GH therapy increases fracture risk in patients previously treated for acromegaly

van Varsseveld NC, et al. Pituitary. 2016;doi:10.1007/s11102-016-0716-3.

Adult patients with severe growth hormone deficiency previously treated for acromegaly saw an increased fracture risk after 6 years of growth hormone replacement therapy, whereas those previously treated for Cushing’s disease did not experience the same risk, according to a recent observational study.

Nadege C. van Varsseveld, MD, of the department of internal medicine at VU University Medical Center in Amsterdam, and colleagues analyzed data from 1,028 patients with previous nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA; n = 783), acromegaly (n = 65) and Cushing’s disease (n = 180), identified through the Dutch National Registry of Growth Hormone Treatment in Adults, a nationwide, long-term surveillance study in patients with severe GH deficiency. Data were collected biannually from medical records through 2009. Baseline DXA measurements were available for 414 patients; 71 (17.1%) had osteoporosis at one or more of the measured sites; 147 (35.5%) had osteopenia.

During a mean follow-up of 5.2 years, researchers found that 166 of patients with previous NFPA were prescribed osteoporosis medications (21.3%), as were 69 patients with previous Cushing’s disease (38.5%) and 22 patients with previous acromegaly (33.4%). During follow-up, 39 patients experienced fractures (3.8%; 32 experiencing one fracture), including 26 patients in the previous NFPA group, eight patients in the previous Cushing’s disease group and five patients in the previous acromegaly group. The median time between baseline and first fracture was 2.4 years (mean age, 59 years).

Researchers found that fracture risk did not differ between groups before 6 years’ follow-up. Fracture risk increased in patients with previous acromegaly after 6 years’ follow-up, but not for those with previous Cushing’s disease vs. patients with NFPA. Results persisted after adjustment for multiple factors, including sex, age, fracture history and the extent of pituitary insufficiency.

The researchers noted that patients with previous Cushing’s disease were younger and more often women and had a greater history of osteopenia or osteoporosis, whereas patients with acromegaly had a longer duration between tumor treatment and the start of GH therapy and were treated more often with radiotherapy.

“During active acromegaly, increased bone turnover has been observed, but reported effects on [bone mineral density] are heterogeneous,” the researchers wrote. “It is postulated that cortical BMD increases, whereas trabecular BMD decreases or remains unaffected.

“The increased fracture risk in the present study may be a long-term effect of impaired skeletal health due to previous GH excess, even though this was not reflected by an increased occurrence of osteopenia or osteoporosis in the medical history,” the researchers wrote. – by Regina Schaffer

Disclosure: One researcher reports receiving consultancy fees from Novartis and Pfizer.

From http://www.healio.com/endocrinology/hormone-therapy/news/online/%7B92a67ad7-3bd5-46f0-b999-0a8e3486edab%7D/gh-therapy-increases-fracture-risk-in-patients-previously-treated-for-acromegaly

Young people with Cushing syndrome may be at higher risk for suicide, depression

Children with Cushing syndrome may be at higher risk for suicide as well as for depression, anxiety and other mental health conditions long after their disease has been successfully treated, according to a study by researchers at the National Institutes of Health.

Cushing syndrome results from high levels of the hormone cortisol. Long-term complications of the syndrome include obesity, diabetes, bone fractures, high blood pressure, kidney stones and serious infections. Cushing’s syndrome may be caused by tumors of the adrenal glands or other parts of the body that produce excess cortisol. It also may be caused by a pituitary tumor that stimulates the adrenal glands to produce high cortisol levels. Treatment usually involves stopping excess cortisol production by removing the tumor.

“Our results indicate that physicians who care for young people with Cushing syndrome should screen their patients for depression-related mental illness after the underlying disease has been successfully treated,” said the study’s senior author, Constantine Stratakis, D(med)Sci, director of the Division of Intramural Research at NIH’s Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. “Patients may not tell their doctors that they’re feeling depressed, so it’s a good idea for physicians to screen their patients proactively for depression and related conditions.”

Cushing syndrome may affect both adults and children. A recent study estimated that in the United States, there are 8 cases of Cushing syndrome per 1 million people per year.

The researchers published their findings in the journal Pediatrics. They reviewed the case histories of all children and youth treated for Cushing syndrome at NIH from 2003 to 2014, a total of 149 patients. The researchers found that, months after treatment, 9 children (roughly 6 percent) had thoughts of suicide and experienced outbursts of anger and rage, depression, irritability and anxiety. Of these, 7 experienced symptoms within 7 months of their treatment.

Two others began experiencing symptoms at least 48 months after treatment.

The authors noted that children with Cushing syndrome often develop compulsive behaviors and tend to become over-achievers in school. After treatment, however, they then become depressed and anxious. This is in direct contrast to adults with Cushing syndrome, who tend to become depressed and anxious before treatment and gradually overcome these symptoms after treatment.

The authors stated that health care providers might try to prepare children with Cushing syndrome before they undergo treatment, letting them know that their mood may change after surgery and may not improve for months or years. Similarly, providers should consider screening their patients periodically for suicide risk in the years following their treatment.

Source: NIH/Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
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