Adrenocortical Carcinoma (Adrenal Cortex Cancer)

adrenocortical

 

This report provides comprehensive information on the therapeutic development for Adrenocortical Carcinoma (Adrenal Cortex Cancer), complete with comparative analysis at various stages, therapeutics assessment by drug target, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type, along with latest updates, and featured news and press releases. It also reviews key players involved in the therapeutic development for Adrenocortical Carcinoma (Adrenal Cortex Cancer) and special features on late-stage and discontinued projects.

Report features investigational drugs from across globe covering over 20 therapy areas and nearly 3,000 indications. The report is built using data and information sourced from proprietary databases, Company/University websites, SEC filings, investor presentations and featured press releases from company/university sites and industry-specific third party sources, put together by team. Drug profiles/records featured in the report undergoes periodic updation following a stringent set of processes that ensures that all the profiles are updated with the latest set of information. Additionally, processes including live news & deals tracking, browser based alert-box and clinical trials registries tracking ensure that the most recent developments are captured on a real time basis.

The report enhances decision making capabilities and help to create effective counter strategies to gain competitive advantage. It strengthens R&D pipelines by identifying new targets and MOAs to produce first-in-class and best-in-class products.

Request Sample Report:  Adrenocortical Carcinoma (Adrenal Cortex Cancer) – Pipeline Review, H1 2015

Scope

– The report provides a snapshot of the global therapeutic landscape of Adrenocortical Carcinoma (Adrenal Cortex Cancer)

– The report reviews key pipeline products under drug profile section which includes, product description, MoA and R&D brief, licensing and collaboration details & other developmental activities

– The report reviews key players involved in the therapeutics development for Adrenocortical Carcinoma (Adrenal Cortex Cancer) and enlists all their major and minor projects

– The report summarizes all the dormant and discontinued pipeline projects

– A review of the Adrenocortical Carcinoma (Adrenal Cortex Cancer) products under development by companies and universities/research institutes based on information derived from company and industry-specific sources

– Pipeline products coverage based on various stages of development ranging from pre-registration till discovery and undisclosed stages

– A detailed assessment of monotherapy and combination therapy pipeline projects

– Coverage of the Adrenocortical Carcinoma (Adrenal Cortex Cancer) pipeline on the basis of target, MoA, route of administration and molecule type

– Latest news and deals relating related to pipeline products

Reasons to buy

– Provides strategically significant competitor information, analysis, and insights to formulate effective R&D development strategies

– Identify emerging players with potentially strong product portfolio and create effective counter-strategies to gain competitive advantage

– Develop strategic initiatives by understanding the focus areas of leading companies

– Identify and understand important and diverse types of therapeutics under development for Adrenocortical Carcinoma (Adrenal Cortex Cancer)

– Plan mergers and acquisitions effectively by identifying key players of the most promising pipeline

– Devise corrective measures for pipeline projects by understanding Adrenocortical Carcinoma (Adrenal Cortex Cancer) pipeline depth and focus of Indication therapeutics

– Develop and design in-licensing and out-licensing strategies by identifying prospective partners with the most attractive projects to enhance and expand business potential and scope

– Modify the therapeutic portfolio by identifying discontinued projects and understanding the factors that drove them from pipeline”

From http://www.medgadget.com/2015/10/adrenocortical-carcinoma-adrenal-cortex-cancer-pipeline-review-h1-2015-by-reportbazzar.html

In Production: Quick and Cheap Bedside Test for Cortisol Uses Smartphone

An innovative method of measuring the stress hormone cortisol is being developed by researchers in Utah. Requiring just a simple kit and a smartphone to read results, this new approach should allow quick, affordable, and accurate testing of cortisol levels, enabling rapid diagnosis of adrenal diseases, the investigators say.

“A lab charges about $25 to $50 for a quantitative salivary cortisol test and has a turnaround time of days to a week,” said lead researcher Joel Ehrenkranz, MD, director of diabetes and endocrinology at Intermountain Medical Center, Murray, Utah. “This test, taken in a medical office or at home, will cost less than $5 and take less than 10 minutes,” he noted.

Dr. Ehrenkranz reported the details of the new test kit, developed at his institution, at ICE/ENDO 2014 week. He said he and his fellow researchers are now collating clinical data for a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) submission and hope to gain approval of the test as a class 2 medical device in the United States in 2015.

Chair of the session, Jeremy Tomlinson, MD, of University of Birmingham, United Kingdom, said the new approach employs “great technology and is an interesting innovation, but there are a few concerns. For example, how well will it perform against the state-of-the-art technique for measuring salivary cortisol, which is mass spectrometry — is it as sensitive?”

Also there is a possibility the immunoassay in the new test will cross react with another steroid hormone, prednisolone, that people might be taking for a whole range of inflammatory conditions, so “you would want to make sure it’s measuring what you want it to,” he noted.

And finally, there is the question of exactly how this would be used.

Cortisol levels are needed when conditions are suspected where too much or too little cortisol is produced, but the diagnosis for most of these doesn’t really need to be immediate, Dr. Tomlinson explained to Medscape Medical News. However, he conceded there might be a role for the assay in patients presenting to the emergency room or in developing nations.

No More Presumptive Treatment of Adrenal Insufficiency

At the meeting, Dr. Ehrenkranz said that adrenal diseases are commonly overlooked because current methods of measuring salivary cortisol require instrumentation and technical personnel and so are costly and unable to deliver timely results.

He noted also that a stint in the developing world convinced him that a simpler test was needed, so he and his colleagues set about developing an assay that would be inexpensive and easy to perform — they came up with disposable cortisol immunoassay strips containing a glass fiber element with colloidal gold-labeled murine anticortisol antibodies and a saliva collection pad.

The person being tested inserts a strawlike saliva collector under the tongue, which wicks the saliva to the immunoassay test strip housed in a cassette, which is then inserted into a reader in the device.

“The device…includes a case, a light pipe, and a lens and costs about a dollar to make. There is no battery power, and it’s unbreakable, passive, and reusable,” Dr Ehrenkranz said.

Because of the physical properties of the gold nanoparticles, a smartphone flash can illuminate and camera-image the color generated by the colloidal gold-labeled anticortisol antibodies, he explained.

The color subsequently generated is “read” by an app on the smartphone to give a cortisol reading, based on an algorithm derived from observed vs reference salivary cortisol values. The R value of this curve was 0.996 for salivary cortisol in the range of 0.012-3.0 µg/dL, Dr Ehrenkranz noted.

The new technology can therefore measure cortisol in a range sufficient to diagnose adrenal insufficiency and hypercortisolism and monitor physiologic variations in cortisol concentration, he said.

And the software is “operating-system agnostic,” he added, meaning the device can be used on all platforms, including iOS, Android, Windows, and BlackBerry, and it has a universal form factor that works with all smartphones.

“Measuring salivary cortisol at the point of care in 5 minutes using an inexpensive immunochromatographic assay, reader, and smartphone may obviate the need to presumptively treat patients for adrenal insufficiency and makes cortisol assays available to regions of the world that currently lack access to this diagnostic test,” he concluded.

Test of Use in Emergency Room, in Developing Countries

Dr. Tomlinson explained that diagnosis of Cushing’s syndrome — caused either by tumors of the pituitary gland producing too much ACTH or tumors of the adrenal gland producing too much cortisol — or alternatively, diagnosis of conditions where it’s thought too little cortisol is being secreted, such as Addison’s disease — an autoimmune process whereby the adrenal gland is destroyed — are not conditions “you necessarily have to diagnose in a few minutes by the bedside,” and therefore it is better to use the “gold standard” of diagnosis, mass spectrometry, in these cases.

But the new test “might be of use in determining whether people have enough of their own natural corticosteroid, in terms of deciding whether you need to give supplemental cortisol to people in an emergency situation,” he explained.

This could include patients presenting with suspected or underlying pituitary or adrenal disease or in people who have been on large doses of steroids who have then stopped taking them, so there will be a resulting suppression of their natural steroid production, he noted.

“That’s not an uncommon situation that we see in the emergency room. At the moment, if there’s suspicion, we might take a test but it takes a day or 2 to come back from the laboratory, and in the meantime we will give patients [presumptive] steroids. But you could do this test by the bedside,” he acknowledged.

And in developing countries, use of this test “is feasible, where cost comes into the equation and you might not have access to mass spectrometry; this could be an alternative and would help you to exclude or make these diagnoses,” he concluded.

This study was privately funded. Dr. Ehrenkranz and colleagues report no relevant financial relationships.

Joint Meeting of the International Society of Endocrinology and the Endocrine Society: ICE/ENDO 2014; June 24, 2014. Abstract OR48-2

From http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/827580

Hospital Staff Didn’t Give Emergency Cortisol to Teenager with Complex Special Needs

solu-cortef

 

A TEENAGER with complex special needs who died in hospital suffered a failure in basic medical communication, an inquest heard today.

Robin Brett, 18, of Blackmore Close, died in June 2014 in the Great Western Hospital after being admitted with chronic constipation and vomiting.

After a blood test indicated a raised white blood cell count, Robin went into cardiac arrest and died.

He had congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) a metabolic disease and genetic defect of the adrenal gland and learning difficulties. He required daily care and medications.

Robin’s parents listed a string of errors they believe contributed to his death including failure to give him his regular medications, infrequent observations and the lack of regular and vital cortisol injections.

His heartbroken mother, Teresa, told the inquest in Salisbury that she had told hospital staff to give Robin an emergency dose of cortisol, which was not topped up after the recommended four hours.

She said: “I asked them to give him cortisol after I noticed he was becoming clammy and had a headache which is a sign of adrenal distress, I was just about to with the syringe in my hand when it was done and he instantly perked up.

 “But this wasn’t done again after four hours and I don’t know why.”

GWH staff nurse Hannah Porte who cared for Robin on his admission said she had concerns about his “alarmingly” high pulse rate when she did observations.

“I spoke with a doctor who assured me that because he had a pre-existing condition it wasn’t of great concern. That is our protocol and I felt comforted and reassured when they said that,” she said.

Robin was described as “rocking backwards and forwards and retching “ shortly before his cardiac arrest.

Mum Teresa broke down as she recalled her “sociable and friendly” son’s decline.

“He asked me to turn his DVD player off which was out of character in itself and he was clammy. All of a sudden he wasn’t breathing,” she said,

Registrar Fahreyer Alam, who examined Robin upon admission, said he could not provide an explanation as to why steroidal drugs were prescribed but not administered to Robin.

“They was nothing about his condition on examination which would link to adrenal crisis,” he said,

“The drugs were written on the drug chart and I cannot say why they were not given to him.”

Dr Alam said he had set an observation schedule of every two hours which he had articulated to nurses, and was not observed.

“All I can is there is an element of trust in the nurses and in a busy department we do have to relay things verbally and that is what you do,” he said.

When questioned by assistant coroner Dr Claire Balysz, Dr Alam said the effect of the seven week constipation may have put pressure on Robin’s vital organs.

“His heart and lungs were smaller than average and slightly underdeveloped. The faecal impaction made his colon stretch, it may have impacted his lungs and his heart and that is something the post mortem found,” he said.

Dr Alam and nurse Porte agreed that more was being done within the trust to improve the accuracy and accessibility of patient records, including a new observation system and the use of electronic prescribing and administration (EPMA) system.

Adapted from http://www.thisiswiltshire.co.uk/news/13843924.Robin_Brett__18__died_in_GWH_after_medics_failed_to_communicate__inquest_hears/

Does Coffee Trigger Cortisol Release?

coffee-prescription

 

Cortisol is the infamous hormone you release when you’re stressed. In high doses it inhibits brain function, slows metabolism, breaks down muscle, and increases blood pressure. Have you ever felt panicked before a public speech and forgotten everything you were going to say? That’s what a big bump in cortisol feels like. And if you’re looking for stress relief, lowering cortisol helps.

Cortisol isn’t all bad, though. In fact, it’s necessary for you to function. Cortisol peaks in the morning, helping to wake you up, and it can be a useful as an indicator of strain, letting you know when to slow down or stop something that’s stressing you out. Cortisol also decreases inflammation – that’s part of the reason your body releases it in response to, for example, a workout that tears your muscle tissue.

Low cortisol is an issue, too. Insufficient cortisol can leave you feeling tired, emotional, and anxious. As long as you avoid chronically elevated or depleted cortisol you can make the little hormone work to your advantage.

A common argument against drinking coffee is that it triggers cortisol release, but (forgive us for getting nitpicky) that may not be true. Caffeine definitely triggers cortisol release. In fact, the increase in cortisol is part of the reason caffeine makes you feel more alert.

Remember a few paragraphs ago, when we were talking about how you build a tolerance to some of caffeine’s effects but not others? Cortisol release is one of the effects to which you build tolerance. If you only take caffeine now and then, it causes a big boost in cortisol. But if you get caffeine daily (by drinking coffee every morning, for example) your body tempers the cortisol response. You still release cortisol, but not enough to worry about unless your cortisol is already out of whack.

Does coffee itself (separate from caffeine) cause cortisol release? Mycotoxins do, at least in mice, and they cause inflammation (a common trigger of cortisol release) in humans. It’s difficult to say whether mold-free coffee increases cortisol.

Regardless, studies suggest that cortisol release from caffeine is mild if you drink it daily. For most of us, that little bump shouldn’t be a problem.

From https://www.yahoo.com/health/caffeine-and-cortisol-does-coffee-1276507994071094.html

Cushing’s: Update on signs, symptoms and biochemical screening

10.1530/EJE-15-0464

  1. Lynnette Nieman

+Author Affiliations


  1. L Nieman, RBMB, NIH, Bethesda, 20817-1109, United States
  1. Correspondence: Lynnette Nieman, Email: niemanl@mail.nih.gov

Abstract

Endogenous pathologic hypercortisolism, or Cushing’s syndrome, is associated with poor quality of life, morbidity and increased mortality. Early diagnosis may mitigate against this natural history of the disorder.

The clinical presentation of Cushing’s syndrome varies, in part related to the extent and duration of cortisol excess. When hypercortisolism is severe, its signs and symptoms are unmistakable. However, most of the signs and symptoms of Cushing’s syndrome are common in the general population (e.g. hypertension and weight gain) and not all are present in every patient.

In addition to classical features of glucocorticoid excess, such as proximal muscle weakness and wide purple striae, patients may present with the associated co-morbidities that are caused by hypercortisolism. These include cardiovascular disease, thromboembolic disease, psychiatric and cognitive deficits, and infections. As a result, internists and generalists must consider Cushing’s syndrome as a cause, and endocrinologists should search for and treat these co-morbidities.

Recommended tests to screen for Cushing’s syndrome include 1 mg dexamethasone suppression, urine free cortisol and late night salivary cortisol. These may be slightly elevated in patients with physiologic hypercortisolism, which should be excluded, along with exogenous glucocorticoid use. Each screening test has caveats and the choice of tests should be individualized based on each patient’s characteristics and lifestyle.

The objective of this review was to update the readership on the clinical and biochemical features of Cushing’s syndrome that are useful when evaluating patients for this diagnosis.

Read the entire manuscript at http://www.eje-online.org/content/early/2015/07/08/EJE-15-0464.full.pdf+html

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