Primary hyperaldosteronism: a case of unilateral adrenal hyperplasia with contralateral incidentaloma

BMJ Case Reports 2016; doi:10.1136/bcr-2016-216209
  • CASE REPORT
  1. Sujit Vakkalanka1,
  2. Andrew Zhao1,
  3. Mohammed Samannodi2

+Author Affiliations


  1. 1University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, USA

  2. 2Department of Medicine, Buffalo, New York, USA
  1. Correspondence toDr Mohammed Samannodi, samannodi@gmail.com
  • Accepted 28 June 2016
  • Published 14 July 2016

Summary

Primary hyperaldosteronism is one of the most common causes of secondary hypertension but clear differentiation between its various subtypes can be a clinical challenge.

We report the case of a 37-year-old African-American woman with refractory hypertension who was admitted to our hospital for palpitations, shortness of breath and headache. Her laboratory results showed hypokalaemia and an elevated aldosterone/renin ratio. An abdominal CT scan showed a nodule in the left adrenal gland but adrenal venous sampling showed elevated aldosterone/renin ratio from the right adrenal vein. The patient began a new medical regimen but declined any surgical options.

We recommend clinicians to maintain a high level of suspicion to consider the less common subtypes of primary hyperaldosteronism, especially given the fact that the management greatly varies.

From http://casereports.bmj.com/content/2016/bcr-2016-216209.short?rss=1

Patients with ARMC5 mutations: The NIH clinical experience

Screenshot 2016-05-27 13.12.55

 

Adrenal Disorders

R Correa, M Zilbermint, A Demidowich, F Faucz, A Berthon, J Bertherat, M Lodish, C Stratakis

Summary: Researchers conducted this study to describe the different phenotypical characteristics of patients with armadillo repeat containing 5 (ARMC5) mutations, located in 16p11.2 and a likely tumor-suppressor gene. They determined that patients with bilateral adrenal enlargement, found on imaging tests, should be screened for ARMC5 mutations, which are associated with subclinical Cushing’s syndrome (CS) and primary hyperaldosteronism (PA).

Methods:

  • Researchers identified 20 patients with ARMC5 mutations (germline and/or somatic) who were enrolled in a National Institutes of Health (NIH) protocol.
  • They obtained sociodemographic, clinical, laboratory, and radiological data for all participants.

Results:

  • Three families (with a total of 8 patients) were identified with ARMC5 germline mutations; the rest of the patients (13/20) had sporadic mutations.
  • The male to female ratio was 1.2:1; mean age was 48 years and 60% of patients were African American.
  • Forty percent of patients were diagnosed with CS, 20% with subclinical CS, 30% with hyperaldosteronism, and 10% had no diagnosis.
  • The mean serum cortisol (8 am) and Urinary Free Cortisol were 13.1 mcg/dl and 77 mcg/24 hours, respectively.
  • Nearly all patients (95%) had bilateral adrenal enlargement found on CT or MRI.
  • Patients underwent the following treatments: Bilateral adrenalectomy (45%), unilateral adrenalectomy (25%), medical treatment (20%), and no treatment (10%).
  • ARMC5 mutations are associated with primary macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (PMAH) and are also seen in patients with PA, especially among African Americans.

From http://www.mdlinx.com/endocrinology/conference-abstract.cfm/ZZ37C4C5D3BF1A4FAE9C479A696660535B/57884/?utm_source=confcoveragenl&utm_medium=newsletter&utm_content=abstract-list&utm_campaign=abstract-AACE2016&nonus=0

Adrenal Diseases During Pregnancy: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis And Management Strategies

Am J Med Sci. 2014 Jan;347(1):64-73. doi: 10.1097/MAJ.0b013e31828aaeee.

Author information

Abstract

: Adrenal diseases-including disorders such as Cushing’s syndrome, Addison’s disease, pheochromocytoma, primary hyperaldosteronism and congenital adrenal hyperplasia-are relatively rare in pregnancy, but a timely diagnosis and proper treatment are critical because these disorders can cause maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality.

Making the diagnosis of adrenal disorders in pregnancy is challenging as symptoms associated with pregnancy are also seen in adrenal diseases. In addition, pregnancy is marked by several endocrine changes, including activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

The aim of this article was to review the pathophysiology, clinical manifestation, diagnosis and management of various adrenal disorders during pregnancy.

PMID:
23514671
[PubMed – in process]

From http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23514671

Genetic mutation lowers obesity in Cushing’s syndrome

London E. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013; doi:10.1210/jc.2013-1956.

Among adult patients with Cushing’s syndrome, those with mutations in PRKAR1A, the gene that controls cAMP-dependent protein kinase, are less obese than their counterparts without these mutations, according to a recent study.

The retrospective study evaluated adrenalectomy samples from 51 patients with Cushing’s syndrome, 13 with PRKAR1A mutations and 32 without. Of the 51 patients, 40 were female and 11 were male, and patients ranged in age from 4 to 74 years.

A non-Cushing’s syndrome comparison group consisting of 6 adrenalectomy patients with aldosterone producing adenomas (APAs) was included. Additional comparison groups comprising clinical data from 89 patients with Cushing’s disease and 26 with hyperaldosteronism were also studied.

Researchers recorded the weight, height and BMI of all patients, and measured abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ScAT) and periadrenal adipose tissue (PAT) using computed tomography. PAT was collected and frozen for evaluation; the extracts were assessed for levels of cAMP and protein kinase (PKA) activity, as well as for protein and mRNA expression of subunits of PKA. Diurnal cortisol levels and urine-free cortisol were also measured preoperatively.

The study found that in adults with Cushing’s syndrome, the mean BMI of those with PRKAR1A mutations was lower than that of patients with noPRKAR1A mutations (P<.05), and was not inconsistent with the hyperaldosteronism comparison group.

In pediatric patients with adrenal Cushing’s syndrome, the presence of PRKAR1A mutation did not have an impact on mean BMI z-scores. However, in comparison with pediatric patients with pituitary Cushing’s disease, the BMI z-scores were significantly lower in pediatric Cushing’s disease patients with PRKAR1Amutations (P<.05). Patients with Cushing’s syndrome without PRKAR1A mutations had significantly more PAT and ScAT than non-Cushing’s syndrome patients. Additionally, the ratio of basal-to-total (cAMP-triggered) PKA activity was significantly lower in patients with PRKAR1A mutations, suggesting greater proportions of active PKA (P<.005).

“These findings have obvious implications in the establishment of the diagnosis of CS in patients with PRKAR1A mutations: These patients may be leaner than other patients with [Cushing’s syndrome],” the study authors wrote. “Perhaps more importantly, our findings point to the importance of cAMP and or PKA signaling in the regulation of adiposity.”

Disclosures: The researchers report no relevant financial disclosures.

From http://www.healio.com/endocrinology/adrenal/news/online/%7B693f94cd-359d-4c52-8e0d-bfd0e4a51d03%7D/genetic-mutation-lowers-obesity-in-cushings-syndrome

%d bloggers like this: