Day 2 Coverage of ENDO 2015

ENDO_2015

 

OR22-Osteoporosis–Winner: Outstanding Abstract Award

Effects of teriparatide on bone microarchitecture in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis
S Orlov, R Ridout, L Tile, M Kapral, S Cardew, MR Werb, SD Sandler, J Chang, H Hu, E Szabo, C Derzko, A Cheung


FRI 224-247-Metabolic and Genetic Bone Disorders

The effect of vitamin D supplementation on falls and physical performance in elderly women. A randomized clinical trial
S Yousefian, JC Gallagher, SH Tella


The etiology and risk factors analysis in hypercalcemic crisis
H Liao, DL Lorber, E Cohen


LBF 001-014-Late-breaking Thyroid/HPT Axis II

Diagnostic lobectomy for thyroid nodules >4 cm with benign cytology after fine-needle aspiration is associated with improved outcomes at an acceptable cost compared to observation: …
L Lee, E Theodosopoulos, EJ Mitmaker, JA Lee, J Chabot, JH Kuo


LBF 015-023-Late-breaking Reproductive Endocrinology II

Effect of testosterone treatment on cardiac biomarkers in a randomized controlled trial of men with type 2 diabetes
EJ Gianatti, R Hoermann, Q Lam, P Dupuis, JD Zajac, M Grossmann


OR17-Novel Aspects of Adrenal Tumors and the HPA Axis

Epigenetic modulation of DNA Is associated with fatigue, depression and anxiety in patients with Cushing’s syndrome in remission: A genome-wide methylation study
CAM Glad, JC Andersson-Assarsson, P Berglund, R Bergthorsdottir, O Ragnarsson, G Johannsson


Pharmacogenetic analysis of glucocorticoid gene polymorphisms and prediction of daily dexamethasone doses in adults with congenital adrenal hyperplasia
JS Frassei, LG Gomes, RP Moreira, G Madureira, BB Mendonca, TA Bachega


OR20-Pituitary Tumors-New Clinical Considerations

Reduced mortality in patients with GH replacement therapy – a Swedish study based on more than 4,000 patient-years
DS Olsson, AG Nilsson, P Trimpou, B-A Bengtsson, E Andersson, G Johannsson


OR22-Osteoporosis

Denosumab restores cortical bone loss at the 1/3 radius associated with aging and reduces wrist fracture risk: Analyses from the Freedom extension cross-over group
JP Bilezikian, CL Benhamou, CJF Lin, JP Brown, NS Daizadeh, PR Ebeling, A Fahrleitner-Pammer, E Franek, N Gilchrist, PD Miller, JA Simon1, I Valter, AF Zerbini, C Libanati


OR22-Osteoporosis–Winner Clinical Fellows Abstract Award Travel Grants in Womens Health

Estrone may be more important than testosterone and estradiol for bone health and prevention of fractures in post-menopausal women
G Toraldo, TG Travison, X Zhang, KE Broe, S Bhasin, DP Kiel, AD Coviello

Cushing Syndrome in Children: Growth after Surgical Cure

Cushing syndrome (CS) occurs only rarely in children, but when it does, it causes weight gain and stunting. In young children, adrenal tumors are usually the cause while in adolescents, pituitary tumors are more likely.

The September 2014 issue of Endocrine-Related Cancer examines growth patterns in 19 pediatric patients with ACTH-dependent CS (CD) and 18 patients with a form of ACTH-independent CS, micronodular adrenal hyperplasia (MAH). The researchers gathered data at the time of surgery and also followed up one year later.

Patients in the CD and the MAH groups had similar demographic characteristics, baseline heights and BMI scores before surgery. All patients experienced significant improvements in height and BMI after surgery. Patients with MAH, however, fared significantly better than those with CD and had better post-operative growth.

The researchers propose several reasons:

  • When ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma requires extensive surgical exploration, remaining pituitary cells often lose some of their function.
  • CD patients tend to be older and have consistent and increased glucocorticoid exposure; they develop vertebral fractures more often leading to compromised skeletal and overall growth potential. MAH patients often have cyclical CS, with intermittent hypercortisolism and an overall milder CS.
  • CD patients often need a longer-than-expected course of therapy with steroids after surgery, which alters metabolism and growth.
  • CD patients have been shown to have advance bone age because of ACTH-induced metabolic changes.

The authors indicate that CS patients are often considered for growth hormone therapy once the underlying problem is corrected. They remind clinicians that MAH patients are less likely to need growth hormone. They recommend close monitoring for CD patients, and early intervention with growth hormone if growth does not meet expectation. –

See more at: http://www.hcplive.com/articles/Cushing-Syndrome-in-Children-Growth-after-Surgical-Cure

When to think Cushing’s syndrome in type 2 diabetes

ESTES PARK, COLO. – Diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, and hypertension are conditions that should boost the index of suspicion that a patient with some cushingoid features may in fact have endogenous Cushing’s syndrome, Dr. Michael T. McDermott said at a conference on internal medicine sponsored by the University of Colorado.

An estimated 1 in 20 patients with type 2 diabetes has endogenous Cushing’s syndrome. The prevalence of this form of hypercortisolism is even greater – estimated at up to 11% – among individuals with osteoporosis. In hypertensive patients, the figure is 1%. And among patients with an incidentally detected adrenal mass, it’s 6%-9%, according to Dr. McDermott, professor of medicine and director of endocrinology and diabetes at the University of Colorado.

“Endogenous Cushing’s syndrome is not rare. I suspect I’ve seen more cases than I’ve diagnosed,” he observed. “I’ve probably missed a lot because I failed to screen people, not recognizing that they had cushingoid features. Not everyone looks classic.”

There are three screening tests for endogenous Cushing’s syndrome that all primary care physicians ought to be familiar with: the 24-hour urine cortisol test, the bedtime salivary cortisol test, and the overnight 1-mg dexamethasone suppression test.

“I think if you have moderate or mild suspicion, you should use one of these tests. If you have more than moderate suspicion – if a patient really looks like he or she has Cushing’s syndrome – then I would use at least two screening tests to rule out endogenous Cushing’s syndrome,” the endocrinologist continued.

The patient performs the bedtime salivary cortisol test at home, obtaining samples two nights in a row and mailing them to an outside laboratory. The overnight dexamethasone suppression test entails taking 1 mg of dexamethasone at bedtime, then measuring serum cortisol the next morning. A value greater than 1.8 mcg/dL is a positive result.

Pregnant women constitute a special population for whom the screening method recommended in Endocrine Society clinical practice guidelines (J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2008;93:1526-40) is the 24-hour urine cortisol test. That’s because pregnancy is a state featuring high levels of cortisol-binding globulins, which invalidates the other tests. In patients with renal failure, the recommended screening test is the 1-mg dexamethasone suppression test. In patients on antiepileptic drugs, the 24-hour urine cortisol or bedtime salivary cortisol test is advised, because antiseizure medications enhance the metabolism of dexamethasone.

Dr. McDermott said that “by far” the most discriminatory clinical features of endogenous Cushing’s syndrome are easy bruising, violaceous striae on the trunk, facial plethora, and proximal muscle weakness.

“They’re by no means specific. You’ll see these features in people who don’t have Cushing’s syndrome. But those are the four things that should make you really consider Cushing’s syndrome in your differential diagnosis,” he stressed.

More widely recognized yet actually less discriminatory clinical features include facial fullness and the “buffalo hump,” supraclavicular fullness, central obesity, hirsutism, reduced libido, edema, and thin or poorly healing skin.

Endogenous Cushing’s syndrome can have three causes. An adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenoma accounts for 80% of cases. A cortisol-secreting adrenal tumor is the cause of 10%. And another 10% are due to an ectopic ACTH-secreting tumor, most commonly a bronchial carcinoid tumor.

Once the primary care physician has a positive screening test in hand, it’s typical to refer the affected patient to an endocrinologist in order to differentiate which of the three causes is present. This is accomplished based upon the results of a large, 8-mg dexamethasone suppression test coupled with measurement of plasma ACTH levels.

Dr. McDermott recommended as a good read on the topic of evaluating a patient with endogenous Cushing’s syndrome a recent review article that included a useful algorithm (N. Engl. J. Med. 2013;368:2126-36).

He reported having no financial conflicts.

bjancin@frontlinemedcom.com

From http://www.clinicalendocrinologynews.com

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