Macroadenoma biochemical behavior in pediatric patients with Cushing’s disease differs from adult cases

Cushing’s disease in children is associated with similar biochemical measures whether the disease is due to macroadenomas or microadenomas, according to a presentation at the AACE 24th Annual Scientific & Clinical Congress.

This contrasts with the disease behavior in adults, in whom macrodenomas demonstrate less glucocorticoid suppression and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) response to laboratory tests than do microadenomas, according to researchers.

“Children with pituitary macroadenomas are more likely to have the classical response to Cushing’s disease functional testing as microadenomas,”Ricardo Correa, MD, a clinical and research endocrinology fellow at National Institutes of Health, told Endocrine Today.

Correa and colleagues conducted a retrospective review of patients with Cushing’s disease who were younger than 18 years when they were admitted to the NIH between 1997 and 2014. All Cushing’s diagnoses were confirmed by pathology.

Pituitary macroadenoma was identified in 13 patients (69% female) and microadenoma in 74 (58% female). The groups had similar mean age (14 years) and BMI (31.8 kg/m2 and 30.2 kg/m2 for macroadenoma and microadenoma, respectively). The macroadenoma group had a median (25% to 75%) 24-hour urine free cortisol of  263.60 mcg/24 hr (range 170.7-528) compared with 371.6 mcg/ 24 hr (range 244.2-625.3) in the microadenoma group (P = 0.47). Median 24-hr urinary 17-hydroxysteroid excretion in the macroadenoma group was 12.6 mg/24 hr (range 8.9-42.5) and 31.6 mg/24 hr (range 4.3-39.9) in the microadenoma group.

Mean morning serum cortisol was 38.9 ± 40.4 mcg/dL compared with  20.2 ± 15.8 mcg/dL in the macroademona and microadenoma groups, respectively (P = 0.16). Mean morning basal plasma ACTH was 106.3 ± 112.3 pg/mL compared with 49.9±44.3 pg/mL for the macroadenoma and microadenoma groups, respectively (P = 0.11), while ACTH responses to the ovine corticotropin-releasing hormone test revealed no statistically significant differences. Using the high dose dexamethasone suppression test, 58% (7/12) suppressed more than 69% in the macroadenoma group compared to 69% (44/64) in the microadenoma group (P = .51).

“Studies in adult patients have demonstrated that macroadenomas have less glucocorticoid suppressibility after the high-dose dexamethasone suppression test and attenuated ACTH response to CRH compared to pituitary microadenomas,” according to Correa. “However, the present study shows that this is not true in children; although patients with macroadenomas had a tendency for higher baseline serum ACTH and cortisol levels, their responses to dynamic testing were similar to those with microadenomas.”

Reference:

Correa R, et al. Abstract #803. Presented at: AACE 24th Annual Scientific & Clinical Congress; May 13-17, 2015; Nashville, Tenn.

Disclosure: The researchers report no relevant financial disclosures.

From http://www.healio.com/endocrinology/adrenal/news/online/%7Bb4fbf36f-ac88-4eff-9278-90f0a8d1aec2%7D/macroadenoma-biochemical-behavior-in-pediatric-patients-with-cushings-disease-differs-from-adult-cases?sc_trk=internalsearch

Cushing’s Syndrome | Seeking Alpha

Looking at the dizzying volatility in the government bond space and in continuation of our recent theme dealing with “alkaloids,” we remembered Cushing’s syndrome when choosing our title analogy, also known as “hypercortisolism” which is a collection of signs and symptoms due to prolonged exposure to cortisol (or QEs). Cushing’s syndrome is generally associated with rapid weight gain (bond prices), moodiness, irritability or depression to name a few.

The most common cause of Cushing’s syndrome is “exogenous” administration of glucortocoides prescribed by a health practitioner to treat other diseases such as asthma and rheumatoid arthritis. In our “market case,” one could argue that the most common cause of the sudden rise in government bond yields could be linked to the exogenous administration of “QEs” prescribed by central bankers in order to treat weak aggregate demand (AD). Strictly, Cushing’s syndrome refers to excess cortisol of any etiology (as syndrome means a group of symptoms).

 

Government bonds and Cushing’s Syndrome analogy from Cushing’s Syndrome | Seeking Alpha.

RARE Webinar: Leveraging a Rare Disease Center of Excellence

Screenshot 2015-05-13 19.36.00

 

 

 

As many patient advocates continue on their journey to become empowered activists, some may learn and want to consider starting a rare disease center of excellence.

This webinar covers how this can be done, what the obstacles and challenges are, and whether there are other options viewers should consider (like utilizing other centers that already exist).

If you cannot attend this, please register anyway, so we can send you details on the slides and archived event afterwards.

If you have any questions or technically issues during the event, please reach out to Katiem@globalgenes.org.

Interview May 13 with Michelle B (MichelleB), Cyclic Cushing’s Patient

Hello all, I’m Michelle mother of 3 beautiful children, I work part-time, 33yrs young, non-smoker, non-drinker, overall health is good for the most part…..Where do I even begin.

I just recently received the diagnosis of cyclic Cushing’s. I’m not really sure how long I have actually had Cushing’s because I have had a diagnosis of PCOS since I was 17 yrs. old ( I’m now the ripe young age of 33). However looking back through labs with my endocrinologist who I see every 6 months, my ACTH levels have been elevated for a bit over 1 yr. It was not until recently January of 2015- things were going terribly wrong.

Starting in January I started to feel genuinely unwell, on a regular basis. I cant really explain all my symptoms there were so many different sensations and feelings that were seemingly different daily. However the red flag was I was having blood pressure spikes from really high, to very low back to back. I never had any blood pressure issues so this was a concern that led me to see a cardiologist. Upon tons of testing the cardio MD felt that something was telling my otherwise very healthy heart to do this and I should see a endocrinologist. (thank goodness for him) I contacted my endo and let him know…. the testing began.

I did every test: the midnightcortisol saliva test, dex suppression, 24 hr urine test, CRH stimulation testing. And I did them more than once. Each time it was a different response either, inconclusive, normal high, or high. I was then referred to the head of the Cleveland clinics pituitary department Dr. Kennedy. He said he is having a hard time believing when he looks at me that its Cushing’s. However all my labs say it is. I will say I do fit the mold of PCOS to a tee- which symptoms of that do coincide with Cushing’s but he still said we have to be sure its Cushing’s. To add to the mix I did have a normal MRI as well.

Dr. Kennedy started me on a 2 week midnight cortisol saliva test- Upon completion we noted levels of cortisol all over the place, some Normal, normal on high range, high, and really high. He confirmed with all the other tests this is Cushing’s. Now we are trying to figure out what is next…. and where is this damn little tumor at. he feels that it is most likely in the pituitary from my test results, but we still are not ruling out else where. He is thinking that the next step would be exploratory neurosurgery or the IPSS. I’m not sure what to think of all this, except I want to hope for the best like everyone- and just be cured!!

On a side note during all of this I also had episodes of severe pain in my chest and nausea. I went to see a GI who did an upper endo scope. They found I had eosinpphilic esophagitis. I also have never had any GI problems until now; and they came on suddenly. Im also having pain in my pancreas area- not sure if any of the two are related at all to Cushing’s. But once again I was fine until recently with all these issues at once it seems.

wish me luck on further testing, treatment, and ultimately a CURE!!

interview

Michelle was our guest in an interview on BlogTalk Radio  Wednesday, May 13, 2015.

The archived interview is available now through iTunes Podcasts (Cushie Chats) or BlogTalkRadio. There are currently 83 other past interviews for your listening pleasure!

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If One Partner Has Cushing’s Syndrome, Can The Couple Still Get Pregnant?

Cushing’s syndrome can affect fertility in both men and women.

Women

The high levels of cortisol in Cushing’s syndrome disrupt a woman’s ovaries. Her menstrual periods may stop completely or become irregular. As a result, women with Cushing’s syndrome almost always have difficulty becoming pregnant.5,6,7 For those who do become pregnant, the risk of miscarriage is high.5,6,7

In rare cases, usually when a woman’s Cushing’s syndrome is caused by a benign adrenal tumor, pregnancy can occur, but it brings high risk for the mother and fetus.5,6,7

After a woman is treated for Cushing’s syndrome, her ovaries often recover from the effects of too much cortisol. Her regular menstrual cycles will return, and she can become pregnant.8

In some women, regular periods do not return after they are treated for Cushing’s syndrome. This occurs if surgery removes the part of the pituitary gland involved in reproduction.4 An infertility specialist can prescribe hormone therapy to bring back regular periods, ovulation, and fertility.8

Men

A man diagnosed with Cushing’s syndrome may have a decline in sperm production and could have reduced fertility.9 He also might experience a lowered sex drive as well as impotence (pronounced IM-puh-tuhns). In addition, some medications used to treat Cushing’s syndrome can reduce fertility.10 However, fertility usually recovers after Cushing’s syndrome is cured and treatment has stopped.9

Does Cushing’s syndrome affect pregnancy?

Cushing’s syndrome can cause serious and potentially life-threatening effects for the mother and the fetus during pregnancy.11,12 For example, Cushing’s syndrome raises a woman’s risk of developing pregnancy-related high blood pressure (called preeclampsia, pronounced pree-i-KLAMP-see-uh, or eclampsia) and/or pregnancy diabetes, which also is called gestational (pronounced je-STEY-shuhn-ul) diabetes). Infection and slow healing of any wounds are more likely, as is heart failure. When the syndrome is caused by a tumor, it will be surgically removed as early as possible to reduce any threat.13


  1. Margulies, P. (n.d.). Adrenal diseases—Cushing’s syndrome: The facts you need to know. Retrieved May 21, 2012, from National Adrenal Diseases Foundation website http://www.nadf.us/adrenal-diseases/cushings-syndrome/ External Web Site Policy
  2. Nieman, L. K., & Ilias, I. (2005). Evaluation and treatment of Cushing’s syndrome. Journal of American Medicine, 118(12), 1340-1346. PMID 16378774.
  3. American Cancer Society. (n.d.). Fact sheet on pituitary tumors. Retrieved May 19, 2012, fromhttp://documents.cancer.org/acs/groups/cid/documents/webcontent/003133-pdf.pdf (PDF – 171 KB). External Web Site Policy
  4. Biddie, S. C., Conway-Campbell, B. L, & Lightman, S. L. (2012). Dynamic regulation of glucocorticoid signalling in health and disease. Rheumatology, 51(3), 4034-4112. Retrieved May 19, 2012, from PMID: 3281495.
  5. Abraham, M. R., & Smith, C. V. (n.d.). Adrenal disease and pregnancy.Retrieved April 8, 2012, fromhttp://emedicine.medscape.com/article/127772-overview – aw2aab6b6. External Web Site Policy
  6. Pickard, J., Jochen, A. L., Sadur, C. N., & Hofeldt, F. D. (1990). Cushing’s syndrome in pregnancy. Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey, 45(2), 87-93.PMID 2405312.
  7. Lindsay, J. R., Jonklaas, J., Oldfield, E. H., & Nieman, L. K. (2005). Cushing’s syndrome during pregnancy: Personal experience and review of the literature. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 90(5), 3077.PMID 15705919.
  8. Klibansky, A. (n.d.). Pregnancy after cure of Cushing’s disease. Retrieved April 27, 2012, fromhttp://03342db.netsolhost.com/page/pregnancy_after_cure_of_cushings_disease.php. External Web Site Policy
  9. Jequier, A.M. Endocrine infertility. In Male infertility: A clinical guide (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press, 2011: chap 20, pages 187-188. Retrieved May 19, 2012, from http://books.google.com/books?id=DQL0YC79uCMC&pg=PA188&lpg=PA188&dq=male+infertility+causes+and+treatment+Cushing&source=bl&ots=k1Ah5tVJC7&sig=WJR4N0wUawlh0Rant31QMPq6ufs&hl=en&sa=X&ei=hGe5T-LrHYSX6AHgrvmzCw&ved=0CGoQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=male%20infertility%20causes%20and%20treatment%20Cushing&f=false. External Web Site Policy
  10. Stewart, P. M., & Krone, N. P. (2011). The adrenal cortex. In Kronenberg, H. M., Shlomo, M., Polonsky, K. S., Larsen P. R. (Eds.). Williams textbook of endocrinology (12th ed.). (chap. 15). Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier.
  11. Abraham, M. R., & Smith, C. V. Adrenal disease and pregnancy. Retrieved April 8, 2012, from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/127772-overview – aw2aab6b6. External Web Site Policy
  12. Buescher, M. A. (1996). Cushing’s syndrome in pregnancy. Endocrinologist, 6, 357-361.
  13. Ezzat, S., Asa, S. L., Couldwell, W. T., Barr, C. E., Dodge, W. E., Vance M. L., et al. (2004). The prevalence of pituitary adenomas: A systematic review.Cancer, 101(3), 613-619. PMID 15274075.

From https://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/cushing/conditioninfo/pages/faqs.aspx

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