Rally for Medical Research Hill Day

Held every September, this Capitol Hill Day event continues the momentum established in 2013, and includes nearly 300 national organizations coming together in support of the Rally for Medical Research.

The purpose of the Rally is to call on our nation’s policymakers to make funding for National Institutes of Health (NIH) a national priority and raise awareness about the importance of continued investment in medical research that leads to MORE PROGRESS, MORE HOPE and MORE LIVES SAVED.

The next Rally for Medical Research Hill Day is Sept. 22, 2016.

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Young people with Cushing syndrome may be at higher risk for suicide, depression

Children with Cushing syndrome may be at higher risk for suicide as well as for depression, anxiety and other mental health conditions long after their disease has been successfully treated, according to a study by researchers at the National Institutes of Health.

Cushing syndrome results from high levels of the hormone cortisol. Long-term complications of the syndrome include obesity, diabetes, bone fractures, high blood pressure, kidney stones and serious infections. Cushing’s syndrome may be caused by tumors of the adrenal glands or other parts of the body that produce excess cortisol. It also may be caused by a pituitary tumor that stimulates the adrenal glands to produce high cortisol levels. Treatment usually involves stopping excess cortisol production by removing the tumor.

“Our results indicate that physicians who care for young people with Cushing syndrome should screen their patients for depression-related mental illness after the underlying disease has been successfully treated,” said the study’s senior author, Constantine Stratakis, D(med)Sci, director of the Division of Intramural Research at NIH’s Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. “Patients may not tell their doctors that they’re feeling depressed, so it’s a good idea for physicians to screen their patients proactively for depression and related conditions.”

Cushing syndrome may affect both adults and children. A recent study estimated that in the United States, there are 8 cases of Cushing syndrome per 1 million people per year.

The researchers published their findings in the journal Pediatrics. They reviewed the case histories of all children and youth treated for Cushing syndrome at NIH from 2003 to 2014, a total of 149 patients. The researchers found that, months after treatment, 9 children (roughly 6 percent) had thoughts of suicide and experienced outbursts of anger and rage, depression, irritability and anxiety. Of these, 7 experienced symptoms within 7 months of their treatment.

Two others began experiencing symptoms at least 48 months after treatment.

The authors noted that children with Cushing syndrome often develop compulsive behaviors and tend to become over-achievers in school. After treatment, however, they then become depressed and anxious. This is in direct contrast to adults with Cushing syndrome, who tend to become depressed and anxious before treatment and gradually overcome these symptoms after treatment.

The authors stated that health care providers might try to prepare children with Cushing syndrome before they undergo treatment, letting them know that their mood may change after surgery and may not improve for months or years. Similarly, providers should consider screening their patients periodically for suicide risk in the years following their treatment.

Source: NIH/Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

Cushing’s: Update on signs, symptoms and biochemical screening

10.1530/EJE-15-0464

  1. Lynnette Nieman

+Author Affiliations


  1. L Nieman, RBMB, NIH, Bethesda, 20817-1109, United States
  1. Correspondence: Lynnette Nieman, Email: niemanl@mail.nih.gov

Abstract

Endogenous pathologic hypercortisolism, or Cushing’s syndrome, is associated with poor quality of life, morbidity and increased mortality. Early diagnosis may mitigate against this natural history of the disorder.

The clinical presentation of Cushing’s syndrome varies, in part related to the extent and duration of cortisol excess. When hypercortisolism is severe, its signs and symptoms are unmistakable. However, most of the signs and symptoms of Cushing’s syndrome are common in the general population (e.g. hypertension and weight gain) and not all are present in every patient.

In addition to classical features of glucocorticoid excess, such as proximal muscle weakness and wide purple striae, patients may present with the associated co-morbidities that are caused by hypercortisolism. These include cardiovascular disease, thromboembolic disease, psychiatric and cognitive deficits, and infections. As a result, internists and generalists must consider Cushing’s syndrome as a cause, and endocrinologists should search for and treat these co-morbidities.

Recommended tests to screen for Cushing’s syndrome include 1 mg dexamethasone suppression, urine free cortisol and late night salivary cortisol. These may be slightly elevated in patients with physiologic hypercortisolism, which should be excluded, along with exogenous glucocorticoid use. Each screening test has caveats and the choice of tests should be individualized based on each patient’s characteristics and lifestyle.

The objective of this review was to update the readership on the clinical and biochemical features of Cushing’s syndrome that are useful when evaluating patients for this diagnosis.

Read the entire manuscript at http://www.eje-online.org/content/early/2015/07/08/EJE-15-0464.full.pdf+html

Does a Normal Urine Free Cortisol Result Rule out Cushing’s Syndrome?

Endocrine Society’s 97th Annual Meeting and Expo, March 5–8, 2015 – San Diego
SAT-384:
Does a Normal Urine Free Cortisol Result Rule out Cushing’s Syndrome?
1 and 2

  • 1Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD
  • 2National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD
Presentation Number: SAT-384
Date of Presentation: March 7, 2015
Abstract:Background: Urine free cortisol (UFC) has been traditionally used as one of the first steps in the diagnostic evaluation of Cushing’s syndrome (CS) (1). False positive results, especially values less than twice the upper limit of normal (ULN), can be seen in uncontrolled diabetes, obesity, depression, alcoholism, increased fluid intake, overcollection and stress. False negative results have also been reported with incomplete collection, in mild or cyclic CS and in patients with renal insufficiency (2-3). We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of UFC and 24-hour urine 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17OHCS) in patients with CS.Methods: Retrospective study of all CS patients evaluated at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) from 2009 to 2014. Screening tests used for CS included UFC, 17OHCS, late night salivary cortisol (LNSC), midnight serum cortisol and low dose (1mg overnight or 2-day 2mg/day) dexamethasone suppression test (DST). Values above reference range for UFC, 17OHCS and LNSC, a midnight serum cortisol ≥ 7.5 mcg/dL, and post-dexamethasone cortisol values ≥ 1.8 mcg/dL were considered abnormal. Hourly 24-hour sampling for cortisol was performed in a few cases with a mild clinical phenotype and equivocal test results. UFC was measured using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). 17OHCS was measured using colorimetric methodology with Porter-Silber reaction (reported as mg/g of creatinine). Mean of the first two UFC and 17OHCS values (appropriate collection by urine volume and creatinine) obtained within 30 days of initial NIH presentation were used for the purpose of this study.

Results: Seventy-two patients were diagnosed with CS (aged 18-77 years, 51 females). Of these, 51 had Cushing’s disease (CD), 10 had ectopic CS while 2 had an adrenal source of Cushing’s based on pathology. Biochemical tests including inferior petrosal sinus sampling (IPSS) suggested ectopic CS but no tumor was found (occult) in 6 patients. IPSS was indicative of a pituitary source in 2 patients with failed transsphenoidal surgery while one patient did not complete evaluation for ACTH-dependent CS. UFC results were available in all, 17OHCS in 70, LNSC in 21, midnight serum cortisol in 68 and DST results in 37 patients. UFC was falsely normal in six and only minimally elevated (< 2 x ULN) in 13 patients (normal renal function, no history of cyclicity, all had CD). Of these 19 patients, 24h 17OHCS was abnormal in all, LNSC was abnormal in 12, midnight serum cortisol was abnormal in 18 and DST was abnormal in 12 patients. Hourly 24-hour sampling for cortisol performed in 3 of these patients revealed abnormal nadir (> 7.5 mcg/dL) and mean daily serum cortisol (> 9 mcg/dL) levels.

Conclusion: UFC can be falsely normal or only minimally elevated in mild CS. Multiple collections and use of complimentary screening tests including 24-hour urine 17OHCS and LNSC can help make a diagnosis and prevent delay in treatment.

(1) Newell-Price J, et al. Cushing’s syndrome. Lancet. 2006;367(9522):1605-17.  (2) Alexandraki KI, et al. Is urinary free cortisol of value in the diagnosis of Cushing’s syndrome. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2011;18:259–63.  (3) Kidambi S, et al. Limitations of nocturnal salivary cortisol and urine free cortisol in the diagnosis of mild Cushing’s syndrome. Eur J Endocrinol. 2007;157(6):725-31

Nothing to Disclose: STS, LKN

Sources of Research Support: This research was in part supported by the intramural research program of NICHD/NIH

Read the entire article at http://press.endocrine.org/doi/abs/10.1210/endo-meetings.2015.ahpaa.9.sat-384

Macroadenoma biochemical behavior in pediatric patients with Cushing’s disease differs from adult cases

Cushing’s disease in children is associated with similar biochemical measures whether the disease is due to macroadenomas or microadenomas, according to a presentation at the AACE 24th Annual Scientific & Clinical Congress.

This contrasts with the disease behavior in adults, in whom macrodenomas demonstrate less glucocorticoid suppression and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) response to laboratory tests than do microadenomas, according to researchers.

“Children with pituitary macroadenomas are more likely to have the classical response to Cushing’s disease functional testing as microadenomas,”Ricardo Correa, MD, a clinical and research endocrinology fellow at National Institutes of Health, told Endocrine Today.

Correa and colleagues conducted a retrospective review of patients with Cushing’s disease who were younger than 18 years when they were admitted to the NIH between 1997 and 2014. All Cushing’s diagnoses were confirmed by pathology.

Pituitary macroadenoma was identified in 13 patients (69% female) and microadenoma in 74 (58% female). The groups had similar mean age (14 years) and BMI (31.8 kg/m2 and 30.2 kg/m2 for macroadenoma and microadenoma, respectively). The macroadenoma group had a median (25% to 75%) 24-hour urine free cortisol of  263.60 mcg/24 hr (range 170.7-528) compared with 371.6 mcg/ 24 hr (range 244.2-625.3) in the microadenoma group (P = 0.47). Median 24-hr urinary 17-hydroxysteroid excretion in the macroadenoma group was 12.6 mg/24 hr (range 8.9-42.5) and 31.6 mg/24 hr (range 4.3-39.9) in the microadenoma group.

Mean morning serum cortisol was 38.9 ± 40.4 mcg/dL compared with  20.2 ± 15.8 mcg/dL in the macroademona and microadenoma groups, respectively (P = 0.16). Mean morning basal plasma ACTH was 106.3 ± 112.3 pg/mL compared with 49.9±44.3 pg/mL for the macroadenoma and microadenoma groups, respectively (P = 0.11), while ACTH responses to the ovine corticotropin-releasing hormone test revealed no statistically significant differences. Using the high dose dexamethasone suppression test, 58% (7/12) suppressed more than 69% in the macroadenoma group compared to 69% (44/64) in the microadenoma group (P = .51).

“Studies in adult patients have demonstrated that macroadenomas have less glucocorticoid suppressibility after the high-dose dexamethasone suppression test and attenuated ACTH response to CRH compared to pituitary microadenomas,” according to Correa. “However, the present study shows that this is not true in children; although patients with macroadenomas had a tendency for higher baseline serum ACTH and cortisol levels, their responses to dynamic testing were similar to those with microadenomas.”

Reference:

Correa R, et al. Abstract #803. Presented at: AACE 24th Annual Scientific & Clinical Congress; May 13-17, 2015; Nashville, Tenn.

Disclosure: The researchers report no relevant financial disclosures.

From http://www.healio.com/endocrinology/adrenal/news/online/%7Bb4fbf36f-ac88-4eff-9278-90f0a8d1aec2%7D/macroadenoma-biochemical-behavior-in-pediatric-patients-with-cushings-disease-differs-from-adult-cases?sc_trk=internalsearch

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