. 10.1530/EDM-15-0118
  13. Wei J, Li S, Liu Q, et al.: ACTH-independent Cushing’s syndrome with bilateral cortisol-secreting adrenal adenomas: a case report and review of literatures. BMC Endocr Disord. 2018, 18:22. 10.1186/s12902-018-0250-6
  14. Osswald A, Quinkler M, Di Dalmazi G, et al.: Long-term outcome of primary bilateral macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia after unilateral adrenalectomy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2019, 104:2985-93. 10.1210/jc.2018-02204

From https://www.cureus.com/articles/90069-intermittent-blurry-vision-an-unexpected-presentation-of-cushings-syndrome-due-to-primary-bilateral-macronodular-adrenal-hyperplasia-pbmah

Interview with Deborah March 30, 2016

Deborah has many symptoms but is not yet diagnosed.

interview

Deborah will be our guest in an interview on BlogTalk Radio  Wednesday, March 30 at 6:00 PM eastern.  The Call-In number for questions or comments is (845) 241-9850.

The archived interview will be available after 7:00 PM Eastern through iTunes Podcasts (Cushie Chats) or BlogTalkRadio.  While you’re waiting, there are currently 89 other past interviews to listen to!

~~~~~~

Deborah’s Bio:

Hello all,

I do not know where to begin. For many years I have been struggling with these symptoms. I have proximal weakness, intolerance to stress, blood pressure fluctuations, hyperpigmentation, reactive hypoglycemia, sweating, severe dehydration, very bad confusion, vision, memory problems, physical body changes (hump, bruises), carb intolerance, and inability to exercise.

My endocrinologist did a workup for Cushing’s disease and the midnight saliva test was high. She brushed it off as “stress”. I am seeing a doctor now that says I have POTS and Dysautonomia. My doctor says I have inappropriate adrenaline rushes.

My body is falling apart because I haven’t found a doctor who will take my symptoms and test results serious. I would like to talk to others who are having trouble getting diagnosed and also to those who have gotten diagnosed who have a good doctor.

God Bless and Thank You,
Deborah

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BLA Instead of Second Pituitary Surgery

One of the problems that can arise with a BLA (bilateral adrenalectomy) instead of a repeat pituitary surgery for Cushing’s recurrence is Adrenal Insufficiency.  Another is Nelson’s Syndrome.

Nelson’s syndrome is a rare disorder that occurs in some patients with Cushing’s disease patients as a result of removing both adrenal glands. In Nelson’s syndrome, the pituitary tumor continues to grow and release the hormone ACTH.

This invasive tumor enlarges, often causing visual loss, pituitary failure and headaches. One key characteristic of Nelson’s disease is dark skin pigmentation, resulting from the skin pigment cells responding to the release of ACTH.


AnchorNelson’s Syndrome: Physiology

Nelson’s syndrome can develop as a result of a specific treatment (bilateral adrenalecomy) for the pituitary disease called Cushing’s disease. The harmful effects of Cushing’s disease are due to the excessive amount of the hormone cortisol produced by the adrenal glands.

To treat Cushing’s disease, your doctor may recommend removing the adrenal glands, during a procedure called a bilateral adrenalectomy. The procedure will stop cortisol production and provide relief. However, the procedure does not treat the actual tumor. Rapid growth of the pituitary tumor can occur.

In about 15-25 percent of patients who had a bilateral adrenalectomy, Nelson’ syndrome develops within one to four years.


Darkening of Skin Color - Nelson's Syndrome SymptomAnchor

Nelson’s Syndrome: Symptoms

The most obvious symptom of Nelson’s syndrome is the darkening of the skin color (hyperpigmentation).

Macroadenomas

Macroadenomas are large pituitary tumors. Large tumors can compress surrounding structures, primarily the normal pituitary gland and optic (visual) pathways, causing symptoms. The symptoms that result from the compression are independent of the effects of excess growth hormone secretion.
This may result in vision problems:

  • Vision loss. This occurs when macroadenomas grow upward into the brain cavity, compressing the optic chiasm.
  • A loss of the outer peripheral vision, called a bitemporal hemianopsia Bitemporal Hemianopsia - Symptom of Nelson's Syndrome
    • When severe, a patient can only see what is directly in front of them.
    • Many patients do not become aware of their visual loss until it is quite severe.
  • Other visual problems can include:
    • Loss of visual acuity (blurry vision), especially if the macroadenoma grows forward and compresses an optic nerve.
    • Colors not perceived as bright as usual

Pituitary Failure or Hypopituitarism

Increased compression of the normal gland can cause hormone insufficiency, called hypopituitarism. The symptoms depend upon which hormone is involved.


AnchorNelson’s Syndrome: Diagnosis

Most patients with Nelson’s syndrome have undergone a bilateral adrenalectomy for the treatment of Cushing’s disease

Diagnostic testing includes:

  • Hormone testing. Typically, the blood ACTH levels are very elevated. Learn more about hormone testing at the UCLA Pituitary Tumor Program.
  • MRI imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the pituitary gland can detect the presence of an adenoma, a pituitary tumor.

AnchorNelson’s Syndrome: Treatment Options

Surgery for Nelson's Syndrome

Treating Nelson’s syndrome effectively requires an experienced team of experts. Specialists at the UCLA’s Pituitary Tumor Program have years of experience managing the complex coordination and care for treatment of Nelsons’ syndrome.

Treatment options include:

AnchorSurgery for Nelson’s Syndrome

Surgical removal of the pituitary adenoma is the ideal treatment; however, it is not always possible. Surgical removal requires advanced surgical approaches, including delicate procedures involving the cavernous sinus.

If surgery is required, typically the best procedure is through a nasal approach. Our neurosurgeons who specialize in pituitary tumor surgery are experts in the minimally invasive expanded endoscopic endonasal technique. This procedure removes the tumor while minimizing complications, hospital time and discomfort. This advanced technique requires specialized training and equipment.

Very large tumors that extend into the brain cavity may require opening the skull (craniotomy) to access the tumor. Our surgeons are also experts in the minimally invasive “key-hole” craniotomy, utilizing a small incision hidden in the eyebrow.

AnchorRadiation Therapy for Nelson’s Syndrome

Radiation Therapy for Nelson's SyndromeRadiation therapy can be effective in controlling the growth of the tumor. However, if you received radiation therapy in the past, additional radiation may not be safe.

Our Pituitary Tumor Program offers the latest in radiation therapy, including stereotactic radiosurgery. This approach delivers a highly focused dose of radiation to the tumor while leaving the surrounding brain structures unharmed (with the exception of the normal pituitary gland).

One consequence of radiation treatment is that it can cause delayed pituitary failure. This typically occurs several years after treatment, and continued long-term follow-up with an endocrinologist is important. You may require hormone replacement therapy.

Medical Therapy for Nelson’s Syndrome

Medication for Nelson's SyndromeMedical therapies for the treatment of Nelson’s syndrome are currently limited, but include:

  • Somatostatin-analogs (SSAs). These medications are typically used to treat acromegaly. A small number of Nelson’s syndrome patients may respond.
  • Cabergoline. This medication is typically used to treat prolactinomas; you may require a very high dose.
  • Temozolomide. This is a type of chemotherapy used to treat primary brain tumors called glioblastoma.

If you require medication to treat Nelson’s syndrome, our endocrinologists will monitor you closely.

From http://pituitary.ucla.edu/body.cfm?id=53

 

Recurrent sellar mass after resection of pituitary macroadenoma

A Puerto Rican woman aged 50 years presented to an ophthalmologist with complaints of vision changes, including difficulty seeing images in her peripheral vision in both eyes and difficulty in color perception. Her medical history was significant for menopause at age 43 years, type 2 diabetes and hypertension. She had no prior history of thyroid disease, changes in her weight, dizziness or lightheadedness, headaches, galactorrhea or growth of her hands or feet.

Formal visual fields showed bitemporal superior quadrantopsia, and she was sent to the ED for further evaluation.

Imaging and laboratory tests

A pituitary protocol MRI was performed that showed a large 3 cm x 2 cm x 2.2 cm mass in the pituitary with mild osseous remodeling of the sella turcica and mass effect on the optic chiasm (Figure 1). The mass was isointense with the brain parenchyma on T1-weighted and T2-weighted images and homogeneously enhanced after IV gadolinium contrast administration.

Baseline laboratory samples drawn at 11 p.m. in the ED showed a cortisol of 16.9 ”g/dL (nighttime reference range: 3-16 ”g/dL), adrenocorticotropic hormone 65 pg/mL (reference range: 6-50 pg/mL), prolactin 19.4 ng/mL (reference range: 5.2-26.5 ng/mL), thyroid-stimulating hormone 1.36 ”IU/mL (reference range: 0.35-4.9 ”IU/mL), free thyroxine 0.9 ng/dL (reference range: 0.6-1.8 ng/dL), triiodothyronine 85 ng/dL (reference range: 83-160 ng/dL), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) 11.1 mIU/mL (postmenopausal reference range: 26.7- 133.4 mIU/mL) and luteinizing hormone (LH) 1.2 mIU/mL (postmenopausal reference range: 5.2-62 mIU/mL).

 

Figure 1. T1-weighted MRI images with and without contrast of the pituitary. Coronal (A) and sagittal (C) images showed a large isodense (with brain parenchyma) 3 cm x 2 cm x 2.2 cm mass (red arrow) in the sella with superior extension to the optic chiasm. After gadolinium contrast, coronal (B) and sagittal (D) images show the mass homogenously enhances consistent with a pituitary adenoma.

Images courtesy of Pavani Srimatkandada, MD.

Given the patient’s high nighttime cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, she underwent an overnight dexamethasone suppression test with 1 mg dexamethasone. Her morning cortisol was appropriately suppressed to less than 1 ”g/dL, excluding Cushing’s disease.

Pituitary adenoma resection

The patient was diagnosed with a nonsecreting pituitary adenoma with suprasellar extension and optic chiasm compression with visual field deficits. The macroadenoma caused an inappropriately normal LH and FSH in a postmenopausal woman consistent with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism.

She underwent transnasal transsphenoidal resection of the nonsecreting pituitary adenoma. The dural defect caused by the surgery was patched with an abdominal fat graft with a DuraSeal dura patch. A postoperative MRI showed complete resection of the adenoma with no evaluable tumor in the sella (Figure 2). Her postoperative course was complicated by transient diabetes insipidus requiring intermittent desmopressin; however, this resolved before her discharge from the hospital.

Figure 2. T1-weighted MRI images with contrast. Coronal views before (A) and after (B) transphenoidal tumor resection show complete resolution of the enhancing pituitary mass (A; red arrow) that is replaced with a new hypodense mass in the sella (B; yellow arrow). This mass is filled with cerebrospinal fluid with a residual rim of enhancing tissue. This is consistent with the development of a pseudomeningocele in the sella.

 

Postoperative testing confirmed secondary deficiency of the adrenal, thyroid and ovarian axes requiring hormone therapy. The patient had stable temporal hemianopia in the left eye with improved vision in the right eye.

Recurrent mass detected

One year after surgery, during a routine follow-up appointment, the patient reported no dizziness, lightheadedness, worsening vision changes, rhinorrhea or headache. She had a follow-up MRI of the brain with and without contrast, which showed the interval appearance of a mass in the sella that extended from the sphenoid sinus into the sella and came in contact with the optic nerve (Figure 3).

Figure 3. Axial MRI images of the sella after resection of pituitary adenoma. On T1-weighted images the mass (red arrow) in the sella is hypodense (black) compared with the brain parenchyma. On T2-weighted images, the mass (red arrow) is hyperdense (bright) compared with the brain, consistent with fluid. Cerebrospinal fluid in the sulci on the brain surface and the vitreous fluid within the eye are also hyperintense on T2-weighted images (yellow arrows).

 

On MRI, the mass was isodense with the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) with a residual rim of enhancing normal pituitary tissue. This appearance is consistent with the postoperative development of a pseudomeningocele and not a solid mass in the sella (Table).

Pseudomeningoceles are abnormal collections of CSF that communicate with the CSF space around the brain; these occur after brain surgery involving duraplasty (incision and repair of the dura). Unlike meningoceles, pseudomeningoceles are not completely encased by a surrounding membrane, and they communicate with the circulating CSF. Similar to CSF, a pseudomeningocele is hypodense (dark) compared with brain on T1-weighted MRI images and hyperdense (bright) on T2-weight images.

 

Pseudomeningocele treatment

Treatment may be conservative or may involve neurosurgical repair if symptomatic. Little published data addresses the development of pseudomeningoceles after transsphenoidal pituitary surgery, but this complication occasionally occurs, especially if the dural incision is large. One study noted that pseudomeningoceles are one of the most common complications after suboccipital decompression for Chiari’s malformation, but the effect of this complication is unclear.

Endocrinologists must recognize that recurrent development of pituitary masses after transsphenoidal pituitary adenoma surgery may not represent regrowth of pituitary tissue, but instead development of a meningocele/pseudomeningocele. Pseudomeningocele can be easily confirmed because this fluid collection has very different MRI characteristics than pituitary adenoma (Table). Given that patients may remain asymptomatic after the development of a pseudomeningocele, periodic MRI imaging, hormonal evaluation and ophthalmologic monitoring of visual fields are required after transsphenoidal pituitary surgery.

References:
  • Hernandez Guilabert PM. Poster No C-1330. Presented at: European Society of Radiology; March 7-11, 2013; Vienna.
  • Parker SL, et al. J Neurosurg. 2013;doi:10.3171/2013.8.JNS122106.
For more information:
  • Stephanie L. Lee, MD, PhD, ECNU, is an associate professor of medicine and associate chief, in the Section of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition at Boston Medical Center. Lee can be reached at Boston Medical Center, 88 E. Newton St., Endocrinology Evans 201, Boston, MA 02118; email: stephanie.lee@bmc.org. Lee reports no relevant financial disclosures.
  • Pavani Srimatkandada, MD, is an endocrinology fellow in the Section of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition at Boston Medical Center. Srimatkandada can be reached at Boston Medical Center, 88 E. Newton St., Endocrinology Evans 201, Boston, MA 02118. She reports no relevant financial disclosures.

From http://www.healio.com/endocrinology/thyroid/news/print/endocrine-today/%7B82430fb6-bbe4-4908-a389-447eee8cd005%7D/recurrent-sellar-mass-after-resection-of-pituitary-macroadenoma

Johns Hopkins Pituitary Patient Day 2013

Johns Hopkins Pituitary Patient Day

Join us on Saturday, September 28, 2013, for the 5th Annual Patient Education Day at the Johns Hopkins Pituitary Center.

When: Saturday, September 28, 2013
Time: 9:30 a.m.
Location:
Johns Hopkins Mt. Washington Conference Center
5801 Smith Avenue
Baltimore, MD 21209
map and directions

Location of the pituitary gland in the human brain

Location of the pituitary gland in the human brain (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Patient Education Day Agenda:
9:30 – 10:00 AM REGISTRATION
10:00 – 10:25 AM What is the pituitary gland, where it is located, what it does, and what can go wrong Gary Wand, MD
10:30 – 10:50 AM How pituitary tumors can affect your vision Prem Subramanian, MD, PhD
Vivek Patel, MD, PhD
10:50 – 11:10 AM Cushing disease journey: a patient’s perspective Stacey Hardy
11:15 – 11:40 AM Surgery for Pituitary tumors: from very tiny to very large Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa, MD
Gary Gallia, MD, PhD
Alessandro Olivi, MD
11:40 – 12:00 PM Radiation therapy: when, why, and how Lawrence Kleinberg, MD
Kristen Redmond, MD
12:05 – 12:25 PM The medications you may be taking (new and old ones): what you need to know Roberto Salvatori, MD
12:30 – 1:25 PM Lunch
1:30 – 3:00 PM PM Round table sessions:
1) Medical therapy (Wand/Salvatori)
2) Surgical therapy (Quinones/Gallia/Olivi)
3) Radiation therapy (Redmond/Kleinberg/Lim)
4) Vision issues (Subramanian/Patel)

*This schedule is subject to change

Please R.S.V.P. by September 13, 2013, vie email (preferred) to PituitaryDay@jhmi.edu  or to Alison Dimick at 410-955-3921.

Reservations will be taken on a first-come, first-serve basis.

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